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Full text of "ICC IRC (2009): International Residential Code"

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NOTICE OF INCORPORATION 

United States Legal Document 

$3T All citizens and residents are hereby advised that 
this is a legally binding document duly incorporated by 
reference and that failure to comply with such 
requirements as hereby detailed within may subject you 
to criminal or civil penalties under the law. Ignorance of 
the law shall not excuse noncompliance and it is the 
responsibility of the citizens to inform themselves as to 
the laws that are enacted in the United States of America 
and in the states and cities contained therein. ~^k 

* * 



ICC IRC (2009), the International Residential 
Code, as mandated by and incorporated by the 
States and Municipalities, including 
California, Florida, Idaho, Iowa, Louisiana, 
Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Nebraska, 
New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, 
North Carolina, North Dakota, Oklahoma, 
Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, 
Tennessee, Utah, Virginia, Washington, West 
Virginia, et . alia. 



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A MEMBER OF THE INTERNATIONAL CODE FAMILY® 



IRC 



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INTERNATIONAL 
CODE COUNCIL 9 



INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FOR ONE- AND TWO- FAMILY DWELLINGS 




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2009 International Residential Code® for One- and Two-family Dwellings 



First Printing: March 2009 



ISBN: 978-1-58001-727-5 (soft-cover edition) 
ISBN: 978-1-58001-726-8 (loose-leaf edition) 



COPYRIGHT © 2009 

by 

INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL, INC 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. This 2009 International Residential Code®for One- and Two -family Dwelling sis a copyrighted work 
owned by the International Code Council, Inc. Without advance written permission from the copyright owner, no part of this book 
may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means, including, without limitation, electronic, optical or 
mechanical means (by way of example and not limitation, photocopying, or recording by or in an information storage retrieval sys- 
tem) . For information on permission to copy material exceeding fair use, please contact: Publications, 4051 West Flossmoor Road, 
Country Club Hills, IL 60478-5795. Phone 1-888-ICC-SAFE (422-7233). 

Trademarks: "International Code Council," the "International Code Council" logo and the "International Residential Code" are 
trademarks of the International Code Council, Inc. 



PRINTED IN THE U.S.A. 



PREFACE 



Introduction 

Internationally, code officials recognize the need for a modern, up-to-date residential code addressing the design and construction 
of one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses. The International Residential Cod^, in this 2009 edition, is designed to meet 
these needs through model code regulations that safeguard the public health and safety in all communities, large and small. 

This comprehensive, stand-alone residential code establishes minimum regulations for one- and two-family dwellings and town- 
houses using prescriptive provisions. It is founded on broad-based principles that make possible the use of new materials and new 
building designs. This 2009 edition is fully compatible with all the International Code^ (I-Codes(5) published by the International 
Code Council® (ICC)(§ including the International BUilding Codd®, International Energy Conservation Cod^, International 
Existing BUilding Cod^, International Fire Code®, International Fuel Gas Cod^ , International Mechanical Cod^ , ICC Perfor- 
mance Code (^International Plumbing Cod^ , International Private Sewage Disposal Cod^ , International Property Maintenance 
Code®, International Wildland-Urban Interface Code T y&nd International Zoning Cod^. 

The International Residential Code provisions provide many benefits, among which is the model code development process that 
offers an international forum for residential construction professionals to discuss prescriptive code requirements. This forum pro- 
vides an excellent arena to debate proposed revisions. This model code also encourages international consistency in the application 
of provisions. 

Development 

The first edition of the International Residential Code (2000) was the culmination of an effort initiated in 1996 by ICC and consist- 
ing of representatives from the three statutory members of the International Code Council at the time, including: Building Officials 
and Code Administrators International, Inc. (BOCA), International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO) and Southern Build- 
ing Code Congress International (SBCCI), and representatives from the National Association of Home Builders (NAHB). The 
intent was to draft a stand-alone residential code consistent with and inclusive of the scope of the existing model codes. Technical 
content of the 1998 International One- and Two -Family Dwelling Code and the latest model codes promulgated by BOCA, ICBO, 
SBCCI and ICC was used as the basis for the development, followed by public hearings in 1998 and 1999 to consider proposed 
changes. This 2009 edition represents the code as originally issued, with changes reflected in the 2006 edition, and further changes 
developed through the ICC Code Development Process through 2008. Residential electrical provisions are based on the 2008 
National Electrical Cod^ (NFPA 70). A new edition such as this is promulgated every three years. 

Fuel gas provisions have been included through an agreement with the American Gas Association (AGA) . Electrical provisions 
have been included through an agreement with the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) . 

This code is founded on principles intended to establish provisions consistent with the scope of a residential code that adequately 
protects public health, safety and welfare; provisions that do not unnecessarily increase construction costs; provisions that do not 
restrict the use of new materials, products or methods of construction; and provisions that do not give preferential treatment to par- 
ticular types or classes of materials, products or methods of construction. 

Adoption 

The International Residential Code is available for adoption and use by jurisdictions internationally. Its use within a governmental 
jurisdiction is intended to be accomplished through adoption by reference in accordance with proceedings establishing thejurisdic- 
tion's laws. At the time of adoption, jurisdictions should insert the appropriate information in provisions requiring specific local 
information, such as the name of the adoptingjurisdiction. These locations are shown in bracketed words in small capital letters in 
the code and in the sample ordinance. The sample adoption ordinance on page xiii addresses several key elements of a code adoption 
ordinance, including the information required for insertion into the code text. 

Maintenance 

The International Residential Code is kept up-to-date through the review of proposed changes submitted by code enforcing offi- 
cials, industry representatives, design professionals and other interested parties. Proposed changes are carefully considered through 
an open code development process in which all interested and affected parties may participate. 

The contents of this work are subject to change both through the Code Development Cycles and the governmental body that 
enacts the code into law. For more information regarding the code development process, contact the Code and Standard Develop- 
ment Department of the International Code Council. 

The maintenance process for the fuel gas provisions is based upon the process used to maintain the International Fuel Gas Code, 
in conjunction with the American Gas Association. The maintenance process for the electrical provisions is undertaken by the 
National Fire Protection Association. 

2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® iii 



While the development procedure of the International Residential Code assures the highest degree of care, ICC, the founding 
members of ICC, its members and those participating in the development of this code do not accept any liability resulting from com- 
pliance or noncompliance with the provisions because ICC and its founding members do not have the power or authority to police or 
enforce compliance with the contents of this code. Only the governmental body that enacts the code into law has such authority. 

Marginal Markings 

Solid vertical lines in the margins within the body of the code indicate a technical change from the requirements of the 2006 edition. 
Deletion indicators in the form of an arrow (.) are provided in the margin where an entire section, paragraph, exception or table has 
been deleted or an item in a list of items or a table has been deleted. 

Italicized Terms 

Selected terms set forth in Chapter 2, Definitions, are italicized where they appear in code text. Such terms are not italicized where 
the definition set forth in Chapter 2 does not impart the intended meaning in the use of the term. The terms selected have definitions 
which the user should read carefully to facilitate better understanding of the code. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



Effective Use of the International Residential Code 



The International Residential Code® (IRC®) was created to serve as a complete, comprehensive code regulating the construction of 
single-family houses, two-family houses (duplexes) and buildings consisting of three or more townhouse units. All buildings within 
the scope of the IRC are limited to three stories above grade plane. For example, a four-story single-family house would fall within 
the scope of the International BUilding Code® (IBC®) , not the IRC. The benefits of devoting a separate code to residential construc- 
tion include the fact that the user need not navigate through a multitude of code provisions that do not apply to residential construc- 
tion in order to locate that which is applicable. A separate code also allows for residential and nonresidential code provisions to be 
distinct and tailored to the structures that fall within the appropriate code's scopes. 

The IRC contains coverage for all components of a house or townhouse, including structural components, fireplaces and chim- 
neys, thermal insulation, mechanical systems, fuel gas systems, plumbing systems and electrical systems. 

The IRC is a prescriptive-oriented (specification) code with some examples of performance code language. It has been said that 
the IRC is the complete cookbook for residential construction. Section R30 1.1, for example, is written in performance language, but 
states that the prescriptive requirements of the code will achieve such performance. 

It is important to understand that the IRC contains coverage for what is conventional and common in residential construction 
practice. While the IRC will provide all of the needed coverage for most residential construction, it might not address construction 
practices and systems that are atypical or rarely encountered in the industry. Sections such as R30 1.1.3, R301.2.2, R320.1, R322.1, 
N 11 1. 2, M 130 1.1, G240 1.1, P260 1.1 and E340 1.2 refer to other codes either as an alternative to the provisions of the IRC or where 
the IRC lacks coverage for a particular type of structure, design, system, appliance or method of construction. In other words, the 
IRC is meant to be all inclusive for typical residential construction and it relies on other codes only where alternatives are desired or 
where the code lacks coverage for the uncommon aspect of residential construction. Of course, the IRC constantly evolves to 
address new technologies and construction practices that were once uncommon, but now common. 

The IRC is unique in that much of it, including Chapters 3 through 9 and Chapters 34 through 43, is presented in an ordered for- 
mat that is consistent with the normal progression of construction, starting with the design phase and continuing through the final 
trim-out phase. This is consistent with the "cookbook" philosophy of the IRC. 

The IRC is divided into eight main parts, specifically, Part I- Administration, Part II-Definitions, Part Ill-Building Planning 
and Construction, Part IV-Energy Conservation, Part V-Mechanical, Part VI-Fuel Gas, Part VH-Plumbing and Part 
VIII- Electrical. 

The following provides a brief description of the content of each chapter and appendix of the IRC: 

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration. This chapter contains provisions for the application, enforcement and administration of 
subsequent requirements of the code. In addition to establishing the scope of the code, Chapter 1 identifies which buildings and 
structures come under its purview. Chapter 1 is largely concerned with maintaining" due process of law" in enforcing the building 
criteria contained in the body of the code. Only through careful observation of the administrative provisions can the building official 
reasonably expect to demonstrate that" equal protection under the law" has been provided. 

Chapter 2 Definitions. Terms defined in the code are listed alphabetically in Chapter 2. It is important to note that two chapters have 
their own definitions sections: Chapter 24 for the defined terms that are unique to fuel gas and Chapter 35 containing terms that are 
applicable to electrical Chapters 34 through 43. In the case where Chapter 2 and another chapter both define the same term differ- 
ently, the definition found in Chapter 24 and/or 35 is intended to prevail where the term is used in Chapter 24 and/or 35 and the defi- 
nition contained in Chapter 2 is intended to prevail where the term is used in all other locations in the code. Except where Chapter 24 
or 35 has a definition that will prevail therein, the definitions in Chapter 2 are applicable throughout the code. 

Additional definitions regarding skylights that are not listed in Chapter 2 are found in Section R308.6.1. 

Where understanding a term's definition is key to or necessary for understanding a particular code provision, the term is shown in 
italics where it appears in the code. This is true only for those terms that have a meaning that is unique to the code. In other words, the 
generally understood meaning of a term or phrase might not be sufficient or consistent with the meaning prescribed by the code; 
therefore, it is essential that the code-defined meaning be known. 

Guidance regarding not only tense, gender and plurality of defined terms, but also terms not defined in this code, is provided. 

Chapter 3 Building Planning. Chapter 3 provides guidelines for a minimum level of structural integrity, life safety, fire safety and 
livability for inhabitants of dwelling units regulated by this code. Chapter 3 is a compilation of the code requirements specific to the 
building planning sector of the design and construction process. This chapter sets forth code requirements dealing with light, venti- 
lation' sanitation, minimum room size, ceiling height and environmental comfort. Chapter 3 establishes life-safety provisions 
including limitations on glazing used in hazardous areas, specifications on stairways, use of guards at elevated surfaces and rules for 
means of egress. Snow, wind and seismic design and flood-resistant construction, as well as live and dead loads, are addressed in this 
chapter. 

2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® v 



Chapter 4 Foundations. Chapter 4 provides the requirements for the design and construction of foundation systems for buildings 
regulated by this code. Provisions for seismic load, flood load and frost protection are contained in this chapter. A foundation system 
consists of two interdependent components: the foundation structure itself and the supporting soil. 

The prescriptive provisions of this chapter provide requirements for constructing footings and walls for foundations of wood, 
masonry, concrete and precast concrete. In addition to a foundation's ability to support the required design loads, this chapter 
addresses several other factors that can affect foundation performance. These include controlling surface water and subsurface 
drainage, requiring soil tests where conditions warrant and evaluating proximity to slopes and minimum depth requirements. The 
chapter also provides requirements to minimize adverse effects of moisture, decay and pests in basements and crawl spaces. 

Chapter 5 Floors. Chapter 5 provides the requirements for the design and construction of floor systems that will be capable of sup- 
porting minimum required design loads. This chapter covers four different types: wood floor framing, wood floors on the ground, 
cold-formed steel floor framing and concrete slabs on the ground. Allowable span tables are provided that greatly simplify the deter- 
mination ofjoist, girder and sheathing sizes for raised floor systems of wood framing and cold-formed steel framing. This chapter 
also contains prescriptive requirements for attaching a deck to the main building. 

Chapter 6 Wall Construction. Chapter 6 contains provisions that regulate the design and construction of walls. The wall construc- 
tion covered in Chapter 6 consists of five different types: wood framed, cold-formed steel framed, masonry, concrete and structural 
insulated panel (SIP). The primary concern of this chapter is the structural integrity of wall construction and transfer of all imposed 
loads to the supporting structure. This chapter provides the requirements for the design and construction of wall systems that are 
capable of supporting the minimum design vertical loads (dead, live and snow loads) and lateral loads (wind or seismic loads). This 
chapter contains the prescriptive requirements for wall bracing and/or shear walls to resist the imposed lateral loads due to wind and 
seismic. Chapter 6 also contains requirements for the use of vapor retarders for moisture control in walls. 

Chapter 6 also regulates exterior windows and doors installed in walls. The chapter contains criteria for the performance of exte- 
rior windows and doors and includes provisions for window sill height, testing and labeling, vehicular access doors, wind-borne 
debris protection and anchorage details. 

Chapter 7 Wall Covering. Chapter 7 contains provisions for the design and construction of interior and exterior wall coverings. 
This chapter establishes the various types of materials, materials standards and methods of application permitted for use as interior 
coverings, including interior plaster, gypsum board, ceramic tile, wood veneer paneling, hardboard paneling, wood shakes and 
wood shingles. 

Exterior wall coverings provide the weather-resistant exterior envelope that protects the building's interior from the elements. 
Chapter 7 provides the requirements for wind resistance and water-resistive barrier for exterior wall coverings. This chapter pre- 
scribes the exterior wall coverings as well as the water-resistive barrier required beneath the exterior materials. Exterior wall cover- 
ings regulated by this section include aluminum, stone and masonry veneer, wood, hardboard, particleboard, wood structural panel 
siding, wood shakes and shingles, exterior plaster, steel, vinyl, fiber cement and exterior insulation finish systems. 

Chapter 8 Roof-ceiling Construction. Chapter 8 regulates the design and construction of roof-ceiling systems. This chapter con- 
tains two roof-ceiling framing systems: wood framing and cold-formed steel framing. Allowable span tables are provided to sim- 
plify the selection of rafter and ceiling joist size for wood roof framing and cold-formed steel framing. Chapter 8 also provides 
requirements for the application of ceiling finishes, the proper ventilation of concealed spaces in roofs (e.g., enclosed attics and raf- 
ter spaces), unvented attic assemblies, attic access and the proper clearance of combustible insulation from heat-producing devices. 

Chapter 9 Roof Assemblies. Chapter 9 regulates the design and construction of roof assemblies. A roof assembly includes the roof 
deck, vapor retarder, substrate or thermal barrier, insulation, vapor retarder and roof covering. This chapter provides the require- 
ment for wind resistance of roof coverings. 

The types of roof covering materials and installation regulated by Chapter 9 are: asphalt shingles, clay and concrete tile, metal 
roof shingles, mineral- surfaced roll roofing, slate and slate-type shingles, wood shakes and shingles, built-up roofs, metal roof pan- 
els, modified bitumen roofing, thermoset and thermoplastic single-ply roofing, sprayed polyurethane foam roofing and liquid 
applied coatings. Chapter 9 also provides requirements for roof drainage, flashing, above deck thermal insulation and recovering or 
replacing an existing roof covering. 

Chapter 10 Chimneys and Fireplaces. Chapter 10 contains requirements for the safe construction of masonry chimneys and fire- 
places and establishes the standards for the use and installation of factory-built chimneys, fireplaces and masonry heaters. Chim- 
neys and fireplaces constructed of masonry rely on prescriptive requirements for the details of their construction; the factory-built 
type relies on the listing and labeling method of approval. Chapter 10 provides the requirements for seismic reinforcing and anchor- 
age of masonry fireplaces and chimneys. 

Chapter 11 Energy Efficiency. Chapter 11 contains the energy-efficiency-related requirements for the design and construction of 
buildings regulated under this code. The applicable portions of the building must comply with the provisions within this chapter for 
energy efficiency. This chapter defines requirements for the portions of the building and building systems that impact energy use in 
new construction and promotes the effective use of energy. The provisions within the chapter promote energy efficiency in the build- 
ing envelope, the heating and cooling system, the service water heating system and the lighting system of the building. This chapter 
also provides energy efficiency requirements for snow melt systems and pool heaters. 

vi 2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



Chapter 12 Mechanical Administration. Chapter 12 establishes the limits of applicability of the code and describes how the code 
is to be applied and enforced. A mechanical code, like any other code, is intended to be adopted as a legally enforceable document 
and it cannot be effective without adequate provisions for its administration and enforcement. The provisions of Chapter 12 estab- 
lish the authority and duties of the code official appointed by thejurisdiction having authority and also establish the rights and privi- 
leges of the design professional, contractor and property owner. It also relates this chapter to the administrative provisions in 
Chapter 1. 

Chapter 13 General Mechanical System Requirements. Chapter 13 contains broadly applicable requirements related to appli- 
ance listing and labeling, appliance location and installation, appliance and systems access, protection of structural elements and 
clearances to combustibles, among others. 

Chapter 14 Heating and Cooling Equipment. Chapter 14 is a collection of requirements for various heating and cooling appli- 
ances, dedicated to single topics by section. The common theme is that all of these types of appliances use energy in one form or 
another, and the improper installation of such appliances would present a hazard to the occupants of the dwellings, due to either the 
potential for fire or the accidental release of refrigerants. Both situations are undesirable in dwellings that are covered by this code. 

Chapter 15 Exhaust Systems. Chapter 15 is a compilation of code requirements related to residential exhaust systems, including 
kitchens and bathrooms, clothes dryers and range hoods. The code regulates the materials used for constructing and installing such 
duct systems. Air brought into the building for ventilation, combustion or makeup purposes is protected from contamination by the 
provisions found in this chapter. 

Chapter 16 Duct Systems. Chapter 16 provides requirements for the installation of ducts for supply, return and exhaust air sys- 
tems. This chapter contains no information on the design of these systems from the standpoint of air movement, but is concerned 
with the structural integrity of the systems and the overall impact of the systems on the fire-safety performance of the building. This 
chapter regulates the materials and methods of construction which affect the performance of the entire air distribution system. 

Chapter 17 Combustion Air. Complete combustion of solid and liquid fuel is essential for the proper operation of appliances, con- 
trol of harmful emissions and achieving maximum fuel efficiency. If insufficient quantities of oxygen are supplied, the combustion 
process will be incomplete, creating dangerous byproducts and wasting energy in the form of unburned fuel (hydrocarbons). The 
byproducts of incomplete combustion are poisonous, corrosive and combustible, and can cause serious appliance or equipment 
malfunctions that pose fire or explosion hazards. 

The combustion air provisions in this code from previous editions have been deleted from Chapter 17 in favor of a single section 
that directs the user to NFPA 31 for oil-fired appliance combustion air requirements and the manufacturer's installation instructions 
for solid fuel-burning appliances. If fuel gas appliances are used, the provisions of Chapter 24 must be followed. 

Chapter 18 Chimneys and Vents. Chapter 18 regulates the design, construction, installation, maintenance, repair and approval of 
chimneys, vents and their connections to fuel-burning appliances. A properly designed chimney or vent system is needed to conduct 
the flue gases produced by a fuel-burning appliance to the outdoors. The provisions of this chapter are intended to minimize the haz- 
ards associated with high temperatures and potentially toxic and corrosive combustion gases. This chapter addresses factory-built 
and masonry chimneys, vents and venting systems used to vent oil-fired and solid fuel-burning appliances. 

Chapter 19 Special Fuel-burning Equipment. Chapter 19 regulates the installation of fuel-burning appliances that are not cov- 
ered in other chapters, such as ranges and ovens, sauna heaters, fuel cell power plants and hydrogen systems. Because the subjects in 
this chapter do not contain the volume of text necessary to warrant individual chapters, they have been combined into a single chap- 
ter. The only commonality is that the subjects use energy to perform some task or function. The intent is to provide a reasonable level 
of protection for the occupants of the dwelling. 

Chapter 20 Boilers and Water Heaters. Chapter 20 regulates the installation of boilers and water heaters. Its purpose is to protect 
the occupants of the dwelling from the potential hazards associated with such appliances. A water heater is any appliance that heats 
potable water and supplies it to the plumbing hot water distribution system. A boiler either heats water or generates steam for space 
heating and is generally a closed system. 

Chapter 21 Hydronic Piping. Hydronic piping includes piping, fittings and valves used in building space conditioning systems. 
Applications include hot water, chilled water, steam, steam condensate, brines and water/antifreeze mixtures. Chapter 21 regulates 
installation, alteration and repair of all hydronic piping systems to insure the reliability, serviceability, energy efficiency and safety 
of such systems. 

Chapter 22 Special Piping and Storage Systems. Chapter 22 regulates the design and installation of fuel oil storage and piping 
systems. The regulations include reference to construction standards for above-ground and underground storage tanks, material 
standards for piping systems (both above-ground and underground) and extensive requirements for the proper assembly of system 
piping and components. The purpose of this chapter is to prevent fires, leaks and spills involving fuel oil storage and piping systems, 
whether inside or outside structures and above or underground. 

Chapter 23 Solar Systems. Chapter 23 contains requirements for the construction, alteration and repair of all systems and compo- 
nents of solar energy systems used for space heating or cooling, and domestic hot water heating or processing. The provisions of this 
chapter are limited to those necessary to achieve installations that are relatively hazard free. 

2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® vii 



A solar energy system can be designed to handle 100 percent of the energy load of a building, although this is rarely accom- 
plished. Because solar energy is a low-intensity energy source and dependent on the weather, it is usually necessary to supplement a 
solar energy system with traditional energy sources. 

As our world strives to find alternate means of producing power for the future, the requirements of this chapter will become more 
and more important over time. 

Chapter 24 Fuel Gas. Chapter 24 regulates the design and installation of fuel gas distribution piping and systems, appliances, 
appliance venting systems and combustion air provisions. The definition of "Fuel gas" includes natural, liquefied petroleum and 
manufactured gases and mixtures of these gases. 

The purpose of this chapter is to establish the minimum acceptable level of safety and to protect life and property from the poten- 
tial dangers associated with the storage, distribution and use of fuel gases and the byproducts of combustion of such fuels. This code 
also protects the personnel who install, maintain, service and replace the systems and appliances addressed herein. 

Chapter 24 is composed entirely of text extracted from the IFGC; therefore, whether using the IFGC or the IRC, the fuel gas pro- 
visions will be identical. Note that to avoid the potential for confusion and conflicting definitions, Chapter 24 has its own definition 
section. 

Chapter 25 Plumbing Administration. The requirements of Chapter 25 do not supersede the administrative provisions of Chapter 
1. Rather, the administrative guidelines of Chapter 25 pertain to plumbing installations that are best referenced and located within 
the plumbing chapters. This chapter addresses how to apply the plumbing provisions of this code to specific types or phases of con- 
struction. This chapter also outlines the responsibilities of the applicant, installer and inspector with regard to testing plumbing 
installations. 

Chapter 26 General Plumbing Requirements. The content of Chapter 26 is often referred to as "miscellaneous," rather than gen- 
eral plumbing requirements. This is the only chapter of the plumbing chapters of the code whose requirements do not interrelate. If a 
requirement cannot be located in another plumbing chapter, it should be located in this chapter. Chapter 26 contains safety require- 
ments for the installation of plumbing systems and includes requirements for the identification of pipe, pipe fittings, traps, fixtures, 
materials and devices used in plumbing systems. If specific provisions do not demand that a requirement be located in another chap- 
ter, the requirement is located in this chapter. 

Chapter 27 Plumbing Fixtures. Chapter 27 requires fixtures to be of the proper type, approved for the purpose intended and 
installed properly to promote usability and safe, sanitary conditions. This chapter regulates the quality of fixtures and faucets by 
requiring those items to comply with nationally recognized standards. Because fixtures must be properly installed so that they are 
usable by the occupants of the building, this chapter contains the requirements for the installation of fixtures. 

Chapter 28 Water Heaters. Chapter 28 regulates the design, approval and installation of water heaters and related safety devices. 
The intent is to minimize the hazards associated with the installation and operation of water heaters. Although this chapter does not 
regulate the size of a water heater, it does regulate all other aspects of the water heater installation such as temperature and pressure 
relief valves, safety drip pans and connections. Where a water heater also supplies water for space heating, this chapter regulates the 
maximum water temperature supplied to the water distribution system. 

Chapter 29 Water Supply and Distribution. This chapter regulates the supply of potable water from both public and individual 
sources to every fixture and outlet so that it remains potable and uncontaminated by cross connections. Chapter 29 also regulates the 
design of the water distribution system, which will allow fixtures to function properly. Because it is critical that the potable water 
supply system remain free of actual or potential sanitary hazards, this chapter has the requirements for providing backflow protec- 
tion devices. 

Chapter 30 Sanitary Drainage. The purpose of Chapter 30 is to regulate the materials, design and installation of sanitary drainage 
piping systems as well as the connections made to the system. The intent is to design and install sanitary drainage systems that will 
function reliably, are neither undersized nor oversized and are constructed from materials, fittings and connections whose quality is 
regulated by this section. This chapter addresses the proper use of fittings for directing the flow into and within the sanitary drain 
piping system. Materials and provisions necessary for servicing the drainage system are also included in this chapter. 

Chapter 31 Vents. Venting protects the trap seal of each trap. The vents are designed to limit differential pressures at each trap to 1 
inch of water column (249 Pa). Because waste flow in the drainage system creates pressure fluctuations that can negatively affect 
traps, the sanitary drainage system must have a properly designed venting system. Chapter 31 covers the requirements for vents and 
venting. All of the provisions set forth in this chapter are intended to limit the pressure differentials in the drainage system to a maxi- 
mum of 1 inch of water column (249 Pa) above or below atmospheric pressure (Le., positive or negative pressures). 

Chapter 32 Traps. Traps prevent sewer gas from escaping from the drainage piping into the building. Water seal traps are the sim- 
plest and most reliable means of preventing sewer gas from entering the interior environment. This chapter lists prohibited trap 
types as well as specifies the minimum trap size for each type of fixture. 

Chapter 33 Storm Drainage. Rainwater infiltration into the ground adjacent to a building can cause the interior of foundation 
walls to become wet. The installation of a subsoil drainage system prevents the build-up of rainwater on the exterior of the founda- 

viii 2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



tion walls. This chapter provides the specifications for subsoil drain piping. Where the discharge of the subsoil drain system is to a 
sump, this chapter also provides coverage for for sump construction, pumps and discharge piping. 

Chapter 34 General Requirements. This chapter contains broadly applicable, general and miscellaneous requirements including 
scope, listing and labeling, equipment locations and clearances for conductor materials and connections and conductor identifica- 
tion. 

Chapter 35 Electrical Definitions. Chapter 35 is the repository of the definitions of terms used in the body of Part VIII of the code. 
To avoid the potential for confusion and conflicting definitions, Part VIII, Electrical, has its own definition chapter. 

Codes are technical documents and every word, term and punctuation mark can impact the meaning of the code text and the 
intended results. The code often uses terms that have a unique meaning in the code, which can differ substantially from the ordi- 
narily understood meaning of the term as used outside of the code. 

The terms defined in Chapter 35 are deemed to be of prime importance in establishing the meaning and intent of the electrical 
code text that uses the terms. The user of the code should be familiar with and consult this chapter because the definitions are essen- 
tial to the correct interpretation of the code and because the user may not be aware that a term is defined. 

Chapter 36 Services. This chapter covers the design, sizing and installation of the building's electrical service equipment and 
grounding electrode system. It includes an easy-to-use load calculation method and service conductor sizing table. The electrical 
service is generally the first part of the electrical system to be designed and installed. 

Chapter 37 Branch Circuit and Feeder Requirements. Chapter 37 addresses the requirements for designing the power distribu- 
tion system which consists of feeders and branch circuits emanating from the service equipment. This chapter dictates the ratings of 
circuits and the allowable loads, the number and types of branch circuits required, the wire sizing for such branch circuits and feed- 
ers and the requirements for protection from overcurrent for conductors. A load calculation method specific to feeders is also 
included. This chapter is used to design the electrical system on the load side of the service. 

Chapter 38 Wiring Methods. Chapter 38 specifies the allowable wiring methods, such as cable, conduit and raceway systems, and 
provides the installation requirements for the wiring methods. This chapter is primarily applicable to the "rough-in" phase of con- 
struction. 

Chapter 39 Power and Lighting Distribution. This chapter mostly contains installation requirements for the wiring that serves 
the lighting outlets, receptacle outlets, appliances and switches located throughout the building. The required distribution and spac- 
ing of receptacle outlets and lighting outlets is prescribed in this chapter, as well as the requirements for ground-fault and arc-fault 
circuit interrupter protection. 

Chapter 40 Devices and Luminaires. This chapter focuses on the devices, including switches and receptacles, and lighting fix- 
tures that are typically installed during the final phase of construction. 

Chapter 41 Appliance Installation. Chapter 41 addresses the installation of appliances including HVAC appliances, water heat- 
ers' fixed space-heating equipment, dishwashers, garbage disposals, range hoods and suspended paddle fans. 

Chapter 42 Swimming Pools. This chapter covers the electrical installation requirements for swimming pools, storable swimming 
pools, wading pools, decorative pools, fountains, hot tubs, spas and hydromassage bathtubs. The allowable wiring methods are 
specified along with the required clearances between electrical system components and pools, spas and tubs. This chapter includes 
the special grounding requirements related to pools, spas and tubs, and also prescribes the equipotential bonding requirements that 
are unique to pools, spas and tubs. 

Chapter 43 Class 2 Remote-control, Signaling and Power-limited Circuits. This chapter covers the power supplies, wiring 
methods and installation requirements for the Class 2 circuits found in dwellings. Such circuits include thermostat wiring, alarm 
systems, security systems, automated control systems and doorbell systems. 

Chapter 44 Referenced Standards. The code contains numerous references to standards that are used to regulate materials and 
methods of construction. Chapter 44 contains a comprehensive list of all standards that are referenced in the code. The standards are 
part of the code to the extent of the reference to the standard. Compliance with the referenced standard is necessary for compliance 
with this code. By providing specifically adopted standards, the construction and installation requirements necessary for compli- 
ance with the code can be readily determined. The basis for code compliance is, therefore, established and available on an equal 
basis to the code official, contractor, designer and owner. 

Chapter 44 is organized in a manner that makes it easy to locate specific standards. It lists all of the referenced standards, alpha- 
betically, by acronym of the promulgating agency of the standard. Each agency's standards are then listed in either alphabetical or 
numeric order based upon the standard identification. The list also contains the title of the standard; the edition (date) of the stan- 
dard referenced; any addenda included as part of the ICC adoption; and the section or sections of this code that reference the stan- 
dard. 

Appendix A Sizing and Capacities of Gas Piping. This appendix is informative and not part of the code. It provides design guid- 
ance, useful facts and data and multiple examples of how to apply the sizing tables and sizing methodologies of Chapter 24. 

2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® ix 



Appendix B Sizing of Venting Systems Serving Appliances Equipped with Draft Hoods, Category I Appliances and Appli- 
ances Listed for Use with Type B Vents. This appendix is informative and not part of the code. It contains multiple examples of 
how to apply the vent and chimney tables and methodologies of Chapter 24. 

Appendix C Exit Terminals of Mechanical Draft and Direct-venting Systems. This appendix is informative and not part of the 
code. It consists of a figure and notes that visually depict code requirements from Chapter 24 for vent terminals with respect to the 
openings found in building exterior walls. 

Appendix D Recommended Procedure for Safety Inspection of an Existing Appliance Installation. This appendix is informa- 
tive and not part of the code. It provides recommended procedures for testing and inspecting an appliance installation to determine if 
the installation is operating safely and if the appliance is in a safe condition. 

Appendix E Manufactured Housing Used as Dwellings. The criteria for the construction of manufactured homes are governed by 
the National Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Act. While this act may seem to cover the bulk of the construction of 
manufactured housing, it does not cover those areas related to the placement of the housing on the property. The provisions of 
Appendix E are not applicable to the design and construction of manufactured homes. Appendix E provides a complete set of regu- 
lations in conjunction with federal law for the installation of manufactured housing. This appendix also contains provisions for 
existing manufactured home installations. 

Appendix F Radon Control Methods. Radon comes from the natural (radioactive) decay of the element radium in soil, rock and 
water and finds its way into the air. Appendix F contains requirements to mitigate the transfer of radon gases from the soil into the 
dwelling. The provisions of this appendix regulate the design and construction of radon-resistant measures intended to reduce the 
entry of radon gases into the living space of residential buildings. 

Appendix G Swimming Pool, Spas and Hot Tubs. Appendix G provides the regulations for swimming pools, hot tubs and spas 
installed in or on the lot of a one- or two- family dwelling. This appendix contains provisions for an effective barrier surrounding the 
water area and entrapment protection for suction outlets to reduce the potential for drowning of young children. 

Appendix H Patio Covers. Appendix H sets forth the regulations and limitations for patio covers. The provisions address those 
uses permitted in patio cover structures, the minimum design loads to be assigned for structural purposes, and the effect of the patio 
cover on egress and emergency escape or rescue from sleeping rooms. This appendix also contains the special provisions for alumi- 
num screen enclosures in hurricane-prone regions. 

Appendix I Private Sewage Disposal. 

Appendix J Existing Buildings and Structures. Appendix J contains the provisions for the repair, renovation, alteration and 
reconstruction of existing buildings and structures that are within the scope of this code. To accomplish this objective and to make 
the rehabilitation process more available, this appendix allows for a controlled departure from full code compliance without com- 
promising minimum life safety, fire safety, structural and environmental features of the rehabilitated existing building or structure. 

Appendix K Sound Transmission. Appendix K regulates the sound transmission of wall and floor-ceiling assemblies separating 
dwelling units and townhouse units. Air-borne sound insulation is required for walls. Air-borne sound insulation and impact sound 
insulation are required for floor-ceiling assemblies. The provisions in Appendix K set forth a minimum Sound Transmission Class 
(STC) rating for common walls and floor-ceiling assemblies between dwelling units. In addition, a minimum Impact Insulation 
Class (1IC) rating is also established to limit structure-borne sound through common floor-ceiling assemblies separating dwelling 
units. 

Appendix L Permit Fees. Appendix L provides guidance tojurisdictions for setting appropriate permit fees. This appendix will aid 
many jurisdictions to assess permit fees that will assist to fairly and properly administer the code. This appendix can be used for 
informational purposes only or may be adopted when specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance. 

Appendix M Home Day Care-R3 Occupancy. Appendix M provides means of egress and smoke detection requirements for a 
Group R-3 Occupancy that is to be used as a home day care for more than five children who receive custodial care for less than 24 
hours. This appendix is strictly for guidance and/or adoption by thosejurisdictions that have Licensed Home Care Provider laws and 
statutes that allow more than five children to be cared for in a person's home. When ajurisdiction adopts this appendix, the provi- 
sions for day care and child care facilities in the IBC should be considered also. 

Appendix N Venting Methods. Because venting of sanitary drainage systems is perhaps the most difficult concept to understand, 
and Chapter 31 uses only words to describe venting requirements, illustrations can offer greater insight into what the words mean. 
Appendix N has a number of illustrations for commonly installed sanitary drainage systems in order for the reader to gain a better 
understanding of this code's venting requirements. 

Appendix Gray Water Recycling Systems. Appendix offers a method for utilizing gray water that is collected from certain 
fixtures such as lavatories, bathtubs, showers and clothes washing machines. Because many geographical areas of the world are in 
short supply of water resources, water that has already passed through these fixtures is an important resource that can lessen the 
demand for potable water. Where gray water is used for underground irrigation, no treatment other than basic filtering is required. In 
this application, gray water reuse offers savings in both potable water use and less wastewater to be treated. Gray water can also be 
reused for flushing water for water closets and urinals. In this application, the gray water requires disinfection and coloring in order 

x 2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



to be safe for use in those fixtures. This appendix provides the user with basic information to choose the necessary components, size 
and construct a gray water system that suits the particular application. 

Appendix P Sizing of Water Piping System. Appendix P provides two recognized methods for sizing the water service and water 
distribution piping for a building. The method under Section API03 provides friction loss diagrams that require the user to "plot" 
points and read values from the diagrams in order to perform the required calculations and necessary checks. This method is the 
most accurate of the two presented in this appendix. The method under Section AP20 1 is known to be conservative; however, very 
few calculations are necessary in order to determine a pipe size that satisfies the flow requirements of any application. 

Appendix QlCC International Residential Code Electrical Provisions/National Electrical Code Cross Reference. This cross 
reference allows the code user to trace the code sections in Chapters 34 through 43 back to their source: the National Electrical 
Code. See the introduction to Chapter 34 for more information on the relationship between Part VIII of this code and the NEC, 
NFPA 70. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



ORDINANCE 



The International Codes are designed and promulgated to be adopted by reference by ordinance. Jurisdictions wishing to adopt the 
2009 International Residential Code as an enforceable regulation governing one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses should 
ensure that certain factual information is included in the adopting ordinance at the time adoption is being considered by the appro- 
priate governmental body. The following sample adoption ordinance addresses several key elements of a code adoption ordinance, 
including the information required for insertion into the code text. 

SAMPLE ORDINANCE FOR ADOPTION OF THE 
INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 



ORDINANCE NO. 

An ordinance ofthe [JURISDICTION] adopting the 2009 edition of the International Residential Code, regulating and governing the 
construction, alteration, movement, enlargement, replacement, repair, equipment, location, removal and demolition of detached 
one- and two-family dwellings and multiple single-family dwellings (townhouses) not more than threes stories in height with sepa- 
rate means of egress in the [JURISDICTION]; providing for the issuance of permits and collection of fees therefor; repealing Ordi- 
nance No. ofthe [JURISDICTION] and all other ordinances and parts ofthe ordinances in conflict therewith. 

The [GOVERNING BODY] ofthe [JURISDICTION] does ordain as follows: 

Section 1. That a certain document, three (3) copies of which are on file in the office ofthe [TITLE OF JURISDICTION'S KEEPER OF 
RECORDS] of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], being marked and designated as the International Residential Code, 2009 edition, includ- 
ing Appendix Chapters [FILL IN THE APPENDIX CHAPTERS BEING ADOPTED] (see International Residential Code Section RI02.5, 
2009 edition), as published by the International Code Council, be and is hereby adopted as the Residential Code ofthe [JURISDIC- 
TION], in the State of [STATE NAME] for regulating and governing the construction, alteration, movement, enlargement, replacement, 
repair, equipment, location, removal and demolition of detached one- and two-family dwellings and multiple single-family dwell- 
ings (townhouses) not more than threes stories in height with separate means of egress as herein provided; providing for the issuance 
of permits and collection of fees therefor; and each and all ofthe regulations, provisions, penalties, conditions and terms of said Res- 
idential Code on file in the office ofthe [JURISDICTION] are hereby referred to, adopted, and made a part hereof, as if fully set out in 
this ordinance, with the additions, insertions, deletions and changes, if any, prescribed in Section 2 of this ordinance. 

Section 2. The following sections are hereby revised: 

Section RIO 1.1. Insert: [NAME OF JURISDICTION] 

Table R301.2 (1) Insert: [APPROPRIATE DESIGN CRITERIA] 

Section P2603.6.1 Insert: [NUMBER OF INCHES IN TWO LOCATIONS] 

Section 3. That Ordinance No. of [JURISDICTION] entitled [FILL IN HERE THE COMPLETE TITLE OF THE ORDINANCE OR 

ORDINANCES IN EFFECT AT THE PRESENT TIME SO THAT THEY WILL BE REPEALED BY DEFINITE MENTION] and all other ordinances 
or parts of ordinances in conflict herewith are hereby repealed. 

Section 4. That if any section, subsection, sentence, clause or phrase of this ordinance is, for any reason, held to be unconstitutional, 
such decision shall not affect the validity ofthe remaining portions of this ordinance. The [GOVERNING BODY] hereby declares that 
it would have passed this ordinance, and each section, subsection, clause or phrase thereof, irrespective ofthe fact that anyone or 
more sections, subsections, sentences, clauses and phrases be declared unconstitutional. 

Section 5. That nothing in this ordinance or in the Residential Code hereby adopted shall be construed to affect any suit or proceed- 
ing impending in any court, or any rights acquired, or liability incurred, or any cause or causes of action acquired or existing, under 
any act or ordinance hereby repealed as cited in Section 3 of this ordinance; nor shall anyjust or legal right or remedy of any charac- 
ter be lost, impaired or affected by this ordinance. 

Section 6. That the [JURISDICTION'S KEEPER OF RECORDS] is hereby ordered and directed to cause this ordinance to be published. 
(An additional provision may be required to direct the number of times the ordinance is to be published and to specify that it is to be 
in a newspaper in general circulation. Posting may also be required.) 

Section 7. That this ordinance and the rules, regulations, provisions, requirements, orders and matters established and adopted 
hereby shall take effect and be in full force and effect [TIME PERIOD] from and after the date of its final passage and adoption. 

2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® xiii 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Part I -Administrative 

CHAPTER 1 SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION . . . 

PART I-SCOPE AND APPLICATION 

Section 

R101 General 

R102 Applicability 

PART II-ADMINISTRATION AND 
ENFORCEMENT 



R103 Department of Building Safety 

R104 Duties and Powers of the Building Official 

R105 Permits 

R106 Construction Documents 

R107 Temporary Structures and Uses 

R108 Fees 

R109 Inspections 

R110 Certificate of Occupancy 

Rill Service Utilities 

R112 Board of Appeals 

R113 Violations 

R114 Stop Work Order 

P artll-U efinitions 

CHAPTER 2 DEFINITIONS 

Section 

R201 General 

R202 Definitions 

Part 111 -Building Planning and Construction 

CHAPTER 3 BUILDING PLANNING 

Section 

R301 Design Criteria 

R302 Fire-resistant Construction 

R303 Light, Ventilation and Heating 

R304 Minimum Room Areas 

R305 Ceiling Height 

R306 Sanitation 

R307 Toilet, Bath and Shower Spaces 

R308 Glazing 

R309 Garages and Carports 



. 9 
9 

23 

23 

23 
49 
53 
54 
54 
55 
55 
55 
58 



Emergency Escape and Rescue Openings 


58 


Means of Egress 


59 


Guards 


62 


Automatic Fire Sprinkler Systems 


62 


Smoke Alarms 


62 


Carbon Monoxide Alarms 


63 


Foam Plastic 


63 


Protection of Wood and Wood Based 




Products Against Decay 


65 


Protection Against Subterranean Termites 


66 


Site Address 


67 


Accessibility 


67 


Elevators and Platform Lifts 


67 


Flood-resistant Construction 


67 


Storm Shelters 


70 



R310 
R311 
R312 
R313 
R314 
R315 
R316 
R317 

R318 
R319 
R320 
R321 
R322 
R323 



CHAPTER 4 FOUNDATIONS 

Section 

R401 General 

R402 Materials 

R403 Footings 

R404 Foundation and Retaining Walls 

R405 Foundation Drainage 

R406 Foundation Waterproofing and 

Dampproofing 

R407 Columns 

R408 Under-floor Space 

CHAPTER 5 FLOORS 

Section 

R501 General 

Wood Floor Framing 

Floor Sheathing 



R502 
R503 
R504 



R505 
R506 



Pressure Preservatively Treated-wood 
Floors (On Ground) 

Steel Floor Framing 

Concrete Floors (On Ground) 



CHAPTER 6 WALL CONSTRUCTION 

Section 

R601 General 

R602 Wood Wall Framing 

R603 Steel Wall Framing 



71 

71 
71 
72 
86 
105 

107 
108 
108 

111 

111 
111 
122 

124 
124 
144 

145 

145 
146 

187 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



R604 Wood Structural Panels 

R605 Particleboard 

R606 General Masonry Construction 

R607 Unit Masonry 

R608 Multiple Wythe Masonry 

R609 Grouted Masonry 

R610 Glass Unit Masonry 

R611 Exterior Concrete Wall Construction 

R612 Exterior Windows and Doors 

R613 Structural Insulated Panel Wall 
Construction 



261 


RI005 Factory-built Chimneys 


454 


261 


RI006 Exterior Air Supply 


454 


261 






269 


Part IV -Energy Conservation 


455 


270 
271 


CHAPTER 11 ENERGY EFFICIENCy 


455 


273 
274 


Section 

NII01 General 


455 


345 


NII02 Building Thermal Envelope 


468 




NII03 Systems 


471 


348 


Nil 04 Lighting Systems 


473 



CHAPTER 7 WALLCOVERING 

Section 

R701 General 

R702 Interior Covering 

R703 Exterior Covering 



357 

357 
357 
360 



CHAPTER 8 ROOF-CEILING 






CONSTRUCTION 


373 


Section 


L 




R801 


General 


373 


R802 


Wood Roof Framing 


373 


R803 


Roof Sheathing 


399 


R804 


Steel Roof Framing 


399 


R805 


Ceiling Finishes 


430 


R806 


Roof Ventilation 


430 


R807 


Attic Access 


431 


CHAPTER 9 ROOF ASSEMBLIES 


433 


Section 


i 




R901 


General 


433 


R902 


Roof Classification 


433 


R903 


Weather Protection 


433 


R904 


Materials 


433 


R905 


Requirements for Roof Coverings 


435 


R906 


Roof Insulation 


443 


R907 


Reroofing 


443 



CHAPTER 10 CHIMNEYS AND FIREPLACES ... 445 

Section 

RI001 Masonry Fireplaces 445 

RI002 Masonry Heaters 448 

RI003 Masonry Chimneys 449 

RI004 Factory-built Fireplaces 454 



Part V— Mechanical 475 

CHAPTER 12 MECHANICAL 

ADMINISTRATION 475 

Section 

Ml 201 General 475 

M1202 Existing Mechanical Systems 475 

CHAPTER 13 GENERAL MECHANICAL 

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS 477 

Section 

Ml 301 General 477 

Ml 302 Approval 477 

M1303 Labeling of Appliances 477 

Ml 304 Type of Fuel 477 

M1305 Appliance Access 477 

M1306 Clearances from Combustible Construction 478 

Ml 307 Appliance Installation 478 

M1308 Mechanical Systems Installation 481 

CHAPTER 14 HEATING AND COOLING 

EQUIPMENT 483 

Section 

M1401 General 483 

M1402 Central Furnaces 483 

M1403 Heat Pump Equipment. 483 

M1404 Refrigeration Cooling Equipment 483 

M1405 Baseboard Convectors 483 

M1406 Radiant Heating Systems 483 

Ml 407 Duct Heaters 484 

Ml 408 Vented Floor Furnaces 484 

Ml 409 Vented Wall Furnaces 484 

M1410 Vented Room Heaters 485 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



M1411 Heating and Cooling Equipment 485 

M1412 Absorption Cooling Equipment 486 

M1413 Evaporative Cooling Equipment 486 

M1414 Fireplace Stoves 486 

M1415 Masonry Heaters 486 

CHAPTER 15 EXHAUST SYSTEMS 487 
Section 

M1501 General 487 

M1502 Clothes Dryer Exhaust. 487 

M1503 Range Hoods 488 

M1504 Installation of Microwave Ovens 488 

Ml 505 Overhead Exhaust Hoods 488 

Ml 506 Exhaust Ducts 488 

M1507 Mechanical Ventilation 488 

CHAPTER 16 DUCT SYSTEMS 491 

Section 

M1601 Duct Construction 491 

M1602 Return Air. 493 

CHAPTER 17 COMBUSTION AIR 495 

Section 

Ml 701 General 495 

CHAPTER 18 CHIMNEYS AND VENTS 497 

Section 

Ml 801 General 497 

Ml 802 Vent Components 497 

Ml 803 Chimney and Vent Connectors 498 

Ml 804 Vents 499 

Ml 805 Masonry and Factory-built Chimneys 499 

CHAPTER 19 SPECIAL FUEL-BURNING 

EQUIPMENT 501 

Section 

M1901 Ranges and Ovens 501 

M1902 Sauna Heaters 501 

Ml 903 Stationary Fuel Cell Power Plants 501 

M1904 Gaseous Hydrogen Systems 501 

CHAPTER 20 BOILERS AND 

WATER HEATERS 503 

Section 

M2001 Boilers 503 

M2002 Operating and Safety Controls 503 



M2003 Expansion Tanks 503 

M2004 Water Heaters Used for Space Heating 503 

M2005 Water Heaters 503 

M2006 Pool Heaters 504 

CHAPTER 21 HYDRONIC PIPING 505 

Section 

M2101 Hydronic Piping Systems Installation 505 

M2102 Baseboard Convectors 505 

M2103 Floor Heating Systems 505 

M2104 Low Temperature Piping 507 

M2105 Ground Source Heat Pump System 

Loop Piping 508 

CHAPTER 22 SPECIAL PIPING AND 

STORAGE SYSTEMS 509 

Section 

M2201 Oil Tanks 509 

M2202 Oil Piping, Fitting and Connections 509 

M2203 Installation 509 

M2204 Oil Pumps and Valves 510 

CHAPTER 23 SOLAR SySTEMS 511 

Section 

M2301 Solar Energy Systems 511 

Part VI-Fuel Gas 513 

CHAPTER 24 FUEL GAS 513 
Section 

G2401 General 513 

G2402 General 513 

G2403 General Definitions 513 

G2404 General 519 

G2405 Structural Safety 519 

G2406 Appliance Location 519 

G2407 Combustion, Ventilation and Dilution Air 520 

G2408 Installation 524 

G2409 Clearance Reduction 524 

G2410 ElectricaL 526 

G2411 Electrical Bonding 526 

G2412 General 528 

G2413 Pipe Sizing 528 

G2414 Piping Materials 550 

G2415 Piping System Installation 552 

G2416 Piping Bends and Changes in Direction 553 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



G2417 Inspection, Testing and Purging 

G2418 Piping Support 

G2419 Drips and Sloped Piping 

G2420 Gas Shutoff Valves 

G2421 Flow Controls 

G2422 Appliance Connections 

G2423 CNG Gas-dispensing Systems 

G2424 Piping Support Intervals 

G2425 General 

G2426 Vents 

G2427 Venting of Appliances 

G2428 Sizing of Category I Appliance 
Venting Systems 

G2429 Direct-vent, Integral Vent, Mechanical Vent 

G2430 
G2431 

G2432 

G2433 
G2434 



G2435 
G2436 
G2437 
G2438 
G2439 
G2440 
G2441 
G2442 
G2443 
G2444 
G2445 
G2446 
G2447 
G2448 
G2449 
G2450 
G2451 
G2452 
G2453 



554 
555 
555 
555 
556 
557 
558 
558 
558 
559 
560 

569 



and Ventilation/Exhaust Hood Venting 


581 


Factory-built Chimneys 


581 


General 


581 


Decorative Appliances for Installation 




in Fireplaces 


581 


Log Lighters 


581 


Vented Gas Fireplaces 




(Decorative Fireplaces) 


581 


Vented Gas Fireplace Heaters 


581 


Vented Wall Furnaces 


581 


Floor Furnaces 


582 


Clothes Dryers 


582 


Clothes Dryer Exhaust. 


582 


Sauna Heaters 


583 


Pool and Spa Heaters 


584 


Forced-air Warm-air Furnaces 


584 


Conversion Burners 


585 


Unit Heaters 


585 


Unvented Room Heaters 


585 


Vented Room Heaters 


585 


Cooking Appliances 


586 


Water Heaters 


586 


Air Conditioning Appliances 


586 


Illuminating Appliances 


586 


Infrared Radiant Heaters 


587 


Boilers 


587 


Chimney Damper Opening Area 


587 



Part Vll-Plumbing 589 

CHAPTER 25 PLUMBING 

ADMINISTRATION 589 

Section 

P2501 General 589 

P2502 Existing Plumbing Systems 589 

P2503 Inspection and Tests 589 

CHAPTER 26 GENERAL PLUMBING 

REQUIREMENTS 591 

Section 

P2601 General 591 

P2602 Individual Water Supply and 

Sewage Disposal 591 

P2603 Structural and Piping Protection 591 

P2604 Trenching and Backfilling 592 

P2605 Support 592 

P2606 Waterproofing of Openings 592 

P2607 Workmanship 592 

P2608 Materials Evaluation and Listing 592 

CHAPTER 27 PLUMBING FIXTURES 595 
Section 

P2701 Fixtures, Faucets and Fixture Fittings 595 

P2702 Fixture Accessories 595 

P2703 TailPieces 595 

P2704 Access to Connections 595 

P2705 Installation 595 

P2706 Waste Receptors 595 

P2707 Directional Fittings 597 

P2708 Showers 597 

P2709 Shower Receptors 597 

P2710 Shower Walls 598 

P2711 Lavatories 598 

P2712 Water Closets 598 

P2713 Bathtubs 599 

P2714 Sinks 599 

P2715 Laundry Tubs 599 

P2716 Food Waste Grinder 599 

P2717 Dishwashing Machines 599 

P2718 Clothes Washing Machine 599 

P2719 Floor Drains 599 

P2720 Whirlpool Bathtubs 599 

P2721 Bidet Installations 600 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



P2722 Fixture Fitting 

P2723 Macerating Toilet Systems 

P2724 Speciality Temperature Control Devices 
and Valves 

CHAPTER 28 WATER HEATERS 

Section 

P2801 General 

P2802 Water Heaters Used for Space Heating 

P2803 Relief Valves 

CHAPTER 29 WATER SUPPLY AND 
DISTRIBUTION 

Section 

P2901 General 

P2902 Protection of Potable Water Supply 

P2903 Water-supply System 

P2904 Dwelling Unit Fire Sprinkler Systems 

P2905 Materials, Joints and Connections 

P2906 Changes in Direction 

P2907 Support 

P2908 Drinking Water Treatment Units 

CHAPTER 30 SANITARY DRAINAGE 

Section 

P3001 General 

P3002 Materials 

P3003 Joints and Connections 

P3004 Determining Drainage Fixture Units 

P3005 Drainage System 

P3006 Sizing of Drain Pipe Offsets 

P3007 Sumps and Ejectors 

P3008 Backwater Valves 

CHAPTER 31 VENTS 

Section 

P3101 Vent Systems 

P3102 Vent Stacks and Stack Vents 

P3103 Vent Terminals 

P3104 Vent Connections and Grades 

P3105 Fixture Vents 

P3106 Individual Vent 

P3107 Common Vent. 

P3108 Wet Venting 

P3109 Waste Stack Vent 

P3110 Circuit Venting 



600 


P31 1 1 Combination Waste and Vent System 


637 


600 


P3112 Island Fixture Venting 


638 




P3113 Vent Pipe Sizing 


638 


600 


P3 1 1 4 Air Admittance Valves 


638 


601 


CHAPTER 32 TRAPS 
Section 


641 


601 


P3201 Fixture Traps 


641 


601 






601 


CHAPTER 33 STORM DRAINAGE 
Section 


643 


603 


P3301 General 
P3302 Subsoil Drains 


643 
643 


603 


P3303 Sumps and Pumping Systems 


643 


603 


Part VIII-EJectricaJ 


645 


606 






609 


CHAPTER 34 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS .. 


. . . 645 


621 


Section 




624 


E3401 General 


645 


624 


E3402 Building Structure Protection 


646 


624 


E3403 Inspection and Approval 


646 




E3404 General Equipment Requirements 


646 


625 


E3405 Equipment Location and Clearances 


648 




E3406 Electrical Conductors and Connections 


648 


625 


E3407 Conductor and Terminal Identification 


650 



625 
625 
630 
630 
633 
633 
634 

635 

635 
635 
635 
635 
636 
636 
636 
636 
637 
637 



CHAPTER 35 ELECTRICAL DEFINITIONS .... 653 

Section 

E3501 General 653 

CHAPTER 36 SERVICES 657 

Section 

E3601 General Services 657 

E3602 Service Size and Rating 657 

E3603 Service, Feeder and Grounding 

Electrode Conductor Sizing 658 

E3604 Overhead Service-drop and Service 
Conductor Installation 



E3605 Service-entrance Conductors 

E3606 Service Equipment—General 

E3607 System Grounding 

E3608 Grounding Electrode System 

E3609 Bonding 

E3610 Grounding Electrode Conductors 

E3611 Grounding Electrode Conductor 

Connection to the Grounding Electrodes 665 



659 
661 
661 
662 
662 
664 
664 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 37 BRANCH CIRCUIT AND 

FEEDER REQUIREMENTS 

Section 

E3701 General 

E3702 Branch Circuit Ratings 

E3703 Required Branch Circuits 

E3704 Feeder Requirements 

E3705 Conductor Sizing and Overcurrent 
Protection 

E3706 Panelboards 

CHAPTER 38 WIRING METHODS 

Section 

E3801 General Requirements 

E3802 Above-ground Installation Requirements 

E3803 Underground Installation Requirements 

CHAPTER 39 POWER AND LIGHTING 
DISTRIBUTION 

Section 

E3901 Receptacle Outlets 

E3902 Ground-fault and Arc-fault 

Circuit-interrupter Protection 

E3903 Lighting Outlets 

E3904 General Installation Requirements 

E3905 Boxes, Conduit Bodies and Fittings 

E3906 Installation of Boxes, Conduit 
Bodies and Fittings 

E3907 Cabinets and Panelboards 

E3908 Grounding 

E3909 Flexible Cords 

CHAPTER 40 DEVICES AND LUMINAIRES 

Section 

E4001 Switches 

E4002 Receptacles 

E4003 Fixtures 

E4004 Luminaire Installation 

E4005 Track Lighting 

CHAPTER 41 APPLIANCE INSTALLATION 

Section 

E4101 General 

CHAPTER 42 SWIMMING POOLS 

Section 

E4201 General 



667 

667 
667 
668 
669 

670 

673 

675 

675 
675 
678 

681 
681 



E4202 Wiring Methods for Pools, Spas, Hot Tubs and 

Hydromassage Bathtubs 713 

E4203 Equipment Location and Clearances 715 

E4204 Bonding 716 

E4205 Grounding 718 

E4206 Equipment Installation 719 

E4207 Storable Swimming Pools 721 

E4208 Spas and Hot Tubs 722 

E4209 Hydromassage Bathtubs 722 

CHAPTER 43 CLASS 2 REMOTE-CONTROL, 
SIGNALING AND POWER- 
LIMITED CIRCUITS 725 

Section 

E4301 General 725 

E4302 Power Sources 725 

E4303 Wiring Methods 725 

E4304 Installation Requirements 725 

Part IX-Referenced Standards 727 

CHAPTER 44 REFERENCED STANDARDS 727 



684 


APPENDIX A 


SIZING AND CAPACITIES 




684 




OF GAS PIPING 


749 


695 


APPENDIX B 


SIZING OF VENTING SYSTEMS 








SERVING APPLIANCES EQUIPPED 


698 




WITH DRAFT HOODS, CATEGORY I 


699 




APPLIANCES, AND APPLIANCES 




LISTED FOR USE WITH TYPE 




700 




B VENTS 


761 


703 










APPENDIX C 


EXIT TERMINALS OF 




705 




MECHANICAL DRAFT AND 
DIRECT- VENT VENTING 








SYSTEMS 


771 


705 








706 


APPENDIX D RECOMMENDED PROCEDURE 




707 




FOR SAFETY INSPECTION OF 
AN EXISTING APPLIANCE 




708 




INSTALLATION 


773 


708 










APPENDIX E 


MANUFACTURED HOUSING 




711 


Section 


USED AS DWELLINGS 


775 


711 


AEI01 Scope 




775 




AEI02 Application to Existing Manufactured Homes 




713 


and ] 


Building Service Equipment 


775 




AE201 Definitions 


776 


713 


AE301 Permits 


776 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



AE302 Application for Permit 

AE303 Permits Issuance 

AE304 Fees 

AE305 Inspections 

AE306 Special Inspections 

AE307 Utility Service 

AE401 Occupancy Classification 

AE402 Location on Property 

AE501 Design 

AE502 Foundation Systems 

AE503 Skirting and Perimeter Enclosures 

AE504 Structural Additions 

AE505 Building Service Equipment 

AE506 Exits 

AE507 Occupancy, Fire Safety and Energy 
Conservation Standards 

AE600 Special Requirements for 
Foundation Systems 

AE60 1 Footings and Foundations 

AE602 Pier Construction 

AE603 Height of Piers 

AE604 Anchorage Installations 

AE605 Ties, Materials and Installation 

AE606 Referenced Standards 

APPENDIX F RADON CONTROL METHODS 

Section 
AF101 Scope 
AF102 Definitions 
AF103 Requirements 

APPENDIX G SWIMMING POOLS, 
SPAS AND HOT TUBS 

Section 



776 
777 
777 
778 
779 
779 
779 
779 
779 
780 
780 
780 
780 
781 

781 

781 
781 
781 
781 
781 
782 
782 

783 

783 
783 
783 

791 



AG101 General 


791 


AG 102 Definitions 


791 


AG103 Swimming Pools 


791 


AG 104 Spas and Hot Tubs 


791 


AG 105 Barrier Requirements 


791 


AG 106 Entrapment Protection for Swimming 




Pool and Spa Suction Outlets 


792 


AG 107 Abbreviations 


793 


AG 108 Standards 


793 



APPENDIX H PATIO COVERS 795 

Section 

AH101 General 795 

AH 102 Definition 795 

AH 103 Permitted Uses 795 

AH104 Design Loads 795 

AH 105 Light and Ventilation/Emergency Egress 795 

AH 106 Footings 795 

AH 107 Special Provisions for Aluminum Screen 

Enclosures in Hurricane-prone Regions 795 

APPENDIX I PRIVATE SEWAGE DISPOSAL .... 797 

Section 

All 01 General 797 

APPENDIX J EXISTING BUILDINGS 

AND STRUCTURES 799 

Section 

Aj 1 1 Purpose and Intent 799 

AJ102 Compliance 799 

AJ103 Preliminary Meeting 799 

Aj 104 Evaluation of an Existing Building 799 

AJ105 Permit 800 

AJ201 Definitions 800 

AJ301 Repairs 800 

AJ401 Renovations 801 

AJ501 Alterations 801 

AJ601 Reconstruction 802 

APPENDIX K SOUND TRANSMISSION 803 

Section 

AK101 General 803 

AK102 Air-borne Sound 803 

AK103 Structural-borne Sound 803 

AK104 Referenced Standards 803 

APPENDIX L PERMIT FEES 805 

APPENDIX M HOME DAY CARE- 

R-3 OCCUPANCY 807 

AM101 General 807 

AM 102 Definitions 807 

AM 103 Means of Egress 807 

AM 1 04 Smoke Detection 808 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



APPENDIX N VENTING METHODS 809 

APPENDIX GRAY WATER 

RECYCLING SYSTEMS 817 

AOI01 General 817 

AO 102 Systems for Flushing Water Closets 

and Urinals 817 

AOI03 Subsurface Landscape 

Irrigation Systems 819 

APPENDIX P SIZING OF WATER 

PIPING SySTEM 823 

API01 General 823 

AP102 Information Required 823 

AP103 Selection of Pipe Size 823 

AP201 Selection of Pipe Size 840 

APPENDIX Q ICC INTERNATIONAL 

RESIDENTIAL CODE ELECTRICAL 
PROVISIONS/NATIONAL 
ELECTRICAL CODE CROSS- 
REFERENCE 843 

INDEX 857 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



Part /'Administrative 



CHAPTER 1 

SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



PART l-SCOPE AND APPLICATION 



SECTION R101 
GENERAL 

RIOI.I Title. These provisions shall be known as the Residen- 
tial Code for One- and Two-family Dwellings of [NAME OF 
JURISDICTION] , and shall be cited as such and will be referred to 
herein as "this code." 

RIOI.2 Scope. The provisions of the International Residential 
Code for One- and Two-family Dwellings shall apply to the 
construction, alteration, movement, enlargement, replace- 
ment, repair, equipment, use and occupancy, location, removal 
and demolition of detached one- and two-family dwellings and 
townhouses not more than three stories above grade plane in 
height with a separate means of egress and their accessory 
structures. 

Exception: Live/work units complying with the require- 
ments of Section 419 of the International BUilding Code 
shall be permitted to be built as one- and two-family dwell- 
ings or townhouses. Fire suppression required by Section 
419.5 of the International BUilding Code when constructed 
under the International Residential Code for One- and 
Two-family Dwellings shall conform to Section 903.3.1.3 of 
the International BUilding Code. 

RIOI.3 Intent. The purpose of this code is to establish mini- 
mum requirements to safeguard the public safety, health and 
general welfare through affordability, structural strength, 
means of egress facilities, stability, sanitation, light and venti- 
lation' energy conservation and safety to life and property from 
fire and other hazards attributed to the built environment and to 
provide safety to fire fighters and emergency responders dur- 
ing emergency operations. 



SECTION R102 
APPLICABILITY 

RI02.1 General. Where there is a conflict between a general 
requirement and a specific requirement, the specific require- 
ment shall be applicable. Where, in any specific case, different 
sections of this code specify different materials, methods of 
construction or other requirements, the most restrictive shall 
govern. 

RI02.2 Other laws. The provisions of this code shall not be 
deemed to nullify any provisions of local, state or federal law. 

RI02.3 Application of references. References to chapter or 
section numbers, or to provisions not specifically identified by 



number, shall be construed to refer to such chapter, section or 
provision of this code. 

RI02.4 Referenced codes and standards. The codes and 
standards referenced in this code shall be considered part of the 
requirements of this code to the prescribed extent of each such 
reference. Where differences occur between provisions of this 
code and referenced codes and standards, the provisions of this 
code shall apply. 

Exception: Where enforcement of a code provision would 
violate the conditions of the listing of the equipment or 
appliance, the conditions of the listing and manufacturer's 
instructions shall apply. 

RI02.5 Appendices. Provisions in the appendices shall not 
apply unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance. 

RI02.6 Partial invalidity. In the event any part or provision of 
this code is held to be illegal or void, this shall not have the 
effect of making void or illegal any of the other parts or provi- 
sions. 

RI02.7 Existing structures. The legal occupancy of any struc- 
ture existing on the date of adoption of this code shall be per- 
mitted to continue without change, except as is specifically 
covered in this code, the International Property Maintenance 
Code or the International Fire Code, or as is deemed necessary 
by the building officialfor the general safety and welfare of the 
occupants and the public. 

RI02.7.1 Additions, alterations or repairs. Additions, 
alterations or repairs to any structure shall conform to the 
requirements for a new structure without requiring the exist- 
ing structure to comply with all of the requirements of this 
code, unless otherwise stated. Additions, alterations or 
repairs shall not cause an existing structure to become 
unsafe or adversely affect the performance of the building. 



PART ll-ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT 



SECTION R103 
DEPARTMENT OF BUILDING SAFETY 

RI03.1 Creation of enforcement agency. The department of 
building safety is hereby created and the official in charge 
thereof shall be known as the building official. 

RI03.2 Appointment. The building official shall be appointed 
by the chief appointing authority of the jurisdiction. 

RI03.3 Deputies. In accordance with the prescribed proce- 
dures of this jurisdiction and with the concurrence of the 
appointing authority, the building official shall have the author- 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



ity to appoint a deputy building official, the related technical 
officers, inspectors, plan examiners and other employees. Such 
employees shall have powers as delegated by the building offi- 
cial. 



SECTION R104 

DUTIES AND POWERS OF THE 

BUILDING OFFICIAL 

RI04.1 General. The building official is hereby authorized 
and directed to enforce the provisions of this code. The build- 
ing official shall have the authority to render interpretations of 
this code and to adopt policies and procedures in order to clar- 
ify the application of its provisions. Such interpretations, poli- 
cies and procedures shall be in conformance with the intent and 
purpose of this code. Such policies and procedures shall not 
have the effect of waiving requirements specifically provided 
for in this code. 

RI04.2 Applications and permits. The building official shall 
receive applications, review construction documents and issue 
permits for the erection and alteration of buildings and struc- 
tures, inspect the premises for which such permits have been 
issued and enforce compliance with the provisions of this code. 

RI04.3 Notices and orders. The building official shall issue 
all necessary notices or orders to ensure compliance with this 
code. 

RI04.4 Inspections. The building official is authorized to 
make all of the required inspections, or the building official 
shall have the authority to accept reports of inspection by 
approved agencies or individuals. Reports of such inspections 
shall be in writing and be certified by a responsible officer of 
such approved agency or by the responsible individual. The 
building official is authorized to engage such expert opinion as 
deemed necessary to report upon unusual technical issues that 
arise, subject to the approval of the appointing authority. 

RI04.5 Identification. The building officialsha.il carry proper 
identification when inspecting structures or premises in the 
performance of duties under this code. 

RI04.6 Right of entry. Where it is necessary to make an 
inspection to enforce the provisions of this code, or where the 
building ofllcial has reasonable cause to believe that there 
exists in a structure or upon a premises a condition which is 
contrary to or in violation of this code which makes the struc- 
ture or premises unsafe, dangerous or hazardous, the building 
official or designee is authorized to enter the structure or pre- 
mises at reasonable times to inspect or to perform the duties 
imposed by this code, provided that if such structure or pre- 
mises be occupied that credentials be presented to the occupant 
and entry requested. If such structure or premises be unoccu- 
pied, the building official shall first make a reasonable effort to 
locate the owner or other person having charge or control of the 
structure or premises and request entry. If entry is refused, the 
building official shall have recourse to the remedies provided 
by law to secure entry. 

RI04.7 Department records. The building official shall keep 
official records of applications received, permits and certifi- 
cates issued, fees collected, reports of inspections, and notices 
and orders issued. Such records shall be retained in the official 



records for the period required for the retention of public 
records. 

RI04.8 Liability. The building official, member of the board of 
appeals or employee charged with the enforcement of this 
code, while acting for thojurisdictionin good faith and without 
malice in the discharge of the duties required by this code or 
other pertinent law or ordinance, shall not thereby be rendered 
liable personally and is hereby relieved from personal liability 
for any damage accruing to persons or property as a result of 
any act or by reason of an act or omission in the discharge of 
official duties. Any suit instituted against an officer or 
employee because of an act performed by that officer or 
employee in the lawful discharge of duties and under the provi- 
sions of this code shall be defended by legal representative of 
the jurisdiction until the final termination of the proceedings. 
The building official or any subordinate shall not be liable for 
cost in any action, suit or proceeding that is instituted in pursu- 
ance of the provisions of this code. 

RI04.9 Approved materials and equipment. Materials, 
equipment and devices approvedby the buildingofficialsha.il 
be constructed and installed in accordance with such approval. 

RI04.9.1 Used materials and equipment. Used materials, 
equipment and devices shall not be reused unless approved 
by the building official. 

RI04.10 Modifications. Wherever there are practical difficul- 
ties involved in carrying out the provisions of this code, the 
building officialsha.il have the authority to grant modifications 
for individual cases, provided the building official shall first 
find that special individual reason makes the strict letter of this 
code impractical and the modification is in compliance with the 
intent and purpose of this code and that such modification does 
not lessen health, life and fire safety requirements or structural. 
The details of action granting modifications shall be recorded 
and entered in the files of the department of building safety. 

RI04.10.1 Areas prone to flooding. The building ofllcial 
shall not grant modifications to any provision related to 
areas prone to flooding as established by Table R30 1.2(1) 
without the granting of a variance to such provisions by the 
board of appeals. 

RI04.1 1 Alternative materials, design and methods of con- 
struction and equipment. The provisions of this code are not 
intended to prevent the installation of any material or to pro- 
hibit any design or method of construction not specifically pre- 
scribed by this code, provided that any such alternative has 
been approved. An alternative material, design or method of 
construction shall be approvedwhere the building ofll cialfinds 
that the proposed design is satisfactory and complies with the 
intent of the provisions of this code, and that the material, 
method or work offered is, for the purpose intended, at least the 
equivalent of that prescribed in this code. Compliance with the 
specific performance-based provisions of the International 
Codes in lieu of specific requirements of this code shall also be 
permitted as an alternate. 

RI04. 11.1 Tests. Whenever there is insufficient evidence of 
compliance with the provisions of this code, or evidence 
that a material or method does not conform to the require- 
ments of this code, or in order to substantiate claims for 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



alternative materials or methods, the building official shall 
have the authority to require tests as evidence of compliance 
to be made at no expense to the jurisdiction. Test methods 
shall be as specified in this code or by other recognized test 
standards. In the absence of recognized and accepted test 
methods, the building official shall approve the testing pro- 
cedures. Tests shall be performed by an approved agency. 
Reports of such tests shall be retained by the building offi- 
cial for the period required for retention of public records. 



SECTION R105 
PERMITS 

RI05. 1 Required. Any owner or authorized agent who intends 
to construct, enlarge, alter, repair, move, demolish or change 
the occupancy of a building or structure, or to erect, install, 
enlarge, alter, repair, remove, convert or replace any electrical, 
gas, mechanical or plumbing system, the installation of which 
is regulated by this code, or to cause any such work to be done, 
shall first make application to the building official and obtain 
the required permit. 

RI05.2 Work exempt from permit. Permits shall not be 
required for the following. Exemption from permit require- 
ments of this code shall not be deemed to grant authorization 
for any work to be done in any manner in violation of the provi- 
sions of this code or any other laws or ordinances of \his juris- 
diction. 



Building: 



I 



1. One-story detached accessory structures used as tool 
and storage sheds, playhouses and similar uses, pro- 
vided the floor area does not exceed 200 square feet 
(18.58 m 2 ). 

2. Fences not over 6 feet (1829 mm) high. 

3. Retaining walls that are not over 4 feet (1219 mm) in 
height measured from the bottom of the footing to the 
top of the wall, unless supporting a surcharge. 

4. Water tanks supported directly upon grade if the capac- 
ity does not exceed 5,000 gallons (1 8927 L) and the ratio 
of height to diameter or width does not exceed 2 to 1. 

5. Sidewalks and driveways. 

6. Painting, papering, tiling, carpeting, cabinets, counter 
tops and similar finish work. 

7. Prefabricated swimming pools that are less than 24 
inches (610 mm) deep. 

8. Swings and other playground equipment. 

9. Window awnings supported by an exterior wall which 
do not project more than 54 inches (1372 mm) from the 
exterior wall and do not require additional support. 

10. Decks not exceeding 200 square feet (18.58 m 2 ) in area, 
that are not more than 30 inches (762 mm) above grade 
at any point, are not attached to a dwelling and do not 
serve the exit door required by Section R311.4. 



Electrical: 

1. Listed cord-and-plug connected temporary decorative 
lighting. 

2. Reinstallation of attachment plug receptacles but not the 
outlets therefor. 

3. Replacement of branch circuit overcurrent devices of the 
required capacity in the same location. 

4. Electrical wiring, devices, appliances, apparatus or 
equipment operating at less than 25 volts and not capable 
of supplying more than 50 watts of energy. 

5. Minor repair work, including the replacement of lamps 
or the connection of approved portable electrical equip- 
ments approved permanently installed receptacles. 

Gas: 

1. Portable heating, cooking or clothes drying appliances. 

2. Replacement of any minor part that does not alter 
approval of equipment or make such equipment unsafe. 

3. Portable-fuel-cell appliances that are not connected to a 
fixed piping system and are not interconnected to a 
power grid. 

Mechanical: 

1. Portable heating appliances. 

2. Portable ventilation appliances. 

3. Portable cooling units. 

4. Steam, hot- or chilled-water piping within any heating or 
cooling equipment regulated by this code. 

5. Replacement of any minor part that does not alter 
approval of equipment or make such equipment unsafe. 

6. Portable evaporative coolers. 

7. Self-contained refrigeration systems containing 10 
pounds (4.54 kg) or less of refrigerant or that are actuated 
by motors of 1 horsepower (746 W) or less. 

8. Portable-fuel-cell appliances that are not connected to a 
fixed piping system and are not interconnected to a 
power grid. 

The stopping of leaks in drains, water, soil, waste or vent 
pipe; provided, however, that if any concealed trap, drainpipe, 
water, soil, waste or vent pipe becomes defective and it 
becomes necessary to remove and replace the same with new 
material, such work shall be considered as new work and a per- 
mit shall be obtained and inspection made as provided in this 
code. 

The clearing of stoppages or the repairing of leaks in pipes, 
valves or fixtures, and the removal and reinstallation of water 
closets, provided such repairs do not involve or require the 
replacement or rearrangement of valves, pipes or fixtures. 

RI05.2.1 Emergency repairs. Where equipment replace- 
ments and repairs must be performed in an emergency situa- 
tion, the permit application shall be submitted within the 
next working business day to the building official. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



RI05.2.2 Repairs. Application or notice to the building 
official is not required for ordinary repairs to structures, 
replacement of lamps or the connection of approved porta- 
ble electrical equipment to approved permanently installed 
receptacles. Such repairs shall not include the cutting away 
of any wall, partition or portion thereof, the removal or cut- 
ting of any structural beam or load-bearing support, or the 
removal or change of any required means of egress, or rear- 
rangement of parts of a structure affecting the egress 
requirements; nor shall ordinary repairs include addition to, 
alteration of, replacement or relocation of any water supply, 
sewer, drainage, drain leader, gas, soil, waste, vent or simi- 
lar piping, electric wiring or mechanical or other work 
affecting public health or general safety. 

RI05.2.3 Public service agencies. A permit shall not be 
required for the installation, alteration or repair of genera- 
tion, transmission, distribution, metering or other related 
equipment that is under the ownership and control of public 
service agencies by established right. 

RI05.3 Application for permit. To obtain & permit, the appli- 
cant shall first file an application therefor in writing on a form 
furnished by the department of building safety for that purpose. 
Such application shall: 

1. Identify and describe the work to be covered by the per- 
mit for which application is made. 

2. Describe the land on which the proposed work is to be 
done by legal description, street address or similar 
description that will readily identify and definitely locate 
the proposed building or work. 

3. Indicate the use and occupancy for which the proposed 
work is intended. 

4. Be accompanied by construction documents and other 
information as required in Section RI06.1. 

5. State the valuation of the proposed work. 

6. Be signed by the applicant or the applicant's authorized 
agent. 

7. Give such other data and information as required by the 
building official 

RI05.3.1 Action on application. The building official shall 
examine or cause to be examined applications for permits 
and amendments thereto within a reasonable time after fil- 
ing. If the application or the construction documents do not 
conform to the requirements of pertinent laws, the building 
official shall reject such application in writing stating the 
reasons therefor. If the building officially satisfied that the 
proposed work conforms to the requirements of this code 
and laws and ordinances applicable thereto, the building 
official shall issue a perm //^therefor as soon as practicable. 

RI05.3.1.1 Determination of substantially improved 
or substantially damaged existing buildings in flood 
hazard areas. For applications for reconstruction, reha- 
bilitation, addition or other improvement of existing 
buildings or structures located in an area prone to flood- 
ing as established by Table R301.2(l), the building offi- 
cial shall examine or cause to be examined the 
construction documents and shall prepare a finding with 



regard to the value of the proposed work. For buildings 
that have sustained damage of any origin, the value of the 
proposed work shall include the cost to repair the build- 
ing or structure to its predamaged condition. If the build- 
ing official finds that the value of proposed work equals 
or exceeds 50 percent of the market value of the building 
or structure before the damage has occurred or the 
improvement is started, the finding shall be provided to 
the board of appeals for a determination of substantial 
improvement or substantial damage. Applications deter- 
mined by the board of appeals to constitute substantial 
improvement or substantial damage shall require all 
existing portions of the entire building or structure to 
meet the requirements of Section R322. 

RI05.3.2 Time limitation of application. An application 
for apermitfor any proposed work shall be deemed to have 
been abandoned 180 days after the date of filing unless such 
application has been pursued in good faith or apermithas 
been issued; except that the bUilding official is authorized to 
grant one or more extensions of time for additional periods 
not exceeding 180 days each. The extension shall be 
requested in writing andjustifiable cause demonstrated. 

RI05.4 Validity of permit. The issuance or granting of aper- 
mitshaW not be construed to be a permit for, or an approval of, 
any violation of any of the provisions of this code or of any 
other ordinance of the jurisdiction. Permits presuming to give 
authority to violate or cancel the provisions of this code or 
other ordinances ofthejurisdictionshall not be valid. The issu- 
ance of a permit based on construction documents and other 
data shall not prevent the building official from requiring the 
correction of errors in the construction documents and other 
data. The building official is also authorized to prevent occu- 
pancy or use of a structure where in violation of this code or of 
any other ordinances of this jurisdiction. 

RI05.5 Expiration. Every permit issued shall become 
invalid unless the work authorized by such permit is com- 
menced within 180 days after its issuance, or if the work 
authorized by such permit is suspended or abandoned for a 
period of 180 days after the time the work is commenced. The 
building officialis authorized to grant, in writing, one or more 
extensions of time, for periods not more than 180 days each. 
The extension shall be requested in writing andjustifiable 
cause demonstrated. 

RI05.6 Suspension or revocation. The building officialis 
authorized to suspend or revoke a permit issued under the pro- 
visions of this code wherever the permitis issued in error or on 
the basis of incorrect, inaccurate or incomplete information, or 
in violation of any ordinance or regulation or any of the provi- 
sions of this code. 

RI05.7 Placement of permit. The building permit or copy 
thereof shall be kept on the site of the work until the completion 
of the project. 

RI05.8 Responsibility. It shall be the duty of every person 
who performs work for the installation or repair of building, 
structure, electrical, gas, mechanical or plumbing systems, for 
which this code is applicable, to comply with this code. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



IRI05.9 Preliminary inspection. Before issuing a permit, the 
building official is authorized to examine or cause to be exam- 
ined buildings, structures and sites for which an application has 
been filed. 



SECTION R106 
CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS 

RI06.1 Submittal documents. Submittal documents consist- 
ing of construction documents, and other data shall be submit- 
ted in two or more sets with each application for apermit. The 
construction documents shall be prepared by a registered 
design professionalwhQYQ required by the statutes of thejuris- 
diction in which the project is to be constructed. Where special 
conditions exist, the building official is authorized to require 
additional construction documents to be prepared by a regis- 
tered design professional. 

Exception: The building official is authorized to waive the 
submission of construction documents and other data not 
required to be prepared by a registered design professional 
if it is found that the nature of the work applied for is such 
that reviewing of construction documents is not necessary 
to obtain compliance with this code. 

RI06.1.1 Information on construction documents. Con- 
struction documents shall be drawn upon suitable material. 
Electronic media documents are permitted to be submitted 
when approvedby the building official. Construction docu- 
ments shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the location, 
nature and extent of the work proposed and show in detail 
that it will conform to the provisions of this code and rele- 
vant laws, ordinances, rules and regulations, as determined 
by the building official. Where required by the building offi- 
cial, all braced wall lines, shall be identified on the con- 
struction documents and all pertinent information 
including, but not limited to, bracing methods, location and 
length of braced wall panels, foundation requirements of 
braced wall panels at top and bottom shall be provided. 

RI06.1.2 Manufacturer's installation instructions. Man- 
ufacturer's installation instructions, as required by this 
code, shall be available on the job site at the time of inspec- 
tion. 

RI06.1.3 Information for construction in flood hazard 
areas. For buildings and structures located in whole or in 
part in flood hazard areas as established by Table R301 .2(1), 
construction documents shall include: 

1. Delineation of flood hazard areas, floodway bound- 
aries and flood zones and the design flood elevation, 
as appropriate; 

2. The elevation of the proposed lowest floor, including 
basement, in areas of shallow flooding (AO Zones), 
the height of the proposed lowest floor, including 
basement, above the highest adjacent grade; 

3. The elevation of the bottom of the lowest horizontal 
structural member in coastal high hazard areas (V 
Zone); and 

4. If design flood elevations are not included on the 
community's Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM), the 



building official and the applicant shall obtain and 
reasonably utilize any design flood elevation and 
floodway data available from other sources. 

RI06.2 Site plan or plot plan. The construction documents 
submitted with the application foxpermitshaM be accompanied 
by a site plan showing the size and location of new construction 
and existing structures on the site and distances from lot lines. 
In the case of demolition, the site plan shall show construction 
to be demolished and the location and size of existing struc- 
tures and construction that are to remain on the site or plot. The 
building officially authorized to waive or modify the require- 
ment for a site plan when the application for permit is for alter- 
ation or repair or when otherwise warranted. 

RI06.3 Examination of documents. The building official 
shall examine or cause to be examined construction documents 
for code compliance. 

RI06.3.1 Approval of construction documents. When the 
building officialissues apermit, the construction documents 
shall be approved in writing or by a stamp which states 
"REVIEWED FOR CODE COMPLIANCE." One set of 
construction documents so reviewed shall be retained by the 
building official. The other set shall be returned to the appli- 
cant, shall be kept at the site of work and shall be open to 
inspection by the building official or his or her authorized 
representative . 

RI06.3.2 Previous approvals. This code shall not require 
changes in the construction documents, construction or des- 
ignated occupancy of a structure for which a lawful permit 
has been heretofore issued or otherwise lawfully autho- 
rized, and the construction of which has been pursued in 
good faith within 180 days after the effective date of this 
code and has not been abandoned. 

RI06.3.3 Phased approval. The building officially autho- 
rized to issue apermitfor the construction of foundations or 
any other part of a building or structure before the construc- 
tion documents for the whole building or structure have 
been submitted, provided that adequate information and 
detailed statements have been filed complying with perti- 
nent requirements of this code. The holder of such permit 
for the foundation or other parts of a building or structure 
shall proceed at the holder's own risk with the building oper- 
ation and without assurance that a permit for the entire 
structure will be granted. 

RI06.4 Amended construction documents. Work shall be 
installed in accordance with the approved construction docu- 
ments, and any changes made during construction that are not 
in compliance with the approved construction documents shall 
be resubmitted for approval as an amended set of construction 
documents. 

RI06.5 Retention of construction documents. One set of 
approved construction documents shall be retained by the 
building officialfor a period of not less than 180 days from date 
of completion of the permitted work, or as required by state or 
local laws. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



SECTION R107 
TEMPORARY STRUCTURES AND USES 

RI07.1 General. The building off icialis authorized to issue a 
permitfor temporary structures and temporary uses. Such per- 
mits shall be limited as to time of service, but shall not be per- 
mitted for more than 180 days. The building official is 
authorized to grant extensions for demonstrated cause. 

RI07.2 Conformance. Temporary structures and uses shall 
conform to the structural strength, fire safety, means of egress, 
light, ventilation and sanitary requirements of this code as nec- 
essary to ensure the public health, safety and general welfare. 

RI07.3 Temporary power. The building official is authorized 
to give permission to temporarily supply and use power in part 
of an electric installation before such installation has been fully 
completed and the final certificate of completion has been 
issued. The part covered by the temporary certificate shall 
comply with the requirements specified for temporary lighting, 
heat or power in NFPA 70. 

RI07.4 Termination of approval. The building official is 
authorized to terminate such permit for a temporary structure 
or use and to order the temporary structure or use to be discon- 
tinued. 



SECTION R108 
FEES 

RI08.1 Payment of fees. A permit shall not be valid until the 
fees prescribed by law have been paid. Nor shall an amendment 
to apermitbe released until the additional fee, if any, has been 
paid. 

RI08.2 Schedule of permit fees. On buildings, structures, 
electrical, gas, mechanical and plumbing systems or alter- 
ations requiring ^permit, a. fee for each permit shall be paid as 
required, in accordance with the schedule as established by the 
applicable governing authority. 

RI08.3 Building permit valuations. Building permit valua- 
tion shall include total value of the work for which a permit is 
being issued, such as electrical, gas, mechanical, plumbing 
equipment and other permanent systems, including materials 
and labor. 

RI08.4 Related fees. The payment of the fee for the construc- 
tion, alteration, removal or demolition for work done in connec- 
tion with or concurrently with the work authorized by a building 
permit shall not relieve the applicant or holder of the permit 
from the payment of other fees that are prescribed by law. 

RI08.5 Refunds. The building off icialis authorized to estab- 
lish a refund policy. 

RI08.6 Work commencing before permit issuance. Any per- 
son who commences work requiring a permit on a building, 
structure, electrical, gas, mechanical or plumbing system 
before obtaining the necessary permits shall be subject to a fee 
established by the applicable governing authority that shall be 
in addition to the required permit fees. 



SECTION R109 
INSPECTIONS 

RI09.1 Types of inspections. For onsite construction, from 
time to time the building official, upon notification from the per- 
mithoider or his agent, shall make or cause to be made any nec- 
essary inspections and shall either approve that portion of the 
construction as completed or shall notify thepermithoider or his 
or her agent wherein the same fails to comply with this code. 

RI09.1.1 Foundation inspection. Inspection of the foun- 
dation shall be made after poles or piers are set or trenches or 
basement areas are excavated and any required forms 
erected and any required reinforcing steel is in place and 
supported prior to the placing of concrete. The foundation 
inspection shall include excavations for thickened slabs 
intended for the support of bearing walls, partitions, struc- 
tural supports, or equipment and special requirements for 
wood foundations . 

RI09.1.2 Plumbing, mechanical, gas and electrical sys- 
tems inspection. Rough inspection of plumbing, mechani- 
cal, gas and electrical systems shall be made prior to 
covering or concealment, before fixtures or appliances are 
set or installed, and prior to framing inspection. 

Exception: Back-filling of ground-source heat pump 
loop systems tested in accordance with Section M2105. 1 
prior to inspection shall be permitted. 

RI09.1.3 Floodplain inspections. For construction in 
areas prone to flooding as established by Table R301.2(l), 
upon placement of the lowest floor, including basement, 
and prior to further vertical construction, the building offi- 
cial shall require submission of documentation, prepared 
and sealed by a registered design professional, of the eleva- 
tion of the lowest floor, including basement, required in 
Section R322. 

RI09.1.4 Frame and masonry inspection. Inspection of 
framing and masonry construction shall be made after the 
roof, masonry, all framing, firestopping, draftstopping and 
bracing are in place and after the plumbing, mechanical and 
electrical rough inspections are approved. 

RI09.1.5 Other inspections. In addition to the called 
inspections above, the building officialmsiy make or require 
any other inspections to ascertain compliance with this code 
and other laws enforced by the building official. 

R 109.1.5.1 Fire-resistance-rated construction 
inspection. Where fire-resistance-rated construction is 
required between dwelling units or due to location on 
property, the building official shall require an inspection 
of such construction after all lathing and/or wallboard is 
in place, but before any plaster is applied, or before wall- 
board joints and fasteners are taped and finished. 

RI09.1.6 Final inspection. Final inspection shall be made 
after the permitted work is complete and prior to occupancy. 

RI09.2 Inspection agencies. The building official is authorized 
to accept reports of approved agencies, provided such agencies 
satisfy the requirements as to qualifications and reliability. 

RI09.3 Inspection requests. It shall be the duty of the permit 
holder or their agent to notify the building official that such 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



work is ready for inspection. It shall be the duty of the person 
requesting any inspections required by this code to provide 
access to and means for inspection of such work. 

RI09.4 Approval required. Work shall not be done beyond 
the point indicated in each successive inspection without first 
obtaining the approval of the building official. The building 
officialupon notification, shall make the requested inspections 
and shall either indicate the portion of the construction that is 
satisfactory as completed, or shall notify the permit holder or 
an agent of the/? ermit holder wherein the same fails to comply 
with this code. Any portions that do not comply shall be cor- 
rected and such portion shall not be covered or concealed until 
authorized by the building official 



RIIO.4 Temporary occupancy. The building officially autho- 
rized to issue a temporary certificate of occupancy before the 
completion of the entire work covered by the permit, provided 
that such portion or portions shall be occupied safely. The 
building officialshaM set a time period during which the tempo- 
rary certificate of occupancy is valid. 

RIIO.5 Revocation. The buildingofficialshall, in writing, sus- 
pend or revoke a certificate of occupancy issued under the pro- 
visions of this code wherever the certificate is issued in error, or 
on the basis of incorrect information supplied, or where it is 
determined that the building or structure or portion thereof is in 
violation of any ordinance or regulation or any of the provi- 
sions of this code. 



SECTION R110 
CERTIFICATE OF OCCUPANCY 

RIIO.I Use and occupancy. No building or structure shall be 
used or occupied, and no change in the existing occupancy 
classification of a building or structure or portion thereof shall 
be made until the building official has issued a certificate of 
occupancy therefor as provided herein. Issuance of a certificate 
of occupancy shall not be construed as an approval of a viola- 
tion of the provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the 
jurisdiction. Certificates presuming to give authority to violate 
or cancel the provisions of this code or other ordinances of the 
jurisdiction shall not be valid. 

Exceptions: 

1. Certificates of occupancy are not required for work 
exempt from permits under Section R10S.2. 

2. Accessory buildings or structures. 

RIIO.2 Change in use. Changes in the character or use of an 
existing structure shall not be made except as specified in Sec- 
tions 3406 and 3407 of the International Building Code. 

RIIO.3 Certificate issued. After the building official inspects 
the building or structure and finds no violations of the provi- 
sions of this code or other laws that are enforced by the depart- 
ment of building safety, the building official shall issue a 
certificate of occupancy which shall contain the following: 

1. The building permit number. 

2. The address of the structure. 

3. The name and address of the owner. 

4. A description of that portion of the structure for which 
the certificate is issued. 

5. A statement that the described portion of the structure 
has been inspected for compliance with the requirements 
of this code. 

6. The name of the building official. 

7. The edition of the code under which the permit was 
issued. 

8. If an automatic sprinkler system is provided and whether 
the sprinkler system is required. 

9. Any special stipulations and conditions of the building 
permit. 



SECTION R111 
SERVICE UTILITIES 

RIII.I Connection of service utilities. No person shall make 
connections from a utility, source of energy, fuel or power to 
any building or system that is regulated by this code for which a 
permitis required, until approvedby the building official. 

RIII.2 Temporary connection. The building official shall 
have the authority to authorize and approve the temporary con- 
nection of the building or system to the utility, source of energy, 
fuel or power. 

RIII.3 Authority to disconnect service utilities. The building 
official shall have the authority to authorize disconnection of 
utility service to the building, structure or system regulated by 
this code and the referenced codes and standards set forth in Sec- 
tion R102.4 in case of emergency where necessary to eliminate 
an immediate hazard to life or property or when such utility con- 
nection has been made without the approval required by Section 
Rlll.l or Rill. 2. The building official shall notify the serving 
utility and whenever possible the owner and occupant of the 
building, structure or service system of the decision to discon- 
nect prior to taking such action if not notified prior to disconnec- 
tion. The owner or occupant of the building, structure or service 
system shall be notified in writing as soon as practical thereafter. 



SECTION R112 
BOARD OF APPEALS 

R112.1 General. In order to hear and decide appeals of orders, 
decisions or determinations made by the building official relative 
to the application and interpretation of this code, there shall be and 
is hereby created a board of appeals. The building officiahhdM be 
an ex officio member of said board but shall have no vote on any 
matter before the board. The board of appeals shall be appointed 
by the governing body and shall hold office at its pleasure. The 
board shall adopt rules of procedure for conducting its business, 
and shall render all decisions and findings in writing to the appel- 
lant with a duplicate copy to the building official. 

R112.2 Limitations on authority. An application for appeal 
shall be based on a claim that the true intent of this code or the 
rules legally adopted thereunder have been incorrectly inter- 
preted, the provisions of this code do not fully apply, or an 
equally good or better form of construction is proposed. The 
board shall have no authority to waive requirements of this code. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



R112.2.1 Determination of substantial improvement in 
areas prone to flooding. When the building ofllcialprovides a 
finding required in Section R10S.3.1.1, the board of appeals 
shall determine whether the value of the proposed work consti- 
tutes a substantial improvement. A substantial improvement 
means any repair, reconstruction, rehabilitation, addition or 
improvement of a building or structure, the cost of which 
equals or exceeds 50 percent of the market value of the build- 
ing or structure before the improvement or repair is started. If 
the building or structure has sustained substantial damage, all 
repairs are considered substantial improvement regardless of 
the actual repair work performed. The term does not include: 

1. Improvements of a building or structure required to cor- 
rect existing health, sanitary or safety code violations 
identified by the building official and which are the 
minimum necessary to assure safe living conditions; or 

2. Any alteration of an historic building or structure, pro- 
vided that the alteration will not preclude the continued 
designation as an historic building or structure. For the 
purpose of this exclusion, an historic building is: 

2.7. Listedor preliminarily determined to be eligi- 
ble for listing in the National Register of His- 
toric Places; or 

2.2. Determined by the Secretary of the U.S. De- 
partment of Interior as contributing to the his- 
torical significance of a registered historic 
district or a district preliminarily determined 
to qualify as an historic district; or 

2.3. Designated as historic under a state or local 
historic preservation program that is ap- 
prove d by the Department of Interior. 

R112.2.2 Criteria for issuance of a variance for areas 
prone to flooding. A variance shall be issued only upon: 

1. A showing of good and sufficient cause that the 
unique characteristics of the size, configuration or 
topography of the site render the elevation standards 
in Section R322 inappropriate. 

2. A determination that failure to grant the variance 
would result in exceptional hardship by rendering the 
lot undevelopable. 

3. A determination that the granting of a variance will 
not result in increased flood heights, additional 
threats to public safety, extraordinary public expense, 
cause fraud on or victimization of the public, or con- 
flict with existing local laws or ordinances. 

4. A determination that the variance is the minimum nec- 
essary to afford relief, considering the flood hazard. 

5. Submission to the applicant of written notice specify- 
ing the difference between the design flood elevation 
and the elevation to which the building is to be built, 
stating that the cost of flood insurance will be com- 
mensurate with the increased risk resulting from the 
reduced floor elevation, and stating that construction 
below the design flood elevation increases risks to life 
and property. 



R112.3 Qualifications. The board of appeals shall consist of 
members who are qualified by experience and training to pass 
on matters pertaining to building construction and are not 
employees of the jurisdiction. 

R112.4 Administration. The building official shall take 
immediate action in accordance with the decision of the board. 



SECTION R113 
VIOLATIONS 

R113. 1 Unlawful acts. It shall be unlawful for any person, firm 
or corporation to erect, construct, alter, extend, repair, move, 
remove, demolish or occupy any building, structure or equip- 
ment regulated by this code, or cause same to be done, in con- 
flict with or in violation of any of the provisions of this code. 

R113.2 Notice of violation. The building officially authorized 
to serve a notice of violation or order on the person responsible 
for the erection, construction, alteration, extension, repair, 
moving, removal, demolition or occupancy of a building or 
structure in violation of the provisions of this code, or in viola- 
tion of a detail statement or a plan approve d thereunder, or in 
violation of a permit or certificate issued under the provisions 
of this code. Such order shall direct the discontinuance of the 
illegal action or condition and the abatement of the violation. 

R113.3 Prosecution of violation. If the notice of violation is 
not complied with in the time prescribed by such notice, the 
building off icialis authorized to request the legal counsel of the 
jurisdiction^ institute the appropriate proceeding at law or in 
equity to restrain, correct or abate such violation, or to require 
the removal or termination of the unlawful occupancy of the 
building or structure in violation of the provisions of this code 
or of the order or direction made pursuant thereto. 

R113.4 Violation penalties. Any person who violates a provi- 
sion of this code or fails to comply with any of the requirements 
thereof or who erects, constructs, alters or repairs a building or 
structure in violation of the approved construction documents 
or directive of the building official, or of apermitor certificate 
issued under the provisions of this code, shall be subject to pen- 
alties as prescribed by law. 



SECTION R114 
STOP WORK ORDER 

R114.1 Notice to owner. Upon notice from the building offi- 
cial that work on any building or structure is being prosecuted 
contrary to the provisions of this code or in an unsafe and dan- 
gerous manner, such work shall be immediately stopped. The 
stop work order shall be in writing and shall be given to the 
owner of the property involved, or to the owner's agent or to the 
person doing the work and shall state the conditions under 
which work will be permitted to resume. 

R114.2 Unlawful continuance. Any person who shall con- 
tinue any work in or about the structure after having been 
served with a stop work order, except such work as that person 
is directed to perform to remove a violation or unsafe condi- 
tion, shall be subject to penalties as prescribed by law. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



Part ll-Definitions 



CHAPTER 2 

DEFINITIONS 



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I 



SECTION R201 
GENERAL 

R201.1 Scope. Unless otherwise expressly stated, the follow- 
ing words and terms shall, for the purposes of this code, have 
the meanings indicated in this chapter. 

R201.2 Interchangeability. Words used in the present tense 
include the future; words in the masculine gender include the 
feminine and neuter; the singular number includes the plural 
and the plural, the singular. 

R201.3 Terms defined in other codes. Where terms are not 
defined in this code such terms shall have meanings ascribed to 
them as in other code publications of the International Code 
Council. 

R201.4 Terms not defined. Where terms are not defined 
through the methods authorized by this section, such terms 
shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context 
implies. 



SECTION R202 
DEFINITIONS 

ACCESSIBLE. Signifies access that requires the removal of 
an access panel or similar removable obstruction. 

ACCESSIBLE, READILY. Signifies access without the 
necessity for removing a panel or similar obstruction. 

ACCESSORY STRUCTURE. A structure not greater than 
3,000 square feet (279 m 2 ) in floor area, and not over two sto- 
ries in height, the use of which is customarily accessory to and 
incidental to that of the dwelling(s) and which is located on the 
same lot. 

ADDITION. An extension or increase in floor area or height 
of a building or structure. 

ADHERED STONE OR MASONRY VENEER. Stone or 
masonry veneer secured and supported through the adhesion of 
an approvedbonding material applied to an approvedb aching. 

AIR ADMITTANCE VALVE. A one-way valve designed to 
allow air into the plumbing drainage system when a negative 
pressure develops in the piping. This device shall close by grav- 
ity and seal the terminal under conditions of zero differential 
pressure (no flow conditions) and under positive internal pres- 
sure. 

AIR BARRIER. Material(s) assembled andjoined together to 
provide a barrier to air leakage through the building envelope. 
An air barrier may be a single material, or a combination of 
materials. 



AIR BREAK (DRAINAGE SYSTEM). An arrangement in 
which a discharge pipe from a fixture, appliance or device 
drains indirectly into a receptor below the flood-level rim of the 
receptor, and above the trap seal. 

AIR CIRCULATION, FORCED. A means of providing 
space conditioning utilizing movement of air through ducts or 
plenums by mechanical means. 

AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM. A system that consists of 
heat exchangers, blowers, filters, supply, exhaust and return-air 
systems, and shall include any apparatus installed in connec- 
tion therewith. 

AIR GAP, DRAINAGE SYSTEM. The unobstructed vertical 
distance through free atmosphere between the outlet of a waste 
pipe and the flood-level rim of the fixture or receptor into 
which it is discharging. 

AIR GAP, WATER-DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. The unob- 
structed vertical distance through free atmosphere between the 
lowest opening from a water supply discharge to the 
flood-level rim of a plumbing fixture. 

AIR-IMPERMEABLE INSULATION. An insulation having 
an air permanence equal to or less than 0.02 L/s-m 2 at 75 Pa pres- 
sure differential tested according to ASTM E 2178 or E 283. 

ALTERATION. Any construction or renovation to an existing 
structure other than repair or addition that requires a permit. 
Also, a change in a mechanical system that involves an exten- 
sion, addition or change to the arrangement, type or purpose of 
the original installation that requires a permit. 

ANCHORED STONE OR MASONRY VENEER. Stone or 
masonry veneer secured with approved mechanical fasteners 
to an approved backing. 

ANCHORS. See "Supports." 

ANTISIPHON. A term applied to valves or mechanical 
devices that eliminate siphonage. 

APPLIANCE. A device or apparatus that is manufactured and 
designed to utilize energy and for which this code provides spe- 
cific requirements. 

APPROVED. Acceptable to the building official. 

APPROVED AGENCY. An established and recognized 
agency regularly engaged in conducting tests or furnishing 
inspection services, when such agency has been approvedby 
the building official. 

ASPECT RATIO. The ratio of longest to shortest perpendicular 
dimensions, or for wall sections, the ratio of height to length. 

ATTIC. The unfinished space between the ceiling assembly of 
the top story and the roof assembly. 



i 



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2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



ATTIC, HABITABLE. A finished or unfinished area, not 
considered a story, complying with all of the following require- 
ments: 

1. The occupiable floor area is at least 70 square feet (17 
m 2 ), in accordance with Section R304, 

2. The occupiable floor area has a ceiling height in accor- 
dance with Section R305, and 

3. The occupiable space is enclosed by the roof assembly 
above, knee walls (if applicable) on the sides and the 
floor-ceiling assembly below. 

BACKFLOW, DRAINAGE. A reversal of flow in the drain- 
age system. 

BACKFLOW PREVENTER. A device or means to prevent 
backflow. 

BACKFLOW PREVENTER, REDUCED-PRESSURE- 
ZONE TYPE. A backflow-prevention device consisting of 
two independently acting check valves, internally force loaded 
to a normally closed position and separated by an intermediate 
chamber (or zone) in which there is an automatic relief means 
of venting to atmosphere internally loaded to a normally open 
position between two tightly closing shutoff valves and with 
means for testing for tightness of the checks and opening of 
relief means. 

BACKFLOW, WATER DISTRIBUTION. The flow of water 
or other liquids into the potable water-supply piping from any 
sources other than its intended source. Backsiphonage is one 
type of backflow. 

BACKPRESSURE. Pressure created by any means in the 
water distribution system, which by being in excess of the pres- 
sure in the water supply mains causes a potential backflow con- 
dition. 

BACKPRESSURE, LOW HEAD. A pressure less than or 
equal to 4.33 psi (29.88 kPa) or the pressure exerted by a 
10-foot (3048 mm) column of water. 

BACKSIPHONAGE. The flowing back of used or contami- 
nated water from piping into a potable water-supply pipe due to 
a negative pressure in such pipe. 

BACKWATER VALVE. A device installed in a drain or pipe 
to prevent backflow of sewage. 

BASEMENT. That portion of a building that is partly or com- 
pletely below grade (see "Story above grade") . 

BASEMENT WALL. The opaque portion of a wall that 
encloses one side of a basement and has an average below 
grade wall area that is 50 percent or more of the total opaque 
and non-opaque area of that enclosing side. 

BASIC WIND SPEED. Three-second gust speed at 33 feet 
(10 058 mm) above the ground in Exposure C (see Section 
R301.2.1) as given in Figure R301.2(4) . 

BATHROOM GROUP. A group of fixtures, including or 
excluding a bidet, consisting of a water closet, lavatory, and 
bathtub or shower. Such fixtures are located together on the 
same floor level. 

BEND. A drainage fitting, designed to provide a change in 
direction of a drain pipe of less than the angle specified by the 



amount necessary to establish the desired slope of the line (see 
"Elbow" and "Sweep"). 

BOILER. A self-contained appliance from which hot water is 
circulated for heating purposes and then returned to the boiler, 
and which operates at water pressures not exceeding 160 
pounds per square inch gage (psig) (1102 kPa gauge) and at 
water temperatures not exceeding 250°F (121°C). 

BOND BEAM. A horizontal grouted element within masonry 
in which reinforcement is embedded. 

BRACED WALL LINE. A straight line through the building 
plan that represents the location of the lateral resistance pro- 
vided by the wall bracing. 

BRACED WALL LINE, CONTINUOUSLY SHEATHED. 

A braced wall line with structural sheathing applied to all 
sheathable surfaces including the areas above and below open- 
ings. 

BRACED WALL PANEL. A full-height section of wall con- 
structed to resist in-plane shear loads through interaction of 
framing members, sheathing material and anchors. The panel's 
length meets the requirements of its particular bracing method, 
and contributes toward the total amount of bracing required 
along its braced wall line in accordance with Section 
R602.10.1. 

BRANCH. Any part of the piping system other than a riser, 
main or stack. 

BRANCH, FIXTURE. See "Fixture branch, drainage." 

BRANCH, HORIZONTAL. See "Horizontal branch, drain- 
age." 

BRANCH INTERVAL. A vertical measurement of distance, 
8 feet (2438 mm) or more in developed length, between the 
connections of horizontal branches to a drainage stack. Mea- 
surements are taken down the stack from the highest horizontal 
branch connection. 

BRANCH, MAIN. A water-distribution pipe that extends hor- 
izontally off a main or riser to convey water to branches or fix- 
ture groups. 

BRANCH, VENT. A vent connecting two or more individual 
vents with a vent stack or stack vent. 

BTU/H. The listed maximum capacity of an appliance, 
absorption unit or burner expressed in British thermal units 
input per hour. 

BUILDING. Building shall mean any one- and two-family 
dwelling or portion thereof, including townhouses, that is used, 
or designed or intended to be used for human habitation, for 
living, sleeping, cooking or eating purposes, or any combina- 
tion thereof, and shall include accessory structures thereto. 

BUILDING DRAIN. The lowest piping that collects the dis- 
charge from all other drainage piping inside the house and 
extends 30 inches (762 mm) in developed length of pipe, 
beyond the exterior walls and conveys the drainage to the 
building sewer. 

BUILDING, EXISTING. Existing building is a building 
erected prior to the adoption of this code, or one for which a 
legal building permit has been issued. 



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DEFINITIONS 



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BUILDING LINE. The line established by law, beyond which 
a building shall not extend, except as specifically provided by 
law. 

BUILDING OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated 
authority charged with the administration and enforcement of 
this code. 

BUILDING SEWER. That part of the drainage system that 
extends from the end of the building drain and conveys its dis- 
charge to a public sewer, private sewer, individual sewage-diS- 
posal system or other point of disposal. 

BUILDING THERMAL ENVELOPE. The basement walls, 
exterior walls, floor, roof and any other building element that 
enclose conditioned spaces. 

BUILT-UP ROOF COVERING. Two or more layers of felt 
cemented together and surfaced with a cap sheet, mineral 
aggregate, smooth coating or similar surfacing material. 

CAP PLATE. The top plate of the double top plates used in 
structural insulated panel (SIP) construction. The cap plate is 
cut to match the panel thickness such that it overlaps the wood 
structural panel facing on both sides. 

CEILING HEIGHT. The clear vertical distance from the fin- 
ished floor to the finished ceiling. 

CEMENT PLASTER. A mixture of portland or blended 
cement, portland cement or blended cement and hydrated lime, 
masonry cement or plastic cement and aggregate and other 
approved materials as specified in this code. 

CHIMNEY. A primary vertical structure containing one or 
more flues, for the purpose of carrying gaseous products of 
combustion and air from a fuel-burning appliance to the out- 
side atmosphere. 

CHIMNEY CONNECTOR. A pipe that connects a 
fuel-burning appliance to a chimney. 

CHIMNEY TYPES. 

Residential-type appliance. An approved chimney for 
removing the products of combustion from fuel-burning, 
residential-type appliances producing combustion gases 
not in excess of I,000°F (538°C) under normal operating 
conditions, but capable of producing combustion gases of 
1,400°F (760°C) during intermittent forces firing for peri- 
ods up to I hour. All temperatures shall be measured at the 
appliance flue outlet. Residential-type appliance chimneys 
include masonry and factory-built types. 

CIRCUIT VENT. A vent that connects to a horizontal drain- 
age branch and vents two traps to a maximum of eight traps or 
trapped fixtures connected into a battery. 

CLADDING. The exterior materials that cover the surface of 
the building envelope that is directly loaded by the wind. 

CLEANOUT. An accessible opening in the drainage system 
used for the removal of possible obstruction. 

CLOSET. A small room or chamber used for storage. 

COMBINATION WASTE AND VENT SYSTEM. A spe- 
cially designed system of waste piping embodying the horizon- 
tal wet venting of one or more sinks or floor drains by means of 



a common waste and vent pipe adequately sized to provide free 
movement of air above the flow line of the drain. 

COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL. Any material not defined as 
noncombustible. 

COMBUSTION AIR. The air provided to fuel-burning equip- 
mentincluding air for fuel combustion, draft hood dilution and 
ventilation of the equipment enclosure. 

COMMON VENT. A single pipe venting two trap arms within 
the same branch interval, either back-to-back or one above the 
other. 

CONDENSATE. The liquid that separates from a gas due to a 
reduction in temperature, e.g., water that condenses from flue 
gases and water that condenses from air circulating through the 
cooling coil in air conditioning equipment. 

CONDENSING APPLIANCE. An appliance that condenses 
water generated by the burning of fuels. 

CONDITIONED AIR. Air treated to control its temperature, 
relative humidity or quality. 

CONDITIONED AREA. That area within a building pro- 
vided with heating and/or cooling systems or appliances capa- 
ble of maintaining, through design or heat loss/gain, 68°F 
(20°C) during the heating season and/or 80°F (27°C) during 
the cooling season, or has a fixed opening directly adjacent to a 
conditioned area. 

CONDITIONED FLOOR AREA. The horizontal projection 
of the floors associated with the conditioned space. 

CONDITIONED SPACE. For energy purposes, space within 
a building that is provided with heating and/or cooling equip- 
mentor systems capable of maintaining, through design or heat 
loss/gain, 50°F (IO°C) during the heating season and 85°F 
(29°C) during the cooling season, or communicates directly 
with a conditioned space. For mechanical purposes, an area, 
room or space being heated or cooled by any equipment or 

appliance. 

< 
CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS. Written, graphic and 
pictorial documents prepared or assembled for describing the 
design, location and physical characteristics of the elements of 
a project necessary for obtaining a building permit. Construc- 
tion drawings shall be drawn to an appropriate scale. 

CONTAMINATION. An impairment of the quality of the 
potable water that creates an actual hazard to the public health 
through poisoning or through the spread of disease by sewage, 
industrial fluids or waste. 

CONTINUOUS WASTE. A drain from two or more similar 
adjacent fixtures connected to a single trap. 

CONTROL, LIMIT. An automatic control responsive to 
changes in liquid flow or level, pressure, or temperature for 
limiting the operation of an appliance. 

CONTROL, PRIMARY SAFETY. A safety control respon- 
sive directly to flame properties that senses the presence or 
absence of flame and, in event of ignition failure or uninten- 
tional flame extinguishment, automatically causes shutdown 
of mechanical equipment. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



CONVECTOR. A system-incorporating heating element in 
an enclosure in which air enters an opening below the heating 
element, is heated and leaves the enclosure through an opening 
located above the heating element. 

CORE. The light-weight middle section of the structural insu- 
lated panel composed of foam plastic insulation, which pro- 
vides the link between the two facing shells. 

CORROSION RESISTANCE. The ability of a material to 
withstand deterioration of its surface or its properties when 
exposed to its environment. 

COURT. A space, open and unobstructed to the sky, located at 
or above grade level on a lot and bounded on three or more 
sides by walls or a building. 

CRIPPLE WALL. A framed wall extending from the top of 
the foundation to the underside of the floor framing of the first 
story above grade plane. 

CROSS CONNECTION. Any connection between two oth- 
erwise separate piping systems whereby there may be a flow 
from one system to the other. 

DALLE GLASS. A decorative composite glazing material 
made of individual pieces of glass that are embedded in a cast 
matrix of concrete or epoxy. 

DAMPER, VOLUME. A device that will restrict, retard or 
direct the flow of air in any duct, or the products of combustion 
of heat-producing equipment, vent connector, vent or chimney. 

DEAD END. A branch leading from a DWV system terminat- 
ing at a developed length of 2 feet (610 mm) or more. Dead 
ends shall be prohibited except as an approved part of a 
rough-in for future connection. 

DEAD LOADS. The weight of all materials of construction 
incorporated into the building, including but not limited to 
walls, floors, roofs, ceilings, stairways, built-in partitions, fin- 
ishes, cladding, and other similarly incorporated architectural 
and structural items, and fixed service equipment. 

DECORATIVE GLASS. A carved, leaded or Dalle glass or 
glazing material whose purpose is decorative or artistic, not 
functional; whose coloring, texture or other design qualities or 
components cannot be removed without destroying the glazing 
material; and whose surface, or assembly into which it is 
incorporated, is divided into segments. 

DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. See "Registered design profes- 
sional. " 

DEVELOPED LENGTH. The length of a pipeline measured 
along the center line of the pipe and fittings. 

DIAMETER. Unless specifically stated, the term "diameter" 
is the nominal diameter as designated by the approvedmatenal 
standard. 

DIAPHRAGM. A horizontal or nearly horizontal system act- 
ing to transmit lateral forces to the vertical resisting elements. 
When the term "diaphragm" is used, it includes horizontal 
bracing systems. 

DILUTION AIR. Air that enters a draft hood or draft regulator 
and mixes with flue gases. 



DIRECT-VENT APPLIANCE. A fuel-burning appliance 
with a sealed combustion system that draws all air for combus- 
tion from the outside atmosphere and discharges all flue gases 
to the outside atmosphere. 

DRAFT. The pressure difference existing between the appli- 
ance or any component part and the atmosphere, that causes a 
continuous flow of air and products of combustion through the 
gas passages of the appliance to the atmosphere. 

Induced draft. The pressure difference created by the 
action of a fan, blower or ejector, that is located between the 
appliance and the chimney or vent termination. 

Natural draft. The pressure difference created by a vent or 
chimney because of its height, and the temperature differ- 
ence between the flue gases and the atmosphere. 

DRAFT HOOD. A device built into an appliance, or a part of 
the vent connector from an appliance, which is designed to pro- 
vide for the ready escape of the flue gases from the appliance in 
the event of no draft, backdraft or stoppage beyond the draft 
hood; prevent a backdraft from entering the appliance; and 
neutralize the effect of stack action of the chimney or gas vent 
on the operation of the appliance. 

DRAFT REGULATOR. A device that functions to maintain a 
desired draft in the appliance by automatically reducing the 
draft to the desired value. 

DRAFT STOP. A material, device or construction installed to 
restrict the movement of air within open spaces of concealed 
areas of building components such as crawl spaces, floor-ceil- 
ing assemblies, roof-ceiling assemblies and attics. 

DRAIN. Any pipe that carries soil and water-borne wastes in a 
building drainage system. 

DRAINAGE FITTING. A pipe fitting designed to provide 
connections in the drainage system that have provisions for 
establishing the desired slope in the system. These fittings are 
made from a variety of both metals and plastics. The methods 
of coupling provide for required slope in the system (see "Dur- 
ham fitting"). 

DUCT SYSTEM. A continuous passageway for the transmis- 
sion of air which, in addition to ducts, includes duct fittings, 
dampers, plenums, fans and accessory air-handling equipment 
and appliances. 

DURHAM FITTING. A special type of drainage fitting for 
use in the durham systems installations in which the joints are 
made with recessed and tapered threaded fittings, as opposed to 
bell and spigot lead/oakum or solvent/cemented or soldered 
joints. The tapping is at an angle (not 90 degrees) to provide for 
proper slope in otherwise rigid connections. 

DURHAM SYSTEM. A term used to describe soil or waste 
systems where all piping is of threaded pipe, tube or other such 
rigid construction using recessed drainage fittings to corre- 
spond to the types of piping. 

DWELLING. Any building that contains one or two dwelling 
units used, intended, or designed to be built, used, rented, 
leased, let or hired out to be occupied, or that are occupied for 
living purposes. 



12 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



DWELLING UNIT. A single unit providing complete inde- 
pendent living facilities for one or more persons, including per- 
manent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and 
sanitation. 

DWV. Abbreviated term for drain, waste and vent piping as 
used in common plumbing practice. 

EFFECTIVE OPENING. The minimum cross-sectional area 
at the point of water-supply discharge, measured or expressed 
in terms of diameter of a circle and if the opening is not circular, 
the diameter of a circle of equivalent cross-sectional area. (This 
is applicable to air gap.) 

ELBOW. A pressure pipe fitting designed to provide an exact 
change in direction of a pipe run. An elbow provides a sharp 
turn in the flow path (see "Bend" and "Sweep"). 

EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. An 

operable exterior window, door or similar device that provides 
for a means of escape and access for rescue in the event of an 
emergency. 

EQUIPMENT. All piping, ducts, vents, control devices and 
other components of systems other than appliances that are 
permanently installed and integrated to provide control of envi- 
ronmental conditions for buildings. This definition shall also 
include other systems specifically regulated in this code. 

EQUIVALENT LENGTH. For determining friction losses in 
a piping system, the effect of a particular fitting equal to the 
friction loss through a straight piping length of the same nomi- 
nal diameter. 

ESCARPMENT. With respect to topographic wind effects, a 
cliff or steep slope generally separating two levels or gently 
sloping areas. 

ESSENTIALLY NONTOXIC TRANSFER FLUIDS. Fluids 
having a Gosselin rating of 1, including propylene glycol; min- 
eral oil; polydimenthyoil oxane; hydrochlorofluorocarbon, 
chlorofluorocarbon and hydrofluorocarbon refrigerants; and 
FDA -app roved boiler water additives for steam boilers. 

ESSENTIALLY TOXIC TRANSFER FLUIDS. Soil, water 
or gray water and fluids having a Gosselin rating of 2 or more 
including ethylene glycol, hydrocarbon oils, ammonia refrig- 
erants and hydrazine. 

EVAPORATIVE COOLER. A device used for reducing air 
temperature by the process of evaporating water into an 
air stream. 

EXCESS AIR. Air that passes through the combustion cham- 
ber and the appliance flue in excess of that which is theoreti- 
cally required for complete combustion. 

EXHAUST HOOD, FULL OPENING. An exhaust hood 
with an opening at least equal to the diameter of the connecting 
vent. 

EXISTING INSTALLATIONS. Any plumbing system regu- 
lated by this code that was legally installed prior to the effective 
date of this code, or for which a permit to install has been 
issued. 

EXTERIOR INSULATION AND FINISH SYSTEMS 

(EIFS). EIFS are nonstructural, nonload-bearing exterior wall 
cladding systems that consist of an insulation board attached 



either adhesively or mechanically, or both, to the substrate; an 
integrally reinforced base coat; and a textured protective finish 
coat. 

EXTERIOR INSULATION AND FINISH SYSTEMS 
(EIFS) WITH DRAINAGE. An EIFS that incorporates a 
means of drainage applied over a water-resistive barrier. 

EXTERIOR WALL. An above-grade wall that defines the 
exterior boundaries of a building. Includes between-floor 
spandrels, peripheral edges of floors, roof and basementknee 
walls, dormer walls, gable end walls, walls enclosing a man- 
sard roof and basement walls with an average below-grade 
wall area that is less than 50 percent of the total opaque and 
nonopaque area of that enclosing side. 

FACING. The wood structural panel facings that form the two 
outmost rigid layers of the structural insulated panel. 

FACTORY-BUILT CHIMNEY. A listed and labeled chim- 
ney composed of factory-made components assembled in the 
field in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and 
the conditions of the listing. 

FENESTRATION. Skylights, roof windows, vertical win- 
dows (whether fixed or moveable); opaque doors; glazed 
doors; glass block; and combination opaque/glazed doors. 

FIBER-CEMENT SIDING. A manufactured, fiber-reinforc- 
ing product made with an inorganic hydraulic or calcium sili- 
cate binder formed by chemical reaction and reinforced with 
discrete organic or inorganic nonasbestos fibers , or both. Addi- 
tives which enhance manufacturing or product performance 
are permitted. Fiber-cement siding products have either 
smooth or textured faces and are intended for exterior wall and 
related applications. 

FIREBLOCKING. Building materials or materials approved 
for use as fireblocking, installed to resist the free passage of 
flame to other areas of the building through concealed spaces. 

FIREPLACE. An assembly consisting of a hearth and fire 
chamber of noncombustible material and provided with a 
chimney, for use with solid fuels. 

Factory-built fireplace. A listed and labeled fireplace and 
chimney system composed of factory-made components, 
and assembled in the field in accordance with manufac- 
turer's instructions and the conditions of the listing. 

Masonry chimney. A field-constructed chimney composed 
of solid masonry units, bricks, stones or concrete. 

Masonry fireplace. A field-constructed fireplace com- 
posed of solid masonry units, bricks, stones or concrete. 

FIREPLACE STOVE. A free-standing, chimney-connected 
solid-fuel-burning heater designed to be operated with the fire 
chamber doors in either the open or closed position. 

FIREPLACE THROAT. The opening between the top of the 

firebox and the smoke chamber. 

FIRE-RETARDANT-TREATED WOOD. Pressure treated 
lumber and plywood that exhibit reduced surface burning char- 
acteristics and resist propagation of fire. 



i 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



13 



DEFINITIONS 



I 



Other means during manufacture. A process where the 
wood raw material is treated with a fire-retardant formula- 
tion while undergoing creation as a finished product. 

Pressure process. A process for treating wood using an ini- 
tial vacuum followed by the introduction of pressure above 
atmospheric. 

FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE. The distance measured 
from the building face to one of the following: 

1. To the closest interior lot line; or 

2. To the centerline of a street, an alley or public way; or 

3. To an imaginary line between two buildings on the lot. 

FIXTURE. See "Plumbing fixture." 

FIXTURE BRANCH, DRAINAGE. A drain serving two or 
more fixtures that discharges into another portion of the drain- 
age system. 

FIXTURE BRANCH, WATER-SUPPLY. A water-supply 
pipe between the fixture supply and a main water-distribution 
pipe or fixture group main. 

FIXTURE DRAIN. The drain from the trap of a fixture to the 
junction of that drain with any other drain pipe. 

FIXTURE FITTING. 

Supply fitting. A fitting that controls the volume and/or 
directional flow of water and is either attached to or accessi- 
ble from a fixture or is used with an open or atmospheric dis- 
charge. 

Waste fitting. A combination of components that conveys 
the sanitary waste from the outlet of a fixture to the connec- 
tion of the sanitary drainage system. 

FIXTURE GROUP, MAIN. The main water-distribution 
pipe (or secondary branch) serving a plumbing fixture group- 
ing such as a bath, kitchen or laundry area to which two or more 
individual fixture branch pipes are connected. 

FIXTURE SUPPLY. The water-supply pipe connecting a fix- 
ture or fixture fitting to a fixture branch. 

FIXTURE UNIT, DRAINAGE {d.f.u.}. A measure ofproba- 
ble discharge into the drainage system by various types of 
plumbing fixtures, used to size DWV piping systems. The 
drainage fixture-unit value for a particular fixture depends on 
its volume rate of drainage discharge, on the time duration of a 
single drainage operation and on the average time between suc- 
cessive operations. 

FIXTURE UNIT, WATER-SUPPLY {w.s.f.u.}. A measure of 
the probable hydraulic demand on the water supply by various 
types of plumbing fixtures used to size water-piping systems. 
The water-supply fixture-unit value for a particular fixture 
depends on its volume rate of supply, on the time duration of a 
single supply operation and on the average time between suc- 
cessive operations. 

FLAME SPREAD. The propagation of flame over a surface. 

FLAME SPREAD INDEX. A comparative measure, 
expressed as a dimensionless number, derived from visual 
measurements of the spread of flame versus time for a material 
tested in accordance with ASTM E 84. 



FLIGHT. A continuous run of rectangular treads or winders or 
combination thereof from one landing to another. 

FLOOD-LEVEL RIM. The edge of the receptor or fixture 
from which water overflows. 

FLOOR DRAIN. A plumbing fixture for recess in the floor 
having a floor-level strainer intended for the purpose of the col- 
lection and disposal of waste water used in cleaning the floor 
and for the collection and disposal of accidental spillage to the 
floor. 

FLOOR FURNACE. A self-contained furnace suspended 
from the floor of the space being heated, taking air for combus- 
tion from outside such space, and with means for lighting the 
appliance from such space. 

FLOW PRESSURE. The static pressure reading in the 
water-supply pipe near the faucet or water outlet while the fau- 
cet or water outlet is open and flowing at capacity. 

FLUE. See "Vent." 

FLUE, APPLIANCE. The passages within an appliance 
through which combustion products pass from the combustion 
chamber to the flue collar. 

FLUE COLLAR. The portion of a fuel-burning appliance 
designed for the attachment of a draft hood, vent connector or 
venting system. 

FLUE GASES. Products of combustion plus excess air in 
appliance flues or heat exchangers. 

FLUSH VALVE. A device located at the bottom of a flush tank 
that is operated to flush water closets. 

FLUSHOMETER TANK. A device integrated within an air 
accumulator vessel that is designed to discharge a predeter- 
mined quantity of water to fixtures for flushing purposes. 

FLUSHOMETER VALVE. A flushometer valve is a device 
that discharges a predetermined quantity of water to fixtures 
for flushing purposes and is actuated by direct water pressure. 

FOAM BACKER BOARD. Foam plastic used in siding appli- 
cations where the foam plastic is a component of the siding. 

FOAM PLASTIC INSULATION. A plastic that is intention- 
ally expanded by the use of a foaming agent to produce a 
reduced-density plastic containing voids consisting of open or 
closed cells distributed throughout the plastic for thermal insu- 
lating or acoustic purposes and that has a density less than 20 
pounds per cubic foot (320 kg/m 3 ) unless it is used as interior 
trim. 

FOAM PLASTIC INTERIOR TRIM. Exposed foam plastic 
used as picture molds, chair rails, crown moldings, baseboards, 
handrails, ceiling beams, door trim and window trim and simi- 
lar decorative or protective materials used in fixed applications . 

FUEL-PIPING SYSTEM. All piping, tubing, valves and fit- 
tings used to connect fuel utilization equipmentto the point of 
fuel delivery. 

FULLWAY VALVE. A valve that in the full open position has 
an opening cross-sectional area equal to a minimum of 85 per- 
cent of the cross-sectional area of the connecting pipe. 



14 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



FURNACE. A vented heating appliance designed or arranged 
to discharge heated air into a conditioned space or through a 
duct or ducts. 

GLAZING AREA. The interior surface area of all glazed fen- 
estration, including the area of sash, curbing or other framing 
elements, that enclose conditioned space. Includes the area of 
glazed fenestration assemblies in walls bounding conditioned 
basements. 

GRADE. The finished ground level adjoining the building at 
all exterior walls. 

GRADE FLOOR OPENING. A window or other opening 
located such that the sill height of the opening is not more than 
44 inches (1118 mm) above or below the finished ground level 
adjacent to the opening. 

GRADE, PIPING. See "Slope." 

GRADE PLANE. A reference plane representing the average 
of the finished ground level adjoining the building at all exte- 
rior walls. Where the finished ground level slopes away from 
the exterior walls, the reference plane shall be established by 
the lowest points within the area between the building and the 
lot line or, where the lot line is more than 6 ft (1829 mm) from 
the building between the structure and a point 6 ft (1829 mm) 
from the building. 

GRIDDED WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. A water 
distribution system where every water distribution pipe is inter- 
connected so as to provide two or more paths to each fixture 
supply pipe. 

GROSS AREA OF EXTERIOR WALLS. The normal pro- 
jection of all exterior walls, including the area of all windows 
and doors installed therein. 

GROUND-SOURCE HEAT PUMP LOOP SYSTEM. Pip- 
ing buried in horizontal or vertical excavations or placed in a 
body of water for the purpose of transporting heat transfer liq- 
uid to and from a heat pump. Included in this definition are 
closed loop systems in which the liquid is recirculated and open 
loop systems in which the liquid is drawn from a well or other 
source. 

GUARD. A building component or a system of building com- 
ponents located near the open sides of elevated walking sur- 
faces that minimizes the possibility of a fall from the walking 
surface to the lower level. 

HABITABLE SPACE. A space in a building for living, sleep- 
ing, eating or cooking. Bathrooms, toilet rooms, closets, halls, 
storage or utility spaces and similar areas are not considered 
habitable spaces. 

HANDRAIL. A horizontal or sloping rail intended for grasp- 
ing by the hand for guidance or support. 

HANGERS. See "Supports." 

HAZARDOUS LOCATION. Any location considered to be a 
fire hazard for flammable vapors, dust, combustible fibers or 
other highly combustible substances. 

HEAT PUMP. An appliance having heating or heating/cool- 
ing capability and that uses refrigerants to extract heat from air, 
liquid or other sources. 



HEATING DEGREE DAYS (HDD). The sum, on an annual 
basis, of the difference between 65°P (18°C) and the mean tem- 
perature for each day as determined from "NO A A Annual 
Degree Days to Selected Bases Derived from the 1960-1990 
Normals" or other weather data sources acceptable to the code 
official. 

HEIGHT, BUILDING. The vertical distance from grade 
plane to the average height of the highest roof surface. 

HEIGHT, STORY. The vertical distance from top to top of 
two successive tiers of beams or finished floor surfaces; and, 
for the topmost story, from the top of the floor finish to the top 
of the ceilingjoists or, where there is not a ceiling, to the top of 
the roof rafters. 

HIGH-EFFICACY LAMPS. Compact fluorescent lamps, 
T-8 or smaller diameter linear fluorescent lamps or lamps with 
a minimum efficacy of: 

1. 60 lumens per watt for lamps over 40 watts. 

2. 50 lumens per watt for lamps over 15 watts to 40 watts. 

3. 40 lumens per watt for lamps 15 watts or less. 

HIGH-TEMPERATURE (H.T.) CHIMNEY. A high tem- 
perature chimney complying with the requirements ofUL 103. 
A Type H.T. chimney is identifiable by the markings "Type 
H.T." on each chimney pipe section. 

HILL. With respect to topographic wind effects, a land surface 
characterized by strong relief in any horizontal direction. 

HORIZONTAL BRANCH, DRAINAGE. A drain pipe 
extending laterally from a soil or waste stack or building drain, 
that receives the discharge from one or more fixture drains. 

HORIZONTAL PIPE. Any pipe or fitting that makes an angle 
of less than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) with the horizontal. 

HOT WATER. Water at a temperature greater than or equal to 
110°P(43°C). 

HURRICANE-PRONE REGIONS. Areas vulnerable to 
hurricanes, defined as the U.S. Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of 
Mexico coasts where the basic wind speed is greater than 90 
miles per hour (40 m/s) , and Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, Vir- 
gin Islands, and America Samoa. 

HYDROGEN GENERATING APPLIANCE. A self-con- 
tained package or factory-matched packages of integrated sys- 
tems for generating gaseous hydrogen. Hydrogen generating 
appliances utilize electrolysis, reformation, chemical, or other 
processes to generate hydrogen. 

IGNITION SOURCE. A flame, spark or hot surface capable 
of igniting flammable vapors or fumes. Such sources include 
appliance burners, burner ignitions and electrical switching 
devices. 

INDIRECT WASTE PIPE. A waste pipe that discharges into 
the drainage system through an air gap into a trap, fixture or 
receptor. 

INDIVIDUAL SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEM. A system 
for disposal of sewage by means of a septic tank or mechanical 
treatment, designed for use apart from a public sewer to serve a 
single establishment or building. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



15 



DEFINITIONS 



INDIVIDUAL VENT. A pipe installed to vent a single -fixture 
drain that connects with the vent system above or terminates 
independently outside the building. 

INDIVIDUAL WATER SUPPLY. A supply other than an 
approvedpublic water supply that serves one or more families. 

INSULATING CONCRETE FORM (ICF). A concrete 
forming system using stay-in-place forms of rigid foam plastic 
insulation, a hybrid of cement and foam insulation, a hybrid of 
cement and wood chips, or other insulating material for con- 
structing cast-in-place concrete walls. 

INSULATING SHEATHING. An insulating board having a 
minimum thermal resistance of R-2 of the core material. 

JURISDICTION. The governmental unit that has adopted 
this code under due legislative authority. 

KITCHEN. Kitchen shall mean an area used, or designated to 
be used, for the preparation of food. 

LABEL. An identification applied on a product by the manu- 
facturer which contains the name of the manufacturer, the func- 
tion and performance characteristics of the product or material, 
and the name and identification of an approved agency 'and that 
indicates that the representative sample of the product or mate- 
rial has been tested and evaluated by an approved agency . (See 
also "Manufacturer's designation" and "Mark.") 

LABELED. Equipment, materials or products to which have 
been affixed a label, seal, symbol or other identifying markofa 
nationally recognized testing laboratory, inspection agency or 
other organization concerned with product evaluation that 
maintains periodic inspection of the production of the 
above -labeled items and whose labeling indicates either that 
the equipment, material or product meets identified standards 
or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose. 

LIGHT-FRAME CONSTRUCTION. A type of construction 
whose vertical and horizontal structural elements are primarily 
formed by a system of repetitive wood or cold-formed steel 
framing members. 

LISTED. Equipment, materials, products or services included 
in a list published by an organization acceptable to the code 
official and concerned with evaluation of products or services 
that maintains periodic inspection of production of listed 
equipment or materials or periodic evaluation of services and 
whose listing states either that the equipment, material, product 
or service meets identified standards or has been tested and 
found suitable for a specified purpose. 

LIVE LOADS. Those loads produced by the use and occu- 
pancy of the building or other structure and do not include con- 
struction or environmental loads such as wind load, snow load, 
rain load, earthquake load, flood load or dead load. 

LIVING SPACE. Space within a dwelling unitutilized for liv- 
ing, sleeping, eating, cooking, bathing, washing and sanitation 
purposes. 

LOT. A portion or parcel of land considered as a unit. 

LOT LINE. A line dividing one lot from another, or from a 
street or any public place. 

MACERATING TOILET SYSTEMS. A system comprised 
of a sump with macerating pump and with connections for a 



water closet and other plumbing fixtures, that is designed to 
accept, grind and pump wastes to an approved point of dis- 
charge. 

MAIN. The principal pipe artery to which branches may be 
connected. 

MAIN SEWER. See "Public sewer." 

MANIFOLD WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS. A fab 

ricated piping arrangement in which a large supply main is fit- 
ted with multiple branches in close proximity in which water is 
distributed separately to fixtures from each branch. 

MANUFACTURED HOME. Manufactured home means a 
structure, transportable in one or more sections, which in the 
traveling mode is 8 body feet (2438 body mm) or more in width 
or 40 body feet (12 192 body mm) or more in length, or, when 
erected on site, is 320 square feet (30 m 2 ) or more, and which is 
built on a permanent chassis and designed to be used as a dwell- 
in gwith or without a permanent foundation when connected to 
the required utilities, and includes the plumbing, heating, 
air-conditioning and electrical systems contained therein; 
except that such term shall include any structure that meets all 
the requirements of this paragraph except the size requirements 
and with respect to which the manufacturer voluntarily files a 
certification required by the secretary (HUD) and complies 
with the standards established under this title. For mobile 
homes built prior to June 15, 1976, a label certifying compli- 
ance to the Standard for Mobile Homes, NFPA 501, in effect at 
the time of manufacture is required. For the purpose of these 
provisions, a mobile home shall be considered a manufactured 
home. 

MANUFACTURERS DESIGNATION. An identification 
applied on a product by the manufacturer indicating that a 
product or material complies with a specified standard or set of 
rules. (See also" Mark" and "Label") 

MANUFACTURERS INSTALLATION INSTRUC- 
TIONS. Printed instructions included with equipment as part 
of the conditions of listing and labeling. 

MARK. An identification applied on a product by the manu- 
facturer indicating the name of the manufacturer and the func- 
tion of a product or material. (See also "Manufacturer's 
designation" and" Label. ") 

MASONRY CHIMNEY. A field-constructed chimney com- 
posed of solid masonry units, bricks, stones or concrete. 

MASONRY HEATER. A masonry heater is a solid fuel burn- 
ing heating appliance constructed predominantly of concrete 
or solid masonry having a mass of at least 1,100 pounds (500 
kg), excluding the chimney and foundation. It is designed to 
absorb and store a substantial portion of heat from a fire built in 
the firebox by routing exhaust gases through internal heat 
exchange channels in which the flow path downstream of the 
firebox includes at least one 180-degree (3.14-rad) change in 
flow direction before entering the chimney and which deliver 
heat by radiation through the masonry surface of the heater. 

MASONRY, SOLID. Masonry consisting of solid masonry 
units laid contiguously with the joints between the units filled 
with mortar. 



16 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



MASONRY UNIT. Brick, tile, stone, glass block or concrete 
block conforming to the requirements specified in Section 
2103 of the International BUilding Code. 

Clay. A building unit larger in size than a brick, composed 
of burned clay, shale, fire clay or mixtures thereof. 

Concrete. A building unit or block larger in size than 12 
inches by 4 inches by 4 inches (305 mm by 102 mm by 102 
mm) made of cement and suitable aggregates. 

Glass. Nonload-bearing masonry composed of glass units 
bonded by mortar. 

Hollow. A masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area in 
any plane parallel to the loadbearing surface is less than 75 
percent of its gross cross-sectional area measured in the 
same plane. 

Solid. A masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area in 
every plane parallel to the loadbearing surface is 75 percent 
or more of its cross-sectional area measured in the same 
plane. 

MASS WALL. Masonry or concrete walls having a mass 
greater than or equal to 30 pounds per square foot (146 kg/m 2 ) , 
solid wood walls having a mass greater than or equal to 20 
pounds per square foot (98 kg/m 2 ) , and any other walls having a 
heat capacity greater than or equal to 6 Btu/ft 2 • OF [266 JI(m 2 • 
K)]. 

MEAN ROOF HEIGHT. The average of the roof eave height 
and the height to the highest point on the roof surface, except 
that eave height shall be used for roof angle of less than or equal 
to 10 degrees (0.18 rad). 

MECHANICAL DRAFT SYSTEM. A venting system 
designed to remove flue or vent gases by mechanical means, 
that consists of an induced draft portion under nonpositive 
static pressure or a forced draft portion under positive static 
pressure. 

Forced-draft venting system. A portion of a venting sys- 
tem using a fan or other mechanical means to cause the 
removal of flue or vent gases under positive static pressure. 

Induced draft venting system. A portion of a venting sys- 
tem using a fan or other mechanical means to cause the 
removal of flue or vent gases under nonpositive static vent 
pressure. 

Power venting system. A portion of a venting system using 
a fan or other mechanical means to cause the removal of flue 
or vent gases under positive static vent pressure. 

MECHANICAL EXHAUST SYSTEM. A system for 
removing air from a room or space by mechanical means. 

MECHANICAL SYSTEM. A system specifically addressed 
and regulated in this code and composed of components, 
devices, appliances and equipment. 

METAL ROOF PANEL. An interlocking metal sheet having 
a minimum installed weather exposure of at least 3 square feet 
(0.28 m 2 ) per sheet. 

METAL ROOF SHINGLE. An interlocking metal sheet hav- 
ing an installed weather exposure less than 3 square feet (0.28 
m 2 ) per sheet. 



MEZZANINE, LOFT. An intermediate level or levels 
between the floor and ceiling of any story with an aggregate 
floor area of not more than one-third of the area of the room or 
space in which the level or levels are located. 

MODIFIED BITUMEN ROOF COVERING. One or more 
layers of polymer modified asphalt sheets. The sheet materials 
shall be fully adhered or mechanically attached to the substrate 
or held in place with an approvedballast layer. 

MULTIPLE STATION SMOKE ALARM. Two or more sin- 
gle station alarm devices that are capable of interconnection 
such that actuation of one causes all integral or separate audible 
alarms to operate. 

NATURAL DRAFT SYSTEM. A venting system designed to 
remove flue or vent gases under nonpositive static vent pres- 
sure entirely by natural draft. 

NATURALLY DURABLE WOOD. The heartwood of the 
following species with the exception that an occasional piece 
with corner sapwood is permitted if 90 percent or more of the 
width of each side on which it occurs is heartwood. 

Decay resistant. Redwood, cedar, black locust and black 
walnut. 

Termite resistant. Alaska yellow cedar, redwood, Eastern 
red cedar and Western red cedar including all sapwood of 
Western red cedar. 

NONCOMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL. Materials that pass the 
test procedure for defining noncombustibility of elementary 
materials set forth in ASTM E 136. 

NONCONDITIONED SPACE. A space that is not a condi- 
tioned space by insulated walls, floors or ceilings. 

NOSING. The leading edge of treads of stairs and of landings 
at the top of stairway flights. 

OCCUPIED SPACE. The total area of all buildings or struc- 
tures on any lot or parcel of ground projected on a horizontal 
plane, excluding permitted projections as allowed by this code. 

OFFSET. A combination of fittings that makes two changes in 
direction bringing one section of the pipe out of line but into a 
line parallel with the other section. 

OWNER. Any person, agent, firm or corporation having a 
legal or equitable interest in the property. 

PANEL THICKNESS. Thickness of core plus two layers of 
structural wood panel facings. 

PELLET FUEL-BURNING APPLIANCE. A closed com- 
bustion, vented appliance equipped with a fuel feed mecha- 
nism for burning processed pellets of solid fuel of a specified 
size and composition. 

PELLET VENT. A vent listedand labeledfor use with a listed 
pellet fuel-burning appliance. 

PERMIT. An official document or certificate issued by the 
authority havingjurisdiction that authorizes performance of a 
specified activity. 

PERSON. An individual, heirs, executors, administrators or 
assigns, and also includes a firm, partnership or corporation, its 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



17 



DEFINITIONS 



or their successors or assigns, or the agent of any of the afore- 
said. 

PITCH. See "Slope." 

PLATFORM CONSTRUCTION. A method of construction 
by which floor framing bears on load bearing walls that are not 
continuous through the story levels or floor framing. 

PLENUM. A chamber that forms part of an air-circulation sys- 
tem other than the occupied space being conditioned. 

PLUMBING. For the purpose of this code, plumbing refers to 
those installations, repairs, maintenance and alterations regu- 
lated by Chapters 25 through 33. 

PLUMBING APPLIANCE. An energized household appli- 
ance with plumbing connections, such as a dishwasher, 
food-waste grinder, clothes washer or water heater. 

PLUMBING APPURTENANCE. A device or assembly that 
is an adjunct to the basic plumbing system and demands no 
additional water supply nor adds any discharge load to the sys- 
tem. It is presumed that it performs some useful function in the 
operation, maintenance, servicing, economy or safety of the 
plumbing system. Examples include filters, relief valves and 
aerators. 

PLUMBING FIXTURE. A receptor or device that requires 
both a water-supply connection and a discharge to the drainage 
system, such as water closets, lavatories, bathtubs and sinks. 
Plumbing appliances as a special class of fixture are further 
defined. 

PLUMBING SYSTEM. Includes the water supply and distri- 
bution pipes, plumbing fixtures, supports and appurtenances; 
soil, waste and vent pipes; sanitary drains and building sewers 
to an approved point of disposal. 

POLLUTION. An impairment of the quality of the potable 
water to a degree that does not create a hazard to the public 
health but that does adversely and unreasonably affect the aes- 
thetic qualities of such potable water for domestic use. 

PORTABLE-FUEL-CELL APPLIANCE. A fuel cell gener- 
ator of electricity, which is not fixed in place. A porta- 
ble-fuel-cell appliance utilizes a cord and plug connection to a 
grid-isolated load and has an integral fuel supply. 

POSITIVE ROOF DRAINAGE. The drainage condition in 
which consideration has been made for all loading deflections 
of the roof deck, and additional slope has been provided to 
ensure drainage of the roof within 48 hours of precipitation. 

POTABLE WATER. Water free from impurities present in 
amounts sufficient to cause disease or harmful physiological 
effects and conforming in bacteriological and chemical quality 
to the requirements of the public health authority havingjuris- 
diction. 

PRECAST CONCRETE. A structural concrete element cast 
elsewhere than its final position in the structure. 

IPRECAST CONCRETE FOUNDATION WALLS. 

Preengineered, precast concrete wall panels that are designed 
to withstand specified stresses and used to build below-grade 
I foundations. 



PRESSURE-RELIEF VALVE. A pressure-actuated valve 
held closed by a spring or other means and designed to auto- 
matically relieve pressure at the pressure at which it is set. 

PUBLIC SEWER. A common sewer directly controlled by 
public authority. 

PUBLIC WATER MAIN. A water-supply pipe for public use 
controlled by public authority. 

PUBLIC WAY. Any street, alley or other parcel of land open to 
the outside air leading to a public street, which has been 
deeded, dedicated or otherwise permanently appropriated to 
the public for public use and that has a clear width and height of 
not less than 10 feet (3048 mm). 

PURGE. To clear of air, gas or other foreign substances. 

QUICK-CLOSING VALVE. A valve or faucet that closes 
automatically when released manually or controlled by 
mechanical means for fast -action closing. 

R- VALUE, THERMAL RESISTANCE. The inverse of the 
time rate of heat flow through a building thermal envelope ele- 
ment from one of its bounding surfaces to the other for a unit 
temperature difference between the two surfaces, under steady 
state conditions, per unit area (h . ft 2 • of/Btu). 

RAMP. A walking surface that has a running slope steeper than 
1 unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5 -percent slope). 

RECEPTOR. A fixture or device that receives the discharge 
from indirect waste pipes. 

REFRIGERANT. A substance used to produce refrigeration 
by its expansion or evaporation. 

REFRIGERANT COMPRESSOR. A specific machine, 
with or without accessories, for compressing a given refriger- 
ant vapor. 

REFRIGERATING SYSTEM. A combination of intercon- 
nected parts forming a closed circuit in which refrigerant is cir- 
culated for the purpose of extracting, then rejecting, heat. A 
direct refrigerating system is one in which the evaporator or 
condenser of the refrigerating system is in direct contact with 
the air or other substances to be cooled or heated. An indirect 
refrigerating system is one in which a secondary coolant 
cooled or heated by the refrigerating system is circulated to the 
air or other substance to be cooled or heated. 

REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An individual 
who is registered or licensed to practice their respective design 
profession as defined by the statutory requirements of the pro- 
fessional registration laws of the state ovjurisdiction in which 
the project is to be constructed. 

RELIEF VALVE, VACUUM. A device to prevent excessive 
buildup of vacuum in a pressure vessel. 

REPAIR. The reconstruction or renewal of any part of an exist- 
ing building for the purpose of its maintenance. 

REROOFING. The process of recovering or replacing an 
existing roof covering. See "Roof recover." 

RETURN AIR. Air removed from an approved conditioned 
space or location and recirculated or exhausted. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



RIDGE. With respect to topographic wind effects, an elon- 
gated crest of a hill characterized by strong relief in two direc- 
tions. 

RISER. A water pipe that extends vertically one full story or 
more to convey water to branches or to a group of fixtures. 

ROOF ASSEMBLY. A system designed to provide weather 
protection and resistance to design loads. The system consists 
of a roof covering and roof deck or a single component serving 
as both the roof covering and the roof deck. A roof assembly 
includes the roof deck, vapor retarder, substrate or thermal bar- 
rier, insulation, vapor retarder, and roof covering. 

ROOF COVERING. The covering applied to the roof deck 
for weather resistance, fire classification or appearance. 

ROOF COVERING SYSTEM. See "Roof assembly." 

ROOF DECK. The flat or sloped surface not including its sup- 
porting members or vertical supports. 

ROOF RECOVER. The process of installing an additional 
roof covering over a prepared existing roof covering without 
removing the existing roof covering. 

ROOF REPAIR. Reconstruction or renewal of any part of an 
existing roof for the purposes of its maintenance. 

ROOFTOP STRUCTURE. An enclosed structure on or 
above the roof of any part of a building. 

ROOM HEATER. A freestanding heating appliance installed 
in the space being heated and not connected to ducts. 

ROUGH-IN. The installation of all parts of the plumbing sys- 
tem that must be completed prior to the installation of fixtures. 
This includes DWV, water supply and built-in fixture supports. 

RUNNING BOND. The placement of masonry units such that 
headjoints in successive courses are horizontally offset at least 
one-quarter the unit length. 

SANITARY SEWER. A sewer that carries sewage and 
excludes storm, surface and groundwater. 

SCUPPER. An opening in a wall or parapet that allows water 
to drain from a roof. 

SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY (SDC). A classification 
assigned to a structure based on its occupancy category and the 
severity of the design earthquake ground motion at the site. 

SEPTIC TANK. A water-tight receptor that receives the dis- 
charge of a building sanitary drainage system and is con- 
structed so as to separate solids from the liquid, digest organic 
matter through a period of detention, and allow the liquids to 
discharge into the soil outside of the tank through a system of 
open joint or perforated piping or a seepage pit. 

SEWAGE. Any liquid waste containing animal matter, vegeta- 
ble matter or other impurity in suspension or solution. 

SEWAGE PUMP. A permanently installed mechanical device 
for removing sewage or liquid waste from a sump. 

SHALL. The term, when used in the code, is construed as man- 
datory. 

SHEAR WALL. A general term for walls that are designed 
and constructed to resist racking from seismic and wind by use 
of masonry, concrete, cold-formed steel or wood framing in 



accordance with Chapter 6 of this code and the associated limi- 
tations in Section R301.2 of this code. 

SIDE VENT. A vent connecting to the drain pipe through a fit- 
ting at an angle less than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) to the horizontal. 

SINGLE PLY MEMBRANE. A roofing membrane that is 
field applied using one layer of membrane material (either 
homogeneous or composite) rather than multiple layers. 

SINGLE STATION SMOKE ALARM. An assembly incor- 
porating the detector, control equipment and alarm sounding 
device in one unit that is operated from a power supply either in 
the unit or obtained at the point of installation. 

SKYLIGHT AND SLOPED GLAZING. See Section 
R308.6.1. 

SKYLIGHT, UNIT. See Section R308.6.1. 

SLIP JOINT. A mechanical-type joint used primarily on fix- 
ture traps. The joint tightness is obtained by compressing a 
friction-type washer such as rubber, nylon, neoprene, lead or 
special packing material against the pipe by the tightening of a 
(slip) nut. 

SLOPE. The fall (pitch) of a line of pipe in reference to a hori- 
zontal plane. In drainage, the slope is expressed as the fall in 
units vertical per units horizontal (percent) for a length of pipe. 

SMOKE-DEVELOPED INDEX. A comparative measure, 
expressed as a dimensionless number, derived from measure- 
ments of smoke obscuration versus time for a material tested in 
accordance with ASTM E 84. 

SOIL STACK OR PIPE. A pipe that conveys sewage contain- 
ing fecal material. 

SOLAR HEAT GAIN COEFFICIENT (SHGC). The solar 
heat gain through a fenestration or glazing assembly relative to 
the incident solar radiation (Btu/h- ft 2 • OF). 

SOLID MASONRY. Load-bearing or nonload-bearing con- 
struction using masonry units where the net cross-sectional 
area of each unit in any plane parallel to the bearing surface is 
not less than 75 percent of its gross cross-sectional area. Solid 
masonry units shall conform to ASTM C 55, C 62, C 73, C 145 
or C 216. 

SPLINE. A strip of wood structural panel cut from the same 
material used for the panel facings, used to connect two struc- 
tural insulated panels. The strip (spline) fits into a groove cut 
into the vertical edges of the two structural insulated panels to 
be joined. Splines are used behind each facing of the structural 
insulated panels being connected as shown in Figure R613.8. 

STACK. Any main vertical DWV line, including offsets, that 
extends one or more stories as directly as possible to its vent 
terminal. 

STACK BOND. The placement of masonry units in a bond 
pattern is such that headjoints in successive courses are verti- 
cally aligned. For the purpose of this code, requirements for 
stack bond shall apply to all masonry laid in other than running 
bond. 

STACK VENT. The extension of soil or waste stack above the 
highest horizontal drain connected. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



19 



DEFINITIONS 



STACK VENTING. A method of venting a fixture or fixtures 
through the soil or waste stack without individual fixture vents. 

STAIR. A change in elevation, consisting of one or more ris- 
ers. 

STAIRWAY. One or more flights of stairs, either interior or 
exterior, with the necessary landings and platforms connecting 
them to form a continuous and uninterrupted passage from one 
level to another within or attached to a building, porch or deck. 

STANDARD TRUSS. Any construction that does not permit 
the roof/ceiling insulation to achieve the required R-value over 
the exterior walls. 

STATIONARY FUEL CELL POWER PLANT. A self-con- 
tained package or factory -matched packages which constitute 
an automatically-operated assembly of integrated systems for 
generating useful electrical energy and recoverable thermal 
energy that is permanently connected and fixed in place. 

STORM SEWER, DRAIN. A pipe used for conveying rain- 
water, surface water, subsurface water and similar liquid waste. 

STORY. That portion of a building included between the upper 
surface of a floor and the upper surface of the floor or roof next 
above. 

STORY ABOVE GRADE PLANE. Any story having its fin- 
ished floor surface entirely above grade plane, except that a 
basement shall be considered as a story above grade plane 
where the finished surface of the floor above the basement 
meets anyone of the following: 

1. Is more than 6 feet (1829 mm) above grade plane. 

2. Is more than 6 feet (1829 mm) above the finished ground 
level for more than 50 percent of the total building per- 
imeter. 

3. Is more than 12 feet (3658 mm) above the finished 
ground level at any point. 

STRUCTURAL INSULATED PANEL (SIP). A structural 
sandwich panel that consists of a light-weight foam plastic core 
securely laminated between two thin, rigid wood structural 
panel facings. 

STRUCTURE. That which is built or constructed. 

SUBSOIL DRAIN. A drain that collects subsurface water or 
seepage water and conveys such water to a place of disposal. 

SUMP. A tank or pit that receives sewage or waste, located 
below the normal grade of the gravity system and that must be 
emptied by mechanical means. 

SUMP PUMP. A pump installed to empty a sump. These 
pumps are used for removing storm water only. The pump is 
selected for the specific head and volume of the load and is usu- 
ally operated by level controllers. 

SUNROOM. A one- story structure attached to a dwellingwith 
a glazing area in excess of 40 percent of the gross area of the 
structure's exterior walls and roof. 

SUPPLY AIR. Air delivered to a conditioned space through 
ducts or plenums from the heat exchanger of a heating, cooling 
or ventilating system. 



SUPPORTS. Devices for supporting, hanging and securing 
pipes, fixtures and equipment. 

SWEEP. A drainage fitting designed to provide a change in 
direction of a drain pipe of less than the angle specified by the 
amount necessary to establish the desired slope of the line. 
Sweeps provide a longer turning radius than bends and a less 
turbulent flow pattern (see "Bend" and "Elbow"). 

TEMPERATURE- AND PRESSURE-RELIEF (T AND P) 
VALVE. A combination relief valve designed to function as 
both a temperature-relief and pressure-relief valve. 

TEMPERATURE-RELIEF VALVE. A temperature- actu- 
ated valve designed to discharge automatically at the tempera- 
ture at which it is set. 

TERMITE-RESISTANT MATERIAL. Pressure-preserva- 
tive treated wood in accordance with the AWPA standards in 
Section R318.1, naturally durable termite-resistant wood, 
steel, concrete, masonry or other approved material. 

THERMAL ISOLATION. Physical and space conditioning 
separation from conditioned spacers) consisting of existing or 
new walls, doors and/or windows. The conditioned spacers) 
shall be controlled as separate zones for heating and cooling or 
conditioned by separate equipment. 

THERMAL RESISTANCE, #- VALUE. The inverse of the 
time rate of heat flow through a body from one of its bounding 
surfaces to the other for a unit temperature difference between 
the two surfaces, under steady state conditions, per unit area (h . 
ft 2 • of/Btu). 

THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE, V-FACTOR. The coeffi- 
cient of heat transmission (air to air) through a building enve- 
lope component or assembly, equal to the time rate of heat flow 
per unit area and unit temperature difference between the warm 
side and cold side air films (Btu/h- ft 2 • OF). 

TOWNHOUSE. A single-family dwelling unit constructed in 
a group of three or more attached units in which each unit 
extends from foundation to roof and with ay ardor public way 
on at least two sides. 

TRAP. A fitting, either separate or built into a fixture, that pro- 
vides a liquid seal to prevent the emission of sewer gases with- 
out materially affecting the flow of sewage or waste water 
through it. 

TRAP ARM. That portion of a fixture drain between a trap 
weir and the vent fitting. 

TRAP PRIMER. A device or system of piping to maintain a 
water seal in a trap, typically installed where infrequent use of 
the trap would result in evaporation of the trap seal, such as 
floor drains. 

TRAP SEAL. The trap seal is the maximum vertical depth of 
liquid that a trap will retain, measured between the crown weir 
and the top of the dip of the trap. 

TRIM. Picture molds, chair rails, baseboards, handrails, door 
and window frames, and similar decorative or protective mate- 
rials used in fixed applications. 



20 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



TRUSS DESIGN DRAWING. The graphic depiction of an 
individual truss, which describes the design and physical char- 
acteristics of the truss. 

TYPE L VENT. A listed and labeledvcnt conforming to UL 
641 for venting oil-burning appliances listedfor use with Type 
L vents or with gas appliances listedfor use with Type B vents . 

V-FACTOR, THERMAL TRANS MITT ANCE. The coeffi- 
cient of heat transmission (air to air) through a building enve- 
lope component or assembly, equal to the time rate of heat flow 
per unit area and unit temperature difference between the warm 
side and cold side air films (Btu/h- ft 2 • OF). 

UNDERLAYMENT. One or more layers of felt, sheathing 
paper, nonbituminous saturated felt, or other approved matc- 
rial over which a roof covering, with a slope of 2 to 12 (17 -per- 
cent slope) or greater, is applied. 

VACUUM BREAKERS. A device which prevents back- 
siphonage of water by admitting atmospheric pressure through 
ports to the discharge side of the device. 

VAPOR PERMEABLE MEMBRANE. A material or covering 
having a permeance rating of 5 perms (2.9 . 10- 10 kg/Pa . s . m 2 ) or 
greater, when tested in accordance with the desiccant method 
using Procedure A of ASTM E 96. A vapor permeable material 
permits the passage of moisture vapor. 

VAPOR RETARDER CLASS. A measure of the ability of a 
material or assembly to limit the amount of moisture that 
passes through that material or assembly. Vapor retarder class 
shall be defined using the desiccant method with Procedure A 
of ASTM E 96 as follows: 

Class I: 0.1 perm or less 

Class II: 0.1 < perm < 1.0 perm 

Class III: 1.0 < perm < 10 perm 

VEHICULAR ACCESS DOOR. A door that is used primar- 
ily for vehicular traffic at entrances of buildings such as 
garages and parking lots, and that is not generally used for 
pedestrian traffic. 

VENT. A passageway for conveying flue gases from fuel-fired 
appliances, or their vent connectors, to the outside atmosphere. 

VENT COLLAR. See "Flue collar." 

VENT CONNECTOR. That portion of a venting system 
which connects the flue collar or draft hood of an appliance to a 
vent. 

VENT DAMPER DEVICE, AUTOMATIC. A device 
intended for installation in the venting system, in the outlet of 
an individual, automatically operated fuel burning appliance 
and that is designed to open the venting system automatically 
when the appliance is in operation and to close off the venting 
system automatically when the appliance is in a standby or 
shutdown condition. 

VENT GASES. Products of combustion from fuel-burning 
appliances, plus excess air and dilution air, in the venting sys- 
tem above the draft hood or draft regulator. 

VENT STACK. A vertical vent pipe installed to provide circu- 
lation of air to and from the drainage system and which extends 
through one or more stories. 



VENT SYSTEM. Piping installed to equalize pneumatic pres- 
sure in a drainage system to prevent trap seal loss or blow-back 
due to siphonage or back pressure. 

VENTILATION. The natural or mechanical process of sup- 
plying conditioned or unconditioned air to, or removing such 
air from, any space. 

VENTING. Removal of combustion products to the outdoors. 

VENTING SYSTEM. A continuous open passageway from 
the flue collar of an appliance to the outside atmosphere for the 
purpose of removing flue or vent gases. A venting system is 
usually composed of a vent or a chimney and vent connector, if 
used, assembled to form the open passageway. 

VERTICAL PIPE. Any pipe or fitting that makes an angle of 
45 degrees (0.79 rad) or more with the horizontal. 

VINYL SIDING. A shaped material, made principally from 
rigid polyvinyl chloride (PVC), that is used to cover exterior 
walls of buildings. 

WALL, RETAINING. A wall not laterally supported at the 
top, that resists lateral soil load and other imposed loads. 

WALLS. Walls shall be defined as follows: 

Load-bearing wall is a wall supporting any vertical load in 
addition to its own weight. 

Nonbearing wall is a wall which does not support vertical 
loads other than its own weight. 

WASTE. Liquid-borne waste that is free of fecal matter. 

WASTE PIPE OR STACK. Piping that conveys only liquid 
sewage not containing fecal material. 

WATER-DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. Piping which conveys 
water from the service to the plumbing fixtures, appliances, 
appurtenances, equipment, devices or other systems served, 
including fittings and control valves. 

WATER HEATER. Any heating appliance or equipment that 
heats potable water and supplies such water to the potable hot 
water distribution system. 

WATER MAIN. A water-supply pipe for public use. 

WATER OUTLET. A valved discharge opening, including a 
hose bibb, through which water is removed from the potable 
water system supplying water to a plumbing fixture or plumb- 
ing appliance that requires either an air gap or backflow pre- 
vention device for protection of the supply system. 

WATER-RESISTIVE BARRIER. A material behind an exte- 
rior wall covering that is intended to resist liquid water that has 
penetrated behind the exterior covering from further intruding 
into the exterior wall assembly. 

WATER-SERVICE PIPE. The outside pipe from the water 
main or other source of potable water supply to the water-dis- 
tribution system inside the building, terminating at the service 
valve. 

WATER-SUPPLY SYSTEM. The water-service pipe, the 
water- distributing pipes and the necessary connecting pipes, 
fittings, control valves and all appurtenances in or adjacent to 
the building or premises. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



21 



DEFINITIONS 



WET VENT. A vent that also receives the discharge of wastes 
from other fixtures. 

WIND-BORNE DEBRIS REGION. Areas within hurri- 
cane-prone regions within one mile of the coastal mean high 
water line where the basic wind speed is 1 10 miles per hour (49 
m/s) or greater; or where the basic wind speed is equal to or 
greater than 120 miles per hour (54 m/s); or Hawaii. 

WINDER. A tread with nonparallel edges. 

WOOD/PLASTIC COMPOSITE. A composite material 
made primarily from wood or cellulose-based materials and 
plastic. 

WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL. A panel manufactured 
from veneers; or wood strands or wafers; bonded together with 
waterproof synthetic resins or other suitable bonding systems. 
Examples of wood structural panels are plywood, OSB or com- 
posite panels. 

YARD. An open space, other than a court, unobstructed from 
the ground to the sky, except where specifically provided by 
this code, on the Jot on which a building is situated. 



22 2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



Part Ill-Building Planning and Construction 

CHAPTER 3 

BUILDING PLANNING 



SECTION R301 
DESIGN CRITERIA 

R 3 01.1 Application. Buildings and structures, and all parts 
thereof, shall be constructed to safely support all loads, includ- 
ing dead loads, live loads, roof loads, flood loads, snow loads, 
wind loads and seismic loads as prescribed by this code. The 
construction of buildings and structures in accordance with the 
provisions of this code shall result in a system that provides a 
complete load path that meets all requirements for the transfer of 
all loads from their point of origin through the load-resisting ele- 
ments to the foundation. Buildings and structures constructed as 
prescribed by this code are deemed to comply with the require- 
ments of this section. 

R301.1.1 Alternative provisions. As an alternative to the 
requirements in Section R30 1. 1 the following standards are 
permitted subject to the limitations of this code and the limi- 
tations therein. Where engineered design is used in conjunc- 
tion with these standards, the design shall comply with the 
International BUilding Code. 

1. American Forest and Paper Association (AF&PA) 
Wood Frame Construction Manual (WFCM). 

2. American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) Standard for 
Cold-Formed Steel Framing-Prescriptive Method 

for One- and Two-Family Dwellings (AISI S230) . 

3 . ICC-400 Standard on the Design and Construction of 
Log Structures. 

R301.1.2 Construction systems. The requirements of this 
code are based on platform and balloon-frame construction for 
light -frame buildings. The requirements for concrete and 
masonry buildings are based on a balloon framing system. 
Other framing systems must have equivalent detailing to 
ensure force transfer, continuity and compatible deformations. 

R 3 01. 1.3 Engineered design. When a building of otherwise 
conventional construction contains structural elements 
exceeding the limits of Section R301 or otherwise not con- 
forming to this code, these elements shall be designed in accor- 
dance with accepted engineering practice. The extent of such 
design need only demonstrate compliance of nonconventional 
elements with other applicable provisions and shall be compat- 
ible with the performance of the conventional framed system. 
Engineered design in accordance with the International Build- 
ing Code is permitted for all buildings and structures, and parts 
thereof, included in the scope of this code. 

R301.2 Climatic and geographic design criteria. Buildings 
shall be constructed in accordance with the provisions of this 



code as limited by the provisions of this section. Additional cri- 
teria shall be established by the local juris diction and set forth 
in Table R301. 2(1). 

R301.2.1 Wind limitations. Buildings and portions thereof 
shall be limited by wind speed, as defined in Table R301.2(l) 
and construction methods in accordance with this code. Basic 
wind speeds shall be determined from Figure R301.2(4). 
Where different construction methods and structural materi- 
als are used for various portions of a building, the applicable 
requirements of this section for each portion shall apply. 
Where loads for wall coverings, curtain walls, roof coverings, 
exterior windows, skylights, garage doors and exterior doors 
are not otherwise specified, the loads listed in Table 
R301.2(2) adjusted for height and exposure using Table 
R30 1.2(3) shall be used to determine design load perfor- 
mance requirements for wall coverings, curtain walls, roof 
coverings, exterior windows, skylights, garage doors and 
exterior doors. Asphalt shingles shall be designed for wind 
speeds in accordance with Section R905.2.6. 

R301.2.1.1 Design criteria. In regions where the basic 
wind speeds from Figure R301.2 (4) equal or exceed 100 
miles per hour (45 m/s) in hurricane-prone regions, or 
110 miles per hour (49 m/s) elsewhere, the design of 
buildings shall be in accordance with one of the follow- 
ing methods. The elements of design not addressed by 
those documents in Items 1 through 4 shall be in accor- 
dance with this code. 

1. American Forest and Paper Association (AF&PA) 
Wood Frame Construction Manual for One- and 
Two-Family Dwellings (WFCM); or 

2. International Code Council (ICC) Standard for 
Residential Construction in High Wind Regions 
(ICC-600); or 

3. Minimum Design Loads for BUildings and Other 
Structures (ASCE-7); or 

4. American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), Stan- 
dard for Cold-Formed Steel Framing-Prescrip- 
tive Method For One- and Two -Family Dwellings 
(AISI S230). 

5. Concrete construction shall be designed in accor- 
dance with the provisions of this code. 

6. Structural insulated panel (SIP) walls shall be 
designed in accordance with the provisions of this 
code. 



i 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



23 



BUILDING PLANNING 



TABLE R301.2(1) 
CLIMATIC AND GEOGRAPHIC DESIGN CRITERIA 



GROUND 
SNOW 
LOAD 


WIND DESIGN 


SEISMIC 

DESIGN 

CATEGORy f 


SUBJECT TO DAMAGE FROM 


WINTER 
DESIGN 
TEMpe 


ICE BARRIER 

UNDERLAYMENT 

REQUIRED 11 


FLOOD 
HAZARDS9 


AIR 

FREEZING 

INDEX 1 


MEAN 

ANNUAL 

TEMP" 


Speed d 
(mph) 


Topographic 
effects'* 


Weathering 3 


Frost line 
depth b 


Termite 



For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 

a. Weathering may require a higher strength concrete or grade of masonry than necessary to satisfy the structural requirements of this code. The weathering column 
shall be filled in with the weathering index (Le., "negligible," "moderate" or "severe") for concrete as determined from the Weathering Probability Map [Figure 
R301.2(3)]. The grade of masonry units shall be determined from ASTM C 34, C 55, C 62, C 73, C 90, C 129, C 145, C 216 or C 652. 

b. The frost line depth may require deeper footings than indicated in Figure R403.1(l) . The jurisdiction shall fill in the frost line depth column with the minimum 
depth of footing below finish grade. 

c. Thejurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table to indicate the need for protection depending on whether there has been a history oflocal subterranean termite dam- 
age. 

d. Thejurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with the wind speed from the basic wind speed map [FigureR30 1.2(4)]. Wind exposure category shall be deter- 
mined on a site-specific basis in accordance with Section R301.2.1.4. 

e. The outdoor design dry-bulb temperature shall be selected from the columns of 97 ! / z -percent values for winter from Appendix D of the International Plumbing 
Code. Deviations from the Appendix D temperatures shall be permitted to reflect local climates or local weather experience as determined by the building official. 

f. Thejurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with the seismic design category determined from Section R301.2.2.1. 

g. Thejurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with (a) the date of thejurisdiction's entry into the National Flood Insurance Program (date of adoption of the first 
code or ordinance for management of flood hazard areas) , (b) the date (s) of the Flood Insurance Study and (c) the panel numbers and dates of all currently effective 
FIRMs and FBFMs or other flood hazard map adopted by the authority havingjurisdiction, as amended. 

h. In accordance with Sections R905.2.7.1, R905.4.3.1, R905.5.3.1, R905.6.3.1, R905.7.3.1 and R905 .8.3.1, where there has been a history oflocal damage from the 

effects of ice damming, thejurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with "YES." Otherwise, thejurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with "NO." 
L Thejurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with the 100-year return period air freezing index (BF-days) from Figure R403.3(2) or from the 100-year (99%) 

value on the National Climatic Data Center data table "Air Freezing Index- USA Method (Base 32°)" at www.ncdc.noaa.gov/fpsf.html. 
j . Thejurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with the mean annual temperature from the National Climatic Data Center data table "Air Freezing Index-USA 

Method (Base 32°F)" atwww.ncdc.noaa.gov/fpsf.html. 
k. In accordance with Section R301.2 . 1.5, where there is local historical data documenting structural damage to buildings due to topographic wind speed-Up effects, 

thejurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with "YES." Otherwise, thejurisdiction shall indicate "NO" in this part of the table. 



24 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



BUILDING PLANNING 



TABLE R301.2(2) 

COMPONENT AND CLADDING LOADS FOR A BUILDING WITH A MEAN 

ROOF HEIGHT OF 30 FEET LOCATED IN EXPOSURE B (psf)a,b,c,d,e 





ZONE 


EFFECTIVE 
WIND 
AREA 
(feet 2 ) 


BASIC WIND SPEED (mph-3-second gust) 


85 


90 


100 


105 


110 


120 


125 


130 


140 


145 


150 


170 


1 

■o 



r- 

o 


A 

o 


1 


10 


10.0 


-13.0 


10.0 


-14.6 


10.0 


-18.0 


10.0 


-19.8 


10.0 


-21.8 


10.5 


-25.9 


11.4 


-28.1 


12.4 


-30.4 


14.3 


-35.3 


15.4 


-37.8 


16.5 


-40.5 


21.1 


-52.0 


1 


20 


10.0 


-12.7 


10.0 


-14.2 


10.0 


-17.5 


10.0 


-19.3 


10.0 


-21.2 


10.0 


-25.2 


10.7 


-27.4 


11.6 


-29.6 


13.4 


-34.4 


14.4 


-36.9 


15.4 


-39.4 


19.8 


-50.7 


1 


50 


10.0 


-12.2 


10.0 


-13.7 


10.0 


-16.9 


10.0 


-18.7 


10.0 


-20.5 


10.0 


-24.4 


10.0 


-26.4 


10.6 


-28.6 


12.3 


-33.2 


13.1 


-35.6 


14.1 


-38.1 


18.1 


-48.9 


1 


100 


10.0 


-11.9 


10.0 


-13.3 


10.0 


-18.5 


10.0 


-18.2 


10.0 


-19.9 


10.0 


-23.7 


10.0 


-25.7 


10.0 


-27.8 


11.4 


-32.3 


12.2 


-34.6 


13.0 


-37.0 


16.7 


-47.6 


2 


10 


10.0 


-21.8 


10.0 


-24.4 


10.0 


-30.2 


10.0 


-33.3 


10.0 


-36.5 


10.5 


-43.5 


11.4 


-47.2 


12.4 


-51.0 


14.3 


-59.2 


15.4 


-63.5 


16.5 


-67.9 


21.1 


-87.2 


2 


20 


10.0 


-19.5 


10.0 


-91 8 


10.0 


-97 


10.0 


-9Q 7 


10.0 


-39 6 


10.0 


-38 8 


10.7 


-42.1 


11.6 


-45 6 


13.4 


-59 Q 


14.4 


-56.7 


15.4 


-60.7 


19.8 


-78.0 


2 


50 


10.0 


-16.4 


10.0 


-18.4 


10.0 


-22.7 


10.0 


-25.1 


10.0 


-27.5 


10.0 


-32.7 


10.0 


-35.5 


10.6 


-38.4 


12.3 


-44.5 


13.1 


-47.8 


14.1 


-51.1 


18.1 


-65.7 


2 


100 


10.0 


-14.1 


10.0 


-15.8 


10.0 


-19.5 


10.0 


-21.5 


10.0 


-23.6 


10.0 


-28.1 


10.0 


-30.5 


10.0 


-33.0 


11.4 


-38.2 


12.2 


-41.0 


13.0 


-43.9 


16.7 


-56.4 


3 


10 


10.0 


-32.8 


10.0 


-36.8 


10.0 


-45.4 


10.0 


-50.1 


10.0 


-55.0 


10.5 


-65.4 


11.4 


-71.0 


12.4 


-76.8 


14.3 


-89.0 


15.4 


-95.5 


16.5 


-102.2 


21.1 


-131.3 


3 


20 


10.0 


-27.2 


10.0 


-30.5 


10.0 


-37.6 


10.0 


-41.5 


10.0 


-45.5 


10.0 


-54.2 


10.7 


-58.8 


11.6 


-63.6 


13.4 


-73.8 


14.4 


-79.1 


15.4 


-84.7 


19.8 


-108.7 


3 


50 


10.0 


-19.7 


10.0 


-22.1 


10.0 


-27.3 


10.0 


-30.1 


10.0 


-33.1 


10.0 


-39.3 


10.0 


-42.7 


10.6 


-46.2 


12.3 


-53.5 


13.1 


-57.4 


14.1 


-61.5 


18.1 


-78.9 


3 


100 


10.0 


-14.1 


10.0 


-15.8 


10.0 


-19.5 


10.0 


-21.5 


10.0 


-23.6 


10.0 


-28.1 


10.0 


-30.5 


10.0 


-33.0 


11.4 


-38.2 


12.2 


-41.0 


13.0 


-43.9 


16.7 


-56.4 


i 

f 


CO 

2 


A 

■s 

& 


1 


10 


10.0 


-11.9 


10.0 


-13.3 


10.4 


-16.5 


11.4 


-18.2 


12.5 


-19.9 


14.9 


-23.7 


16.2 


-25.7 


17.5 


-27.8 


20.3 


-32.3 


21.8 


-34.6 


23.3 


-37.0 


30.0 


-47.6 


1 


20 


10.0 


-11 6 


10.0 


-130 


10.0 


-160 


10.4 


-176 


11.4 


-194 


13.6 


-91 


14.8 


-95 


16.0 


-97 


18.5 


-31 4 


19.9 


-33 7 


21.3 


-36.0 


27.3 


-46.3 


1 


50 


10.0 


-11.1 


10.0 


-P 5 


10.0 


-154 


10.0 


-170 


10.0 


-186 


11.9 


-99 9 


12.9 


-94 1 


13.9 


-96 


16.1 


-30 9 


17.3 


-39 4 


18.5 


-34.6 


23.8 


-44.5 


1 


100 


10.0 


-10.8 


10.0 


-12.1 


10.0 


-14.9 


10.0 


-16.5 


10.0 


-18.1 


10.5 


-21.5 


11.4 


-23.3 


12.4 


-25.2 


14.3 


-29.3 


15.4 


-31.4 


16.5 


-33.6 


21.1 


-43.2 


2 


10 


10.0 


-25.1 


10.0 


-28.2 


10.4 


-34.8 


11.4 


-38.3 


12.5 


-42.1 


14.9 


-50.1 


16.2 


-54.3 


17.5 


-58.7 


20.3 


-68.1 


21.8 


-73.1 


23.3 


-78.2 


30.0 


-100.5 


2 


20 


10.0 


-22.8 


10.0 


-25.6 


10.0 


-31.5 


10.4 


-34.8 


11.4 


-38.2 


13.6 


-45.4 


14.8 


-49.3 


16.0 


-53.3 


18.5 


-61.8 


19.9 


-66.3 


21.3 


-71.0 


27.3 


-91.2 


2 


50 


10.0 


-19.7 


10.0 


-22.1 


10.0 


-27.3 


10.0 


-30.1 


10.0 


-33.0 


11.9 


-39.3 


12.9 


-42.7 


13.9 


-46.1 


16.1 


-53.5 


17.3 


-57.4 


18.5 


-61.4 


23.8 


-78.9 


2 


100 


10.0 


-17.4 


10.0 


-19.5 


10.0 


-24.1 


10.0 


-26.6 


10.0 


-29.1 


10.5 


-34.7 


11.4 


-37.6 


12.4 


-40.7 


14.3 


-47.2 


15.4 


-50.6 


16.5 


-54.2 


21.1 


-69.6 


3 


10 


10.0 


-25.1 


10.0 


-28.2 


10.4 


-34.8 


11.4 


-38.3 


12.5 


-42.1 


14.9 


-50.1 


16.2 


-54.3 


17.5 


-58.7 


20.3 


-68.1 


21.8 


-73.1 


23.3 


-78.2 


30.0 


-100.5 


3 


20 


10.0 


-22.8 


10.0 


-25.6 


10.0 


-31.5 


10.4 


-34.8 


11.4 


-38.2 


13.6 


-45.4 


14.8 


-49.3 


16.0 


-53.3 


18.5 


-61.8 


19.9 


-66.3 


21.3 


-71.0 


27.3 


-91.2 


3 


50 


10.0 


-19.7 


10.0 


-22.1 


10.0 


-27.3 


10.0 


-30.1 


10.0 


-33.0 


11.9 


-39.3 


12.9 


-42.7 


13.9 


-46.1 


16.1 


-53.5 


17.3 


-57.4 


18.5 


-61.4 


23.8 


-78.9 


3 


100 


10.0 


-17.4 


10.0 


-19.5 


10.0 


-24.1 


10.0 


-26.6 


10.0 


-29.1 


10.5 


-34.7 


11.4 


-37.6 


12.4 


-40.7 


14.3 


-47.2 


15.4 


-50.6 


16.5 


-54.2 


21.1 


-69.6 


it) 

$ 

ST 

"D 

in 

^ , 

2 



CO 
A 

o 


1 


10 


11.9 


-13.0 


13.3 


-14.6 


16.5 


-18.0 


18.2 


-19.8 


19.9 


-21.8 


23.7 


-25.9 


25.7 


-28.1 


27.8 


-30.4 


32.3 


-35.3 


34.6 


-37.8 


37.0 


-40.5 


47.6 


-52.0 


1 


20 


11.6 


-193 


13.0 


-138 


16.0 


-17 1 


17.6 


-188 


19.4 


-90 7 


23.0 


-94 6 


25.0 


-96 7 


27.0 


-98 9 


31.4 


-33 5 


33.7 


-35 9 


36.0 


-38.4 


46.3 


-49.3 


1 


50 


11.1 


-11.5 


12.5 


-12.8 


15.4 


-15.9 


17.0 


-17.5 


18.6 


-19.2 


22.2 


-22.8 


24.1 


-24.8 


26.0 


-25.8 


30.2 


-31.1 


32.4 


-33.3 


34.6 


-35.7 


44.5 


-45.8 


1 


100 


10.8 


-10.8 


12.1 


-12.1 


14.9 


-14.9 


16.5 


-16.5 


18.1 


-18.1 


21.5 


-21.5 


23.3 


-23.3 


25.2 


-25.2 


29.3 


-29.3 


31.4 


-31.4 


33.6 


-33.6 


43.2 


-43.2 


2 


10 


11.9 


-15.2 


13.3 


-17.0 


16.5 


-21.0 


18.2 


-23.2 


19.9 


-25.5 


23.7 


-30.3 


25.7 


-32.9 


27.8 


-35.6 


32.3 


-41.2 


34.6 


-44.2 


37.0 


-47.3 


47.6 


-60.8 


2 


20 


11.6 


-14.5 


13.0 


-16.3 


16.0 


-20.1 


17.6 


-22.2 


19.4 


-24.3 


23.0 


-29.0 


25.0 


-31.4 


27.0 


-34.0 


31.4 


-39.4 


33.7 


-42.3 


36.0 


-45.3 


46.3 


-58.1 


2 


50 


11.1 


-13.7 


12.5 


-15.3 


15.4 


-18.9 


17.0 


-20.8 


18.6 


-22.9 


22.2 


-27.2 


24.1 


-29.5 


26.0 


-32.0 


30.2 


-37.1 


32.4 


-39.8 


34.6 


-42.5 


44.5 


-54.6 


2 


100 


10.8 


-13.0 


12.1 


-14.6 


14.9 


-18.0 


16.5 


-19.8 


18.1 


-21.8 


21.5 


-25 .9 


23.3 


-28.1 


25.2 


-30.4 


29.3 


-35.3 


31.4 


-37.8 


33.6 


-40.5 


43.2 


-52.0 


3 


10 


11.9 


-15.2 


13.3 


-17.0 


16.5 


-21.0 


18.2 


-23.2 


19.9 


-25.5 


23.7 


-30.3 


25.7 


-32.9 


27.8 


-35.6 


32.3 


-41.2 


34.6 


-44.2 


37.0 


-47.3 


47.6 


-60.8 


3 


20 


11.6 


-14.5 


13.0 


-16.3 


16.0 


-20.1 


17.6 


-22.2 


19.4 


-24.3 


23.0 


-29.0 


25.0 


-31.4 


27.0 


-34.0 


31.4 


-39.4 


33.7 


-42.3 


36.0 


-45.3 


46.3 


-58.1 


3 


50 


11.1 


-13.7 


12.5 


-15.3 


15.4 


-18.9 


17.0 


-20.8 


18.6 


-22.9 


22.2 


-27.2 


24.1 


-29.5 


26.0 


-32.0 


30.2 


-37.1 


32.4 


-39.8 


34.6 


-42.5 


44.5 


-54.5 


3 


100 


10.8 


-13.0 


12.1 


-14.6 


14.9 


-18.0 


16.5 


-19.8 


18.1 


-21.8 


21.5 


-25.9 


23.3 


-28.1 


25.2 


-30.4 


29.3 


-35.3 


31.4 


-37.8 


33.6 


-40.5 


43.2 


-52.0 


1 


4 


10 


13.0 


-14.1 


14.6 


-15.8 


18.0 


-19.5 


19.8 


-21.5 


21.8 


-23.6 


25.9 


-28.1 


28.1 


-30.5 


30.4 


-33.0 


35.3 


-38.2 


37.8 


-41.0 


40.5 


-43.9 


52.0 


-56.4 


4 


20 


12.4 


-13.5 


13.9 


-15.1 


17.2 


-18.7 


18.9 


-20.6 


20.8 


-22.6 


24.7 


-26.9 


26.8 


-29.2 


29.0 


-31.6 


33.7 


-36.7 


36.1 


-39.3 


38.7 


-42.1 


49.6 


-54.1 


4 


50 


11.6 


-12.7 


13.0 


-14.3 


16.1 


-17.6 


17.8 


-19.4 


19.5 


-21.3 


23.2 


-25.4 


25.2 


-27.5 


27.2 


-29.8 


31.6 


-34.6 


33.9 


-37.1 


36.2 


-39.7 


46.6 


-51.0 


4 


100 


11.1 


-12.2 


12.4 


-13.6 


15.3 


-16.8 


16.9 


-18.5 


18.5 


-20.4 


22.0 


-24.2 


23.9 


-26.3 


25.9 


-28.4 


30.0 


-33.0 


32.2 


-35.4 


34.4 


-37.8 


44.2 


-48.6 


5 


10 


13.0 


-17.4 


14.6 


-19.5 


18.0 


-24.1 


19.8 


-26.6 


21.8 


-29.1 


25.9 


-34.7 


28.1 


-37.6 


30.4 


-40.7 


35.3 


-47.2 


37.8 


-50.6 


40.5 


-54.2 


52.0 


-69.6 


5 


20 


12.4 


-16.2 


13.9 


-18.2 


17.2 


-22.5 


18.9 


-24.8 


20.8 


-27.2 


24.7 


-32.4 


26.8 


-35.1 


29.0 


-38.0 


33.7 


-44.0 


36.1 


-47.2 


38.7 


-50.5 


49.6 


-64.9 


5 


50 


11.6 


-14.7 


13.0 


-16.5 


16.1 


-20.3 


17.8 


-22.4 


19.5 


-24.6 


23.2 


-29.3 


25.2 


-31.8 


27.2 


-34.3 


31.6 


-39.8 


33.9 


-42.7 


36.2 


-45.7 


46.6 


-58.7 


5 


100 


11.1 


-13.5 


12.4 


-15.1 


15.3 


-18.7 


16.9 


-20.6 


18.5 


-22.6 


22.0 


-26.9 


23.9 


-29.2 


25.9 


-31.6 


30.0 


-36.7 


32.2 


-39.3 


34.4 


-42.1 


44.2 


-54.1 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929m 2 . 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa. 
Notes: 

a. The effective wind area shall be equal to the span length multiplied by an effective width. This width shall be permitted to be not be less than one-third the span length. For cladding fasten- 
ers, the effective wind area shall not be greater than the area that is tributary to an individual fastener. 

b. For effective areas between those given above, the load may be interpolated; otherwise, use the load associated with the lower effective area. 

c. Table values shall be adjusted for height and exposure by multiplying by the adjustment coefficient in Table R301.2(3) . 

d. See Figure R301.2(7) for location of zones. 

e. Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting toward and away from the building surfaces. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



25 



BUILDING PLANNING 



TABLE R301.2(3) 
HEIGHT AND EXPOSURE ADJUSTMENT COEFFICIENTS FOR TABLE R301.2(2) 


MEAN 
ROOF HEIGHT 


EXPOSURE 


B 


C 


D 


15 


1.00 


1.21 


1.47 


20 


1.00 


1.29 


1.55 


25 


1.00 


1.35 


1.61 


30 


1.00 


1.40 


1.66 


35 


1.05 


1.45 


1.70 


40 


1.09 


1.49 


1.74 


45 


1.12 


1.53 


1.78 


50 


1.16 


1.56 


1.81 


55 


1.19 


1.59 


1.84 


60 


1.22 


1.62 


1.87 



2Q1G 




ypf- 



ij 



Tf-f- — 









^0M^M 



\\\V\\jh t^ 



A \ \ rt 







| DESIGN TEMPERATURES M THS A«EA MUST BE BASED ON 
I ANALYSIS OF LOCAL CLWATE ANP TOPOGRAPHY 



For 51: °C = [(CF)-32]/1.8. 



FIGURE R301.2(1) 
ISOLINES OF THE 97 1 /! PERCENT WINTER (DECEMBER, JANUARY AND FEBRUARY) DESIGN TEMPERATURES (OF) 



26 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



BUILDING PLANNING 




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s8 1 



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2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



27 



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<£ 
D 
m 



-J. For SI: 1 mile = 1.61 km. 

> 

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m 




DO 

c 



5 



o 



FIGURE R301.2(2)-continued 
SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES-SITE CLASS D 



ho 

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Cateecry 


117 


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D. 


67 


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Muellpf. C. r Mantel, An Ptlmen, M. r iwd l^Tnfccker. E , 20BB. 
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*nd*cl'.i Viipnl^nnih. US Gf^adedivwtfpn i h 

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Sfkjcl I ■ ?* ftiifcofci iity sif f^Kaixbiwe in 5fi Y*ift fnr Peal 
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For 51: 1 mile = 1.61 km. 



FIGURE R301.2(2)-continued 
SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES-SITE CLASS D 



5 



(continued) 



O 



BUILDING PLANNING 



■#to-> 



; 




FIGURE R301.2(2)-continued 
SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES-SITE CLASS D 

(continued) 



30 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



BUILDING PLANNING 




FIGURE R301.2(2)-continued 
SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES-SITE CLASS D 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



31 



03 

C 



5 



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o 

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2 

3 

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2 
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r 

33 

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NEGLIGIBLE 



a. Alaska and Hawaii are classified as severe and negligible, respectively. 

b. Lines defining areas are approximate only. Local conditions may be more or less severe than indicated by region classification. A severe classification is where weather conditions result in significant snowfall 
combined with extended periods during which there is little or no natural thawing causing deicing salts to be used extensively. 

FIGURE R301.2(3) 
WEATHERING PROBABILITY MAP FOR CONCRETE 



BUILDING PLANNING 



LGeelltn 


'■ ii ■;: 


{rn,V! 


Htfrt-tai 


10S 


W 


Puerto Rico 


145 


ra 


Gum 


170 


rm 


Virgin lalanda 


145 


(Mfr 


AmerififliiSairtM 


125 


fH) 



Special Wind Region 




FIGURE R301.2(4) 
BASIC WIND SPEEDS FOR 50-YEAR MEAN RECURRENCE INTERVAL 

(continued) 

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 

a. Values are nominal design 3-second gust wind speeds in miles per hour at 33 feet above ground for Exposure C category. 

b. Linear interpolation between wind contours is permitted. 

c. Islands and coastal areas outside the last contour shall use the last wind speed contour of the coastal area. 

d. Mountainous terrain, gorges, ocean promontories and special wind regions shall be examined for unusual wind conditions. 

e. Enlarged view of Eastern and Southern seaboards are on the following pages. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



33 



BUILDING PLANNING 




110 


120 










L**rim 


i/mph 






Hawaii 


105 






Puerto Rbq 


145 






Oifim 


170 






Virgin klitnds 


1*5 






American Snnioi 


125 



FIGURE R301.2(4)-continued 
BASIC WIND SPEEDS FOR 50-YEAR MEAN RECURRENCE INTERVAL 

(continued) 

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 

a. Values are nominal design 3-second gust wind speeds in miles per hour at 33 feet abcve ground for Exposure C category. 

b. Linear interpolation between wind contours is permitted. 

c. Islands and coastal areas outside the last contour shall use the last wind speed contour of the coastal area. 

d. Mountainous terrain, gorges, ocean promontories and special wind regions shall be examined for unusual wind conditions. 

e. Enlarged view of Eastern and Southern seaboards are on the following pages. 



34 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



BUILDING PLANNING 




FIGURE R301.2(4)-continued 
BASIC WIND SPEEDS FOR 50-YEAR MEAN RECURRENCE INTERVAL 

(continued) 

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 

a. Values are nominal design 3-second gust wind speeds in miles per hour at 33 feet above ground for Exposure C category. 

b. Linear interpolation between wind contours is permitted. 

c. Islands and coastal areas outside the last contour shall use the last wind speed contour of the coastal area. 

d. Mountainous terrain, gorges, ocean promontories and special wind regions shall be examined for unusual wind conditions. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



35 



BUILDING PLANNING 




100 



Special Wind ■ 



FIGURE R301.2(4)-continued 
BASIC WIND SPEEDS FOR 50-YEAR MEAN RECURRENCE INTERVAL 

(continued) 

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 

a. Values are nominal design 3-second gust wind speeds in miles per hour at 33 feet above ground for Exposure C category. 

b. Linear interpolation between wind contours is permitted. 

c. Islands and coastal areas outside the last contour shall use the last wind speed contour of the coastal area. 

d. Mountainous terrain, gorges, ocean promontories and special wind regions shall be examined for unusual wind conditions. 



36 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



BUILDING PLANNING 




Special Wind Region 



FIGURE R301.2(4)-continued 
BASIC WIND SPEEDS FOR 50-YEAR MEAN RECURRENCE INTERVAL 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 

a. Values are nominal design 3-second gust wind speeds in miles per hour at 33 feet above ground for Exposure C category. 

b. Linear interpolation between wind contours is permitted. 

c. Islands and coastal areas outside the last contour shall use the last wind speed contour of the coastal area. 

d. Mountainous terrain, gorges, ocean promontories and special wind regions shall be examined for unusual wind conditions. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



37 



BUILDING PLANNING 



3E 




For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 mile = 1.61 km. 

a. In CS areas, site-specific Case Studies are required to establish ground snow loads. Extreme local varia- 
tions in ground snow loads in these areas preclude mapping at this scale. 

b. Numbers in parentheses represent the upper elevation limits in feet for the ground snow load values pre- 
sented below. Site-specific case studies are required to establish ground snow loads at elevations not 
covered. 



o 



100 



200 



300 miles 



FIGURE R301.2(5) 
GROUND SNOW LOADS, P g , FOR THE UNITED STATES (lb/ft 2 ) 

(continued) 



38 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



BUILDING PLANNING 




For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 



FIGURE R301.2(S)-continued 
GROUND SNOW LOADS, P g , FOR THE UNITED STATES (lb/ft 2 ) 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



39 



DO 

C 



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VERY HEAVY 
MODERATE TO HEAVY 
SLIGHT TO MODERATE 
NONE TO SLIGHT 



NOTE: Lines defining areas are approximate only. Local conditions may be more or less severe than indicated by the region classification. 

FIGURE R301.2(6) 
TERMITE INFESTATION PROBABILITY MAP 



O 

5 



o 



BUILDING PLANNING 





WALLS 



GABLE ROOFS 
£ 10" 




GABLE ROOFS 
1(T<0 < 45 3 



HIPROOFS 

10* <0 < 30* 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 degree = 0.0175 rad. 
Note: a = 4 feet in all cases. 



FIGURE R301.2(7) 
COMPONENT AND CLADDING PRESSURE ZONES 



R301.2.1.2 Protection of openings. Windows in build- 
ings located in windborne debris regions shall have 
glazed openings protected from windborne debris. 
Glazed opening protection for windborne debris shall 
meet the requirements of the Large Missile Test of 
ASTM E 1996 and ASTM E 1886 referenced therein. 
Garage door glazed opening protection for windborne 
debris shall meet the requirements of an approve dimpsict 
resisting standard or ANSI/DASMA 115. 

Exception: Wood structural panels with a minimum 
thickness of 7 / 16 inch (11 mm) and a maximum span of 
8 feet (2438 mm) shall be permitted for opening pro- 
tection in one- and two-story buildings. Panels shall 



be precut and attached to the framing surrounding the 
opening containing the product with the glazed open- 
ing. Panels shall be predrilled as required for the 
anchorage method and shall be secured with the 
attachment hardware provided. Attachments shall be 
designed to resist the component and cladding loads 
determined in accordance with either Table 
R301 .2(2) or ASCE 7, with the permanent corrosion- 
resistant attachment hardware provided and anchors 
permanently installed on the building. Attachment in 
accordance with Table R301.2.1.2 is permitted for 
buildings with a mean roof height of 33 feet (10 058 
mm) or less where windspeeds do not exceed 130 
miles per hour (58 m/s). 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



41 



BUILDING PLANNING 



TABLE R301.2.1.2 

WINDBORNE DEBRIS PROTECTION FASTENING SCHEDULE 

FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANELSa,b,c,cl 



FASTENER 
TYPE 


FASTENER SPACING (inches)a, b 


Panel span 
< 4 feet 


4 feet < 

panel span 

< 6 feet 


6 feet < 

panel span 

< 8 feet 


No. 8 wood screw based 
anchor with 2-inch 
embedment length 


16 


10 


8 


No. 10 wood screw based 
anchor with 2-inch 
embedment length 


16 


12 


9 


i/ 4 - inch lag screw based 
anchor with 2-inch 
embedment length 


16 


16 


16 



For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 4.448 N, 
1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 

a. This table is based on 130 mph wind speeds and a 33-foot meanroof height. 

b. Fasteners shall be installed at opposing ends of the wood structural panel. 
Fasteners shall be located a minimum of 1 inch from the edge of the panel. 

c. Anchors shall penetrate through the exterior wall covering with an 
embedment length of 2 inches minimum into the building frame. Fasteners 
shall be located a minimum of 2 ! / 2 inches from the edge of concrete block or 
concrete. 

d Where panels are attached to masonry or masonry/stucco, they shall be 
attached using vibration-resistant anchors having a minimum ultimate with- 
drawal capacity of 1500 pounds. 

R301.2.1.3 Wind speed conversion. When referenced 
documents are based on fastest mile wind speeds, the 
three-second gust basic wind speeds, V 3s , of Figure 
R30 1.2(4) shall be converted to fastest mile wind speeds, 
V fm , using Table R30L2.L3. 

R301.2.1.4 Exposure category. For each wind direction 
considered, an exposure category that adequately 
reflects the characteristics of ground surface irregulari- 
ties shall be determined for the site at which the building 
or structure is to be constructed. For a site located in the 
transition zone between categories, the category result- 
ing in the largest wind forces shall apply. Account shall 
be taken of variations in ground surface roughness that 
arise from natural topography and vegetation as well as 
from constructed features. For a site where multiple 
detached one- and two-family dwellings, townhouses or 
other structures are to be constructed as part of a subdivi- 
sion' master-planned community, or otherwise desig- 
nated as a developed area by the authority having 
jurisdiction, the exposure category for an individual 
structure shall be based upon the site conditions that will 
exist at the time when all adjacent structures on the site 
have been constructed, provided their construction is 
expected to begin within one year of the start of construc- 



tion for the structure for which the exposure category is 
determined. For any given wind direction, the exposure 
in which a specific building or other structure is sited 
shall be assessed as being one of the following catego- 
ries: 

1. Exposure A. Large city centers with at least 50 per- 
cent of the buildings having a height in excess of 
70 feet (21 336 mm) . Use of this exposure category 
shall be limited to those areas for which terrain 
representative of Exposure A prevails in the 
upwind direction for a distance of at least 0.5 mile 
(0.8 km) or 10 times the height of the building or 
other structure, whichever is greater. Possible 
channeling effects or increased velocity pressures 
due to the building or structure being located in the 
wake of adjacent buildings shall be taken into 
account. 

2. Exposure B. Urban and suburban areas, wooded 
areas, or other terrain with numerous closely 
spaced obstructions having the size of single-fam- 
ily dwellings or larger. Exposure B shall be 
assumed unless the site meets the definition of 
another type exposure. 

3. Exposure C. Open terrain with scattered obstruc- 
tions, including surface undulations or other irreg- 
ularities, having heights generally less than 30 feet 
(9144 mm) extending more than 1,500 feet (457 
m) from the building site in any quadrant. This 
exposure shall also apply to any building located 
within Exposure B type terrain where the building 
is directly adjacent to open areas of Exposure C 
type terrain in any quadrant for a distance of more 
than 600 feet (183 m). This category includes flat 
open country, grasslands and shorelines in hurri- 
cane prone regions . 

4. Exposure D. Flat, unobstructed areas exposed to 
wind flowing over open water (excluding shore- 
lines in hurricane prone regions) for a distance of 
at least 1 mile (1.61 km). Shorelines in Exposure D 
include inland waterways, the Great Lakes, and 
coastal areas of California, Oregon, Washington 
and Alaska. This exposure shall apply only to 
those buildings and other structures exposed to the 
wind coming from over the water. Exposure D 
extends inland from the shoreline a distance of 
1500 feet (457 m) or 10 times the height of the 
building or structure, whichever is greater. 



TABLE R301.2.1.3 
EQUIVALENT BASIC WIND SPEEDS 3 



3-second gust, V3s 


85 


90 


100 


105 


110 


120 


125 


130 


140 


145 


150 


160 


170 


Fastest mile, V fm 


71 


76 


85 


90 


95 


104 


109 


114 


123 


128 


133 


142 


152 



For 51 : 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 
a. Linear interpolation is permitted. 



42 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



BUILDING PLANNING 



R301.2.1.5 Topographic wind effects. In areas desig- 
nated in Table R30 1.2(1) as having local historical data 
documenting structural damage to buildings caused by 
wind speed-up at isolated hills, ridges and escarpments 
that are abrupt changes from the general topography of 
the area, topographic wind effects shall be considered in 
the design of the building in accordance with Section 
R30 1.2.1.5.1 or in accordance with the provisions of 
ASCE 7. See Figure R301.2.1.5.1 (1) for topographic 
features for wind speed-up effect. 

In these designated areas, topographic wind effects 
shall apply only to buildings sited on the top half of an 
isolated hill, ridge or escarpment where all of the follow- 
ing conditions exist: 

1. The average slope of the top half of the hill, ridge 
or escarpment is 10 percent or greater. 

2. The hill, ridge or escarpment is 60 feet (18 288 
mm) or greater in height for Exposure B, 30 feet 
(9144 mm) or greater in height for Exposure C, 
and 15 feet (4572 mm) or greater in height for 
Exposure D. 

3. The hill, ridge or escarpment is isolated or unob- 
structed by other topographic features of similar 
height in the upwind direction for a distance mea- 



sured from its high point of 100 times its height or 
2 miles, whichever is less. See Figure 
R30 1.2. 1.5.1 (3) for upwind obstruction. 

4. The hill, ridge or escarpment protrudes by a factor 
of two or more above the height of other upwind 
topographic features located in any quadrant 
within a radius of 2 miles measured from its high 
point. 

R301.2.1.5.1 Simplified topographic wind speed- 
up method. As an alternative to the ASCE 7 topo- 
graphic wind provisions, the provisions of Section 
R30 1.2.1.5.1 shall be permitted to be used to design 
for wind speed-up effects, where required by Section 
R301.2.1.5. 

Structures located on the top half of isolated hills, 
ridges or escarpments meeting the conditions of Sec- 
tion R301.2.1.5 shall be designed for an increased 
basic wind speed as determined by Table 
R30 1.2.1.5.1. On the high side of an escarpment, the 
increased basic wind speed shall extend horizontally 
downwind from the edge of the escarpment 1.5 times 
the horizontal length of the upwind slope (1.5L) or 6 
times the height of the escarpment (6H) , whichever is 
greater. See Figure R30 1.2. 1.5. 1(2) for where wind 
speed increase is applied. 



TABLE R301.2. 1.5.1 
BASIC WIND MODIFICATION FOR TOPOGRAPHIC WIND EFFECT 



BASIC WIND 

SPEED FROM 

FIGURE R301.2(4) 

(mph) 


AVERAGE SLOPE OF THE TOP HALF OF HILL, RIDGE OR ESCARPMENT (percent) 


0.10 


0.125 0.15 0.175 


0.20 0.23 


0.25 or areater 


Required basic wind speed-up, modified for topographic wind speed up (mph) 


85 


100 


100 


100 


110 


110 


110 


120 


90 


100 


100 


110 


110 


120 


120 


120 


100 


110 


120 


120 


130 


130 


130 


140 


110 


120 


130 


130 


140 


140 


150 


150 


120 


140 


140 


150 


150 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


130 


150 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 



For SI: 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 















£-' 


H 


Li 

1 


H/2 JF 

r r? 


j£_ 


' Lh 


" 


A 
M 


i J 
H/2 X 


Lh 


^~-~ 







L=2Lh 



L=2Lh 



ESCARPMENT 

Note: H/2 determines the measurement point for Lh. L is twice Lh. 



RIDGE OR HILL 



FIGURE R301 .2.1.5.1(1) 
TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURES FOR WIND SPEED-UP EFFECT 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



43 



BUILDING PLANNING 



GREATER OF 1.5LOR6H 



APPLY INCREASED 
WIND SPEED TO 
TOP HALF OF HILL OR 
RIDGE 





H/2 



HILL OR RIDGE 



ESCARPEMNT 



FIGURE R301 .2.1.5.1 (2) 
ILLUSTRATION OF WHERE ON A TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURE, WIND SPEED INCREASE IS APPLIED 



CHECK FOR OBSTRUCTION PER R301.2.5 
IF DISTANCE IS LESS THAN 100 H, OR 2 
MILES 




UPWIND TOPOGRAPHIC 
FEATURE 




ESCARPMENT 



RIDGE OR HILL 



FIGURE R301.2.1.5.1(3) 
ILLUSTRATION OF WHERE ON A TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURE, WIND SPEED INCREASE IS APPLIED 



R301.2.2 Seismic provisions. The seismic provisions of 
this code shall apply to buildings constructed in Seismic 
Design Categories C, Do, D l and D z , as determined in accor- 
dance with this section. 

Exception: Detached one- and two-family dwellings 
located in Seismic Design Category C are exempt from 
the seismic requirements of this code. 

R30 1.2.2.1 Determination of seismic design category. 
Buildings shall be assigned a seismic design category in 
accordance with Figure R301.2(2). 

R301.2.2.1.1 Alternate determination of seismic 
design category. The Seismic Design Categories and 
corresponding Short Period Design Spectral 
Response Accelerations, sds shown in Figure 
R301.2(2) are based on soil Site Class D, as defined in 
Section 1613.5.2 of the International BUilding Code. 
If soil conditions are other than Site Class D, the Short 
Period Design Spectral Response Accelerations, sds' 
for a site can be determined according to Section 
1613.5 of the International BUilding Code. The value 



of sds determined according to Section 1613.5 of the 
International BUilding Code is permitted to be used to 
set the seismic design category according to Table 
R30 1.2.2. 1.1, and to interpolate between values in 
Tables R602.10.1, R603.7 and other seismic design 
requirements of this code. 

TABLE R301. 2.2.1.1 
SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY DETERMINATION 



CALCULATED 5 DS 


SEISMIC DESIGN 
CATEGORY 


S DS <0Alg 


A 


0Alg<S DS <033g 


B 


0.33g <sds< O.SOg 


C 


O.SOg<sz)s<0.67g 


Do 


0.67g <sds <0.83g 


Di 


0.83g < S^ 5 < 1.17g 


D z 


1.17g < SDs 


E 



44 



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R301.2.2.1.2 Alternative determination of Seismic 
Design Category E. Buildings located in Seismic 
Design Category E in accordance with Figure 
R30 1.2(2) are permitted to be reclassified as being in 
Seismic Design Category D z provided one of the fol- 
lowing is done: 

1. A more detailed evaluation of the seismic design 
category is made in accordance with the provisions 
and maps of the International BUilding Code. 
Buildings located in Seismic Design Category E 
per Table R30 1.2.2. 1.1, but located in Seismic 
Design Category D per the International BUilding 
Code, may be designed using the Seismic Design 
Category D z requirements of this code. 

2. Buildings located in Seismic Design Category 
E that conform to the following additional 
restrictions are permitted to be constructed in 
accordance with the provisions for Seismic 
Design Category D z of this code: 

2. 1 . All exterior shear wall lines or braced wall 
panels are in one plane vertically from the 
foundation to the uppermost story. 

2.2. Floors shall not cantilever past the exte- 
rior walls. 

2.3. The building is within all of the require- 
ments of Section R301. 2. 2. 2. 5 for being 
considered as regular. 

R301.2.2.2 Seismic Design Category C. Structures 
assigned to Seismic Design Category C shall conform to 
the requirements of this section. 

R301.2.2.2.1 Weights of materials. Average dead 
loads shall not exceed 15 pounds per square foot (720 
Pa) for the combined roof and ceiling assemblies (on a 
horizontal projection) or 10 pounds per square foot 
(480 Pa) for floor assemblies, except as further lim- 
ited by Section R30 1.2.2. Dead loads for walls above 
grade shall not exceed: 

1. Fifteen pounds per square foot (720 Pa) for 
exterior light-frame wood walls. 

2. Fourteen pounds per square foot (670 Pa) for 
exterior light-frame cold-formed steel walls. 

3 . Ten pounds per square foot (480 Pa) for interior 
light-frame wood walls. 

4. Five pounds per square foot (240 Pa) for inte- 
rior light-frame cold-formed steel walls. 

5. Eighty pounds per square foot (3830 Pa) for 
8-inch-thick (203 mm) masonry walls. 

6. Eighty-five pounds per square foot (4070 Pa) 
for 6-inch-thick (152 mm) concrete walls. 

7 . Ten pounds per square foot (480 Pa) for SIP walls. 

Exceptions: 

1. Roof and ceiling dead loads not 
exceeding 25 pounds per square foot 
(1190 Pa) shall be permitted provided 



the wall bracing amounts in Chapter 6 
are increased in accordance with 
Table R301.2.2.2.1. 

2. Light-frame walls with stone or 
masonry veneer shall be permitted in 
accordance with the provisions of 
Sections R702.1 and R703. 

3. Fireplaces and chimneys shall be per- 
mitted in accordance with Chapter 10. 

TABLE R301.2.2.2.1 

WALL BRACING ADJUSTMENT FACTORS BY 

ROOF COVERING DEAD LOADa 



WALL SUPPORTING 


ROOF/CEILING 
DEAD LOAD 


15 pst or less 


25 pst 


Roof only 


1.0 


1.2 


Roof plus one or two 
stories 


1.0 


1.1 



For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 
a. Linear interpolation shall be permitted. 

R301.2.2.2.2 Stone and masonry veneer. Anchored 
stone and masonry veneer shall comply with the 
requirements of Sections R702.1 and R703. 

R301.2.2.2.3 Masonry construction. Masonry con- 
struction shall comply with the requirements of Sec- 
tion R606.ll. 2. 

R301. 2.2.2.4 Concrete construction. Detached one- 
and two-family dwellings with exterior above-grade con- 
crete walls shall comply with the requirements of Section 
R611, PC A 100 or shall be designed in accordance with 
ACI 318. Townhouses with above-grade exterior con- 
crete walls shall comply with the requirements of PC A 
100 or shall be designed in accordance with ACI 318. 

R301. 2.2.2.5 Irregular buildings. Prescriptive con- 
struction as regulated by this code shall not be used for 
irregular structures located in Seismic Design Catego- 
ries C, Do, D { and D z . Irregular portions of structures 
shall be designed in accordance with accepted engi- 
neering practice to the extent the irregular features 
affect the performance of the remaining structural sys- 
tem. When the forces associated with the irregularity 
are resisted by a structural system designed in accor- 
dance with accepted engineering practice, design of 
the remainder of the building shall be permitted using 
the provisions of this code. A building or portion of a 
building shall be considered to be irregular when one 
or more of the following conditions occur: 

1. When exterior shear wall lines or braced wall 
panels are not in one plane vertically from the 
foundation to the uppermost storyin which they 
are required. 

Exception: For wood light-frame construc- 
tion, floors with cantilevers or setbacks not 
exceeding four times the nominal depth of the 
wood floor joists are permitted to support 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



45 



BUILDING PLANNING 



braced wallpanels that are out of plane with 
braced wallpanels below provided that: 

1. Floorjoists are nominal 2 inches by 10 
inches (51 mm by 254 mm) or larger 
and spaced not more than 16 inches 
(406 mm) on center. 

2. The ratio of the back span to the canti- 
lever is at least 2 to 1. 

3. Floorjoists at ends of braced wall 
panels are doubled. 

4. For wood-frame construction, a con- 
tinuous rim joist is connected to ends 
of all cantilever joists. When spliced, 
the rim joists shall be spliced using a 
galvanized metal tie not less than 
0.058 inch (1.5 mm) (16 gage) and 1V 2 
inches (38 mm) wide fastened with six 
16d nails on each side of the splice or a 
block of the same size as the rimjoist 
of sufficient length to fit securely 
between the joist space at which the 
splice occurs fastened with eight 16d 
nails on each side of the splice; and 

5. Gravity loads carried at the end of can- 
tilevered joists are limited to uniform 
wall and roof loads and the reactions 
from headers having a span of 8 feet 
(2438 mm) or less. 

When a section of floor or roof is not laterally 
supported by shear walls or braced wall lines 
on all edges. 

Exception: Portions of floors that do not 
support shear walls or braced wall panels 
above, or roofs, shall be permitted to extend 
no more than 6 feet (1829 mm) beyond a 
shear wall or braced wall line. 

When the end of a braced wall panel occurs 
over an opening in the wall below and ends at a 
horizontal distance greater than 1 foot (305 
mm) from the edge of the opening. This provi- 
sion is applicable to shear walls and braced 
wallpanels offset in plane and to braced wall 
panels offset out of plane as permitted by the 
exception to Item 1 above. 

Exception: For wood light-frame wall con- 
struction, one end of a braced wall panel 
shall be permitted to extend more than 1 foot 
(305 mm) over an opening not more than 8 
feet (2438 mm) wide in the wall below pro- 
vided that the opening includes a header in 
accordance with the following: 

1. The building width, loading condition 
and framing member species limita- 
tions of Table R502.5(l) shall apply; 
and 



2. Not less than one 2 x 12 or two 2 x 10 
for an opening not more than 4 feet 
(1219 mm) wide; or 

3. Not less than two 2 x 12 or three 2 x 10 
for an opening not more than 6 feet 
(1829 mm) wide; or 

4. Not less than three 2 x 12 or four 2 x 
10 for an opening not more than 8 feet 
(2438 mm) wide; and 

5. The entire length of the braced wall 
panel does not occur over an opening 
in the wall below. 

4. When an opening in a floor or roof exceeds the 
lesser of 12 feet (3658 mm) or 50 percent of the 
least floor or roof dimension. 

5. When portions of a floor level are vertically off- 
set. 

Exceptions: 

1. Framing supported directly by contin- 
uous foundations at the perimeter of 
the building. 

2. For wood light-frame construction, 
floors shall be permitted to be verti- 
cally offset when the floor framing is 
lapped or tied together as required by 
Section R502.6.1. 

6. When shear walls and braced wall lines do not 
occur in two perpendicular directions. 

7. When stories above-grade partially or com- 
pletely braced by wood wall framing in accor- 
dance with Section R602 or steel wall framing 
in accordance with Section R603 include 
masonry or concrete construction. 

Exception: Fireplaces, chimneys and 
masonry veneer as permitted by this code. 
When this irregularity applies, the entire 
story shall be designed in accordance with 
accepted engineering practice. 

R301. 2.2.3 Seismic Design Categories Do, D l and D 2 « 
Structures assigned to Seismic Design Categories Do, D 1 
and D 2 shall conform to the requirements for Seismic 
Design Category C and the additional requirements of 
this section. 

R301.2.2.3.1 Height limitations. Wood framed 
buildings shall be limited to three stories above grade 
or the limits given in Table R602. 10. 1.2(2). 
Cold -formed steel framed buildings shall be limited 
to less than or equal to three stories above grade in 
accordance with AISI S230. Mezzanines as defined in 
Section R202 shall not be considered as stories. Struc- 
tural insulated panel buildings shall be limited to two 
stories above grade. 

R301.2.2.3.2 Stone and masonry veneer. Anchored 
stone and masonry veneer shall comply with the 
requirements of Sections R702.1 and R703. 



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I 



R301.2.2.3.3 Masonry construction. Masonry con- 
struction in Seismic Design Categories Do and Di 
shall comply with the requirements of Section 
R606.ll. 3. Masonry construction in Seismic Design 
Category D z shall comply with the requirements of 
Section R606.ll. 4. 

R301.2.2.3.4 Concrete construction. Buildings with 
exterior above-grade concrete walls shall comply 
with PCA 100 or shall be designed in accordance with 
ACI318. 

R301.2.2.3.5 Cold-formed steel framing in Seismic 
Design Categories Do, D x and D 2 . In Seismic Design 
Categories Do, D 2 and D z in addition to the require- 
ments of this code, cold-formed steel framing shall 
comply with the requirements of AISI S230. 

R301.2.2.3.6 Masonry chimneys. Masonry chim- 
neys shall be reinforced and anchored to the building 
in accordance with Sections R 1003. 3 and R 1003. 4. 

R301.2.2.3.7 Anchorage of water heaters. Water 
heaters shall be anchored against movement and over- 
turning in accordance with Section M 1307.2. 

R301.2.2.4 Seismic Design Category E. Buildings in 
Seismic Design Category E shall be designed in accor- 
dance with the International BUilding Code, except 
when the seismic design category is reclassified to a 
lower seismic design category in accordance with Sec- 
tion R301.2.2.1. 

R301.2.3 Snow loads. Wood framed construction, cold- 
formed steel framed construction and masonry and concrete 
construction, and structural insulated panel construction in 
regions with ground snow loads 70 pounds per square foot 
(3.35 kPa) or less, shall be in accordance with Chapters 5,6 
and 8. Buildings in regions with ground snow loads greater 
than 70 pounds per square foot (3.35 kPa) shall be designed 
in accordance with accepted engineering practice. 

R30 1.2.4 Floodplain construction. Buildings and struc- 
tures constructed in whole or in part in flood hazard areas 
(including A or V Zones) as established in Table R30 1.2(1) 
shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Section 
R322. 

Exception: Buildings and structures located in whole or 
in part in identified floodways shall be designed and con- 
structed in accordance with ASCE 24. 

R30 1.2.4.1 Alternative provisions. As an alternative to 
the requirements in Section R322.3 for buildings and 
structures located in whole or in part in coastal high haz- 
ard areas (V Zones), ASCE 24 is permitted subject to the 
limitations of this code and the limitations therein. 



R301.3 Story height. Buildings constructed in accordance 
with these provisions shall be limited to story heights of not 
more than the following: 

1. For wood wall framing, the laterally unsupported bearing 
wall stud height permitted by Table R602.3 (5) plus a height 
of floor framing not to exceed 16 inches (406 mm). 

Exception: Forwood framed wall buildings with brac- 
ing in accordance with Tables R602.10.1 .2(1) and 
R602. 10. 1.2(2), the wall stud clear height used to 
determine the maximum permitted storyheightmay be 
increased to 12 feet (3658 mm) without requiring an 
engineered design for the building wind and seismic 
force resisting systems provided that the length of 
bracing required by Table R602 . 10.1 .2(1) is increased 
by multiplying by a factor of 1.10 and the length of 
bracing required by Table R602. 10.1 .2(2) is increased 
by multiplying by a factor of 1.20. Wall studs are still 
subject to the requirements of this section. 

2. For steel wall framing, a stud height of 10 feet (3048 
mm), plus a height of floor framing not to exceed 16 
inches (406 mm). 

3. For masonry walls, a maximum bearing wall clear height 
of 12 feet (3658 mm) plus a height of floor framing not to 
exceed 16 inches (406 mm) . 

Exception: An additional 8 feet (2438 mm) is permit- 
ted for gable end walls. 

4. For insulating concrete form walls, the maximum bear- 
ing wall height per story as permitted by Section R611 
tables plus a height of floor framing not to exceed 16 
inches (406 mm). 

5. For structural insulated panel (SIP) walls, the maximum 
bearing wall height per story as permitted by Section 614 
tables shall not exceed 10 feet (3048 mm) plus a height of 
floor framing not to exceed 16 inches (406 mm) . 

Individual walls or walls studs shall be permitted to exceed 
these limits as permitted by Chapter 6 provisions, provided 
story heights are not exceeded. Floor framing height shall be 
permitted to exceed these limits provided the story height does 
not exceed 11 feet 7 inches (3531 mm). An engineered design 
shall be provided for the wall or wall framing members when 
they exceed the limits of Chapter 6. Where the storyheightiim- 
its are exceeded, an engineered design shall be provided in 
accordance with the International BUilding Code for the over- 
all wind and seismic force resisting systems. 

R301.4 Dead load. The actual weights of materials and con- 
struction shall be used for determining dead load with consid- 
eration for the dead load of fixed service equipment. 

R301.5 Live load. The minimum uniformly distributed live 
load shall be as provided in Table R301.5. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



47 



BUILDING PLANNING 



TABLE R301.5 

MINIMUM UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LIVE LOADS 

(in pounds per square foot) 



TABLE R301.6 

MINIMUM ROOF LIVE LOADS IN POUNDS-FORCE 

PER SQUARE FOOT OF HORIZONTAL PROJECTION 



USE 


LIVE LOAD 


Attics without storage 15 


10 


Attics with limited storage 15 , g 


20 


Habitable attics and attics served 
with fixed stairs 


30 


Balconies (exterior) and decks 6 


40 


Fire escapes 


40 


Guardrails and handrails d 


200 h 


Guardrail in-fill components f 


SOh 


Passenger vehicle garages** 


soa 


Rooms other than sleeping room 


40 


Sleeping rooms 


30 


Stairs 


40 c 



For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 square inch = 645 mm 2 , 
1 pound = 4.45 N. 

a. Elevated garage floors shall be capable of supporting a 2,000-pound load 
applied over a 20-square-inch area. 

b. Attics without storage are those where the maximum clear height between 
joist and rafter is less than 42 inches, or where there are not two or more adja- 
cent trusses with the same web configuration capable of containing a rectan- 
gle 42 inches high by 2 feet wide, or greater, located within the plane of the 
truss. For attics without storage, this live load need not be assumed to act 
concurrently with any other live load requirements. 

c. Individual stair treads shall be designed for the uniformly distributed live 
load or a 300-pound concentrated load acting over an area of 4 square inches, 
whichever produces the greater stresses. 

d. A single concentrated load applied in any direction at any point along the top. 

e. See Section R502.2.2 for decks attached to exterior walls. 

f. Guard in-fill components (all those except the handrail), balusters and panel 
fillers shall be designed to withstand a horizontally applied normal load of 
50 pounds on an area equal to 1 square foot. This load need not be assumed to 
act concurrently with any other live load requirement. 

g. For attics with limited storage and constructed with trusses, this live load 
need be applied only to those portions of the bottom chord where there are 
two or more adjacent trusses with the same web configuration capable of 
containing a rectangle 42 inches high or greater by 2 feet wide or greater, 
located within the plane of the truss. The rectangle shall fit between the top 
of the bottom chord and the bottom of any other truss member, provided that 
each of the following criteria is met. 

1 . The attic area is accessible by a pull-down stairway or framed in accor- 
dance with Section R807.1. 

2. The truss has a bottom chord pitch less than 2: 12. 

3. Required insulation depth is less than the bottom chord member depth. 

The bottom chords of trusses meeting the above criteria for limited stor- 
age shall be designed for the greater of the actual imposed dead load or 10 
psf, uniformly distributed over the entire span, 
h. Glazing used in handrail assemblies and guards shall be designed with a 
safety factor of 4. The safety factor shall be applied to each of the concen- 
trated loads applied to the top of the rail, and to the load on the in-fill compo- 
nents. These loads shall be determined independent of one another, and 
loads are assumed not to occur with any other live load. 

R301.6 Roofload. The roof shall be designed for the live load 
indicated in Table R30 1.6 or the snow load indicated in Table 
R301.2(l), whichever is greater. 



ROOF SLOPE 


TRIBUTARY LOADED AREA IN 
SQUARE FEET FOR ANY 
STRUCTURAL MEMBER 


Oto 200 


201 to 600 


Over 600 


Flat or rise less than 4 inches per 
foot (1:3) 


20 


16 


12 


Rise 4 inches per foot (1 :3) to 
less than 12 inches per foot (1: 1) 


16 


14 


12 


Rise 12 inches per foot (1: 1) 
and greater 


12 


12 


12 



For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m 2 , 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 inch per foot =83.3 mmlm. 

R301.7 Deflection. The allowable deflection of any structural 
member under the live load listed in Sections R301.5 and 
R30 1.6 shall not exceed the values in Table R30 1.7. 



TABLE R301.7 
ALLOWABLE DEFLECTION OF STRUCTURAL MEMBERSa,b,c,d,e 



STRUCTURAL MEMBER 


ALLOWABLE 
DEFLECTION 


Rafters having slopes greater than 3: 12 with no 
finished ceiling attached to rafters 


L/180 


Interior walls and partitions 


H/180 


Floors and plastered ceilings 


L/360 


All other structural members 


L/240 


Exterior walls with plaster or stucco finish 


H/360 


Exterior walls-wind loads 3 with brittle finishes 


H/240 


Exterior walls-wind loads a with flexible 
finishes 


L/120 d 


Lintels supporting masonry veneer walls 6 


L/600 



Note: L = span length, H = span height. 

a. The wind load shall be permitted to be taken as 0.7 times the Component and 
Cladding loads for the purpose of the determining deflection limits herein. 

b. For cantilever members, L shall be taken as twice the length of the cantilever. 

c. For aluminum structural members or panels used in roofs or walls of sun- 
room additions or patio covers, not supporting edge of glass or sandwich 
panels, the total load deflection shall not exceed L/60. For continuous alumi- 
num structural members supporting edge of glass, the total load deflection 
shall not exceed L/175 for each glass lite or L/60 for the entire length of the 
member, whichever is more stringent. For sandwich panels used in roofs or 
walls of sunroom additions or patio covers, the total load deflection shall not 
exceed L/120. 

d. Deflection for exterior walls with interior gypsum board finish shall be lim- 
ited to an allowable deflection of H/180. 

e. Refer to Section R703.7.2. 



R301.8 Nominal sizes. For the purposes of this code, where 
dimensions of lumber are specified, they shall be deemed to be 
nominal dimensions unless specifically designated as actual 
dimensions . 



48 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



BUILDING PLANNING 



SECTION R302 
FIRE-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION 

R302.1 Exterior walls. Construction, projections, openings 
and penetrations of exterior walls of dwellings and accessory 
buildings shall comply with Table R302.1. 

Exceptions: 

1. Walls, projections, openings or penetrations in walls 
perpendicular to the line used to determine the fire 
separation distance. 

2. Walls of dwellings and accessory structures located 
on the same lot. 

3. Detached tool sheds and storage sheds, playhouses 
and similar structures exempted from permits are not 
required to provide wall protection based on location 
on the lot. Projections beyond the exterior wall shall 
not extend over the lot line. 

4. Detached garages accessory to a dwelling located within 
2 feet (610 mm) of a lot line are permitted to have roof 
eave projections not exceeding 4 inches (102 mm). 

5. Foundation vents installed in compliance with this 
code are permitted. 

R302.2 Townhouses. Each townhouse shall be considered a 
separate building and shall be separated by fire-resis- 
tance-rated wall assemblies meeting the requirements of Sec- 
tion R302.1 for exterior walls. 

Exception: A common I-hour fire -resistance-rated wall 
assembly tested in accordance with ASTM E 1 19 or UL 263 
is permitted for townhouses if such walls do not contain 
plumbing or mechanical equipment, ducts or vents in the 
cavity of the common wall. The wall shall be rated for fire 
exposure from both sides and shall extend to and be tight 
against exterior walls and the underside of the roof sheath- 
ing. Electrical installations shall be installed in accordance 
with Chapters 34 through 43. Penetrations of electrical out- 
let boxes shall be in accordance with Section R302.4. 



R302.2.1 Continuity. The fire-resistance -rated wall or 
assembly separating townhouses shall be continuous from 
the foundation to the underside of the roof sheathing, deck 
or slab. The fire -resistance rating shall extend the full length 
of the wall or assembly, including wall extensions through 
and separating attached enclosed accessory structures. 

R302.2.2 Parapets. Parapets constructed in accordance 
with Section R302.2.3 shall be constructed for townhouses 
as an extension of exterior walls or common walls in accor- 
dance with the following: 

1. Where roof surfaces adjacent to the wall or walls are 
at the same elevation, the parapet shall extend not less 
than 30 inches (762 mm) above the roof surfaces. 

2. Where roof surfaces adjacent to the wall or walls are 
at different elevations and the higher roof is not more 
than 30 inches (762 mm) above the lower roof, the 
parapet shall extend not less than 30 inches (762 mm) 
above the lower roof surface. 

Exception: A parapet is not required in the two 
cases above when the roof is covered with a mini- 
mum class C roof covering, and the roof decking or 
sheathing is of noncombustible materials or 
app rove d fire- retardant- treated wood for a distance 
of 4 feet (1219 mm) on each side of the wall or 
walls, or one layer of sis-inch (15 .9 mm) Type X 
gypsum board is installed directly beneath the roof 
decking or sheathing, supported by a minimum of 
nominal 2-inch (51 mm) ledgers attached to the 
sides of the roof framing members, for a minimum 
distance of 4 feet (1219 mm) on each side of the 
wall or walls. 

3. A parapet is not required where roof surfaces adjacent 
to the wall or walls are at different elevations and the 
higher roof is more than 30 inches (762 mm) above 
the lower roof. The common wall construction from 
the lower roof to the underside of the higher roof deck 
shall have not less than a I-hour fire-resistance rating. 
The wall shall be rated for exposure from both sides. 



TABLE R302.1 
EXTERIOR WALLS 



EXTERIOR WALL ELEMENT 


MINIMUM 
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING 


MINIMUM FIRE 
SEPARATION DISTANCE 


Walls 


(Fire-resistance rated) 


1 hour-tested in accordance with ASTM E 119 or 
UL 263 with exposure form both sides 


< 5 feet 


(Not fire-resistance rated) 


Ohours 


> 5 feet 


Projections 


(Fire-resistance rated) 


1 hour on the underside 


> 2 feet to 5 feet 


(Not fire-resistance rated) 


Ohours 


5 feet 


Openings in walls 


Not allowed 


N/A 


< 3 feet 


25% maximum of wall area 


Ohours 


3 feet 


Unlimited 


Ohours 


5 feet 


Penetrations 


All 


Comply with Section R31 7.3 


< 5 feet 


None required 


5 feet 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 
N/A = Not Applicable. 



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49 



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R302.2.3 Parapet construction. Parapets shall have the 
same fire-resistance rating as that required for the supporting 
wall or walls. On any side adjacent to a roof surface, the para- 
pet shall have noncombustible faces for the uppermost 18 
inches (457 mm), to include counterflashing and coping 
materials. Where the roof slopes toward a parapet at slopes 
greater than 2 units vertical in 12 units horizontal (16.7 -per- 
cent slope), the parapet shall extend to the same height as any 
portion of the roof within a distance of 3 feet (914 mm), but in 
no case shall the height be less than 30 inches (762 mm). 

R302.2.4 Structural independence. Each individual town- 
house shall be structurally independent. 

Exceptions: 

1. Foundations supporting exterior walls or common 
walls. 

2. Structural roof and wall sheathing from each unit 
may fasten to the common wall framing. 

3. Nonstructural wall and roof coverings. 

4. Flashing at termination of roof covering over com- 
mon wall. 

5. Townhouses separated by a common I-hour 
fire-resistance-rated wall as provided in Section 
R302.2. 

R302.3 Two-family dwellings. Dwelling units in two-family 
dwellings shall be separated from each other by wall andlor 
floor assemblies having not less than a I-hour fire-resistance 
rating when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1 19 or UL 263. 
Fire-resistance-rated floor-ceiling and wall assemblies shall 
extend to and be tight against the exterior wall, and wall assem- 
blies shall extend from the foundation to the underside of the 
roof sheathing. 

Exceptions: 

1. A fire-resistance rating of liz hour shall be permitted in 
buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprin- 
kler system installed in accordance with NFPA 13. 

2. Wall assemblies need not extend through attic spaces 
when the ceiling is protected by not less than s/8-inch 
(15.9 mm) Type X gypsum board and an attic draft 
stop constructed as specified in Section R302.12.1 is 
provided above and along the wall assembly separat- 
ing the dwellings. The structural framing supporting 
the ceiling shall also be protected by not less than 
liz-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board or equivalent. 

R302.3.1 Supporting construction. When floor assem- 
blies are required to be fire-resistance rated by Section 
R302.3, the supporting construction of such assemblies 
shall have an equal or greater fire-resistance rating. 

R302.4 Dwelling unit rated penetrations. Penetrations of 
wall or rloorlceiling assemblies required to be fire-resistance 
rated in accordance with Section R302.2 or R302.3 shall be 
protected in accordance with this section. 



R302.4.1 Through penetrations. Through penetrations of 
fire-resistance-rated wall or floor assemblies shall comply 
with Section R302.4. 1.1 or R302.4.1.2. 

Exception: Where the penetrating items are steel, fer- 
rous or copper pipes, tubes or conduits, the annular space 
shall be protected as follows: 

1. In concrete or masonry wall or floor assemblies, 
concrete, grout or mortar shall be permitted where 
installed to the full thickness of the wall or floor 
assembly or the thickness required to maintain the 
fire-resistance rating, provided: 

1.1. The nominal diameter of the penetrating 
item is a maximum of 6 inches (152 mm); 
and 

1.2. The area of the opening through the wall 
does not exceed 144 square inches (92 900 
mm 2 ). 

2. The material used to fill the annular space shall pre- 
vent the passage of flame and hot gases sufficient to 
ignite cotton waste where subjected to ASTM E 1 19 
or UL 263 time temperature fire conditions under a 
minimum positive pressure differential of 0.01 inch 
of water (3 Pa) at the location of the penetration for 
the time period equivalent to the fire resistance rat- 
ing of the construction penetrated. 

R302.4.1.1 Fire-resistance-rated assembly. Penetra- 
tions shall be installed as tested in the approved 
fire-resistance-rated assembly. 

R302.4.1.2 Penetration firestop system. Penetrations 
shall be protected by an approved penetration firestop 
system installed as tested in accordance with ASTM E 
814 or UL 1479, with a minimum positive pressure dif- 
ferential of 0.01 inch of water (3 Pa) and shall have an F 
rating of not less than the required fire-resistance rating 
of the wall or rloorlceiling assembly penetrated. 

R302.4.2 Membrane penetrations. Membrane penetra- 
tions shall comply with Section R302.4.1. Where walls are 
required to have a fire-resistance rating, recessed fixtures 
shall be installed so that the required fire-resistance rating 
will not be reduced. 

Exceptions: 

1. Membrane penetrations of maximum 2-hour 
fire-resistance-rated walls and partitions by steel 
electrical boxes that do not exceed 16 square 
inches (0.0103 m 7 ) in area provided the aggregate 
area of the openings through the membrane does 
not exceed 100 square inches (0.0645 m 2 ) in any 
100 square feet (9.29 m)zofwall area. The annular 
space between the wall membrane and the box 
shall not exceed i/ 8 inch (3.1 mm). Such boxes on 
opposite sides of the wall shall be separated by one 
of the following: 

1.1. By a horizontal distance of not less than 24 
inches (610 mm) where the wall or parti- 



50 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



BUILDING PLANNING 



tion is constructed with individual 
noncommunicating stud cavities; 

1.2. By a horizontal distance of not less than the 
depth of the wall cavity when the wall cav- 
ity is filled with cellulose loose-fill, 
rockwool or slag mineral wool insulation; 

1.3. By solid fire blocking in accordance with 
Section R302.ll; 

1.4. By protecting both boxes with listed putty 
pads; or 

1.5. By other listed materials and methods. 

2. Membrane penetrations by listed electrical boxes 
of any materials provided the boxes have been 
tested for use in fire-resistance-rated assemblies 
and are installed in accordance with the instruc- 
tions included in the listing. The annular space 
between the wall membrane and the box shall not 
exceed i/ 8 inch (3.1 mm) unless listed otherwise. 
Such boxes on opposite sides of the wall shall be 
separated by one of the following: 

2.1. By the horizontal distance specified in the 
listing of the electrical boxes; 

2.2. By solid fireblocking in accordance with 
Section R302.ll; 

2.3. By protecting both boxes with listed putty 
pads; or 

2.4. By other listed materials and methods. 

3. The annular space created by the penetration of a 
fire sprinkler provided it is covered by a metal 
escutcheon plate. 

R302.5 Dwelling/garage opening/penetration protection. 

Openings and penetrations through the walls or ceilings sepa- 
rating the dwelling from the garage shall be in accordance with 
Sections R302.5.1 through R302.5.3. 

R302.5.1 Opening protection. Openings from a private 
garage directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall 
not be permitted. Other openings between the garage and 
residence shall be equipped with solid wood doors not less 
than l 3 / 8 inches (35 mm) in thickness, solid or honeycomb 
core steel doors not less than l 3 / 8 inches (35 mm) thick, or 
20-minute fire-rated doors . 



R302.5.2 Duct penetration. Ducts in the garage and ducts 
penetrating the walls or ceilings separating the dwelling 
from the garage shall be constructed of a minimum No. 26 
gage (0.48 mm) sheet steel or other approved material and 
shall have no openings into the garage. 

R302.5.3 Other penetrations. Penetrations through the 
separation required in Section R309.2 shall be protected as 
required by Section R302.ll, Item 4. 

R302.6 Dwelling/garage fire separation. The garage shall be 
separated as required by Table R302.6. Openings in garage 
walls shall comply with Section R302.5. This provision does 
not apply to garage walls that are perpendicular to the adjacent 
dwelling unit wall. 

R302.7 Under-stair protection. Enclosed accessible space 
under stairs shall have walls, under-stair surface and any soffits 
protected on the enclosed side with l/ 2 -inch (12 .7 mm) gypsum 
board. 

R302.8 Foam plastics. For requirements for foam plastics see 
Section R3 16. 

R302.9 Flame spread index and smoke-developed index for 
wall and ceiling finishes. Flame spread and smoke index for 
wall and ceiling finishes shall be in accordance with Sections 
R302.9.1 through R302.9.4. 

R302.9.1 Flame spread index. Wall and ceiling finishes 
shall have a flame spread index of not greater than 200. 

Exception: Flame spread index requirements for fin- 
ishes shall not apply to trim defined as picture molds, 
chair rails, baseboards and handrails; to doors and win- 
dows or their frames; or to materials that are less than i/ 28 
inch (0.91 mm) in thickness cemented to the surface of 
walls or ceilings if these materials exhibit flame spread 
index values no greater than those of paper of this thick- 
ness cemented to a noncombustible backing. 

R302.9.2 Smoke-developed index. Wall and ceiling fin- 
ishes shall have a smoke-developed index of not greater than 
450. 

R302.9.3 Testing. Tests shall be made in accordance with 
ASTM E 84 or UL 723. 

R302.9.4 Alternate test method. As an alternate to having 
a flame-spread index of not greater than 200 and a smoke 
developed index of not greater than 450 when tested in 
accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723, wall and ceiling 
finishes, other than textiles, shall be permitted to be tested in 



TABLE R302.6 
DWELLING/GARAGE SEPARATION 



SEPARATION 


MATERIAL 


From the residence and attics 


Not less than V 2 -inch gypsum board or equivalent applied to the 
garage side 


From all habitable rooms above the garage 


Not less than s/8-inch Type X gypsum board or equivalent 


Structure! s) supporting floorlceiling assemblies used for separation 
required by this section 


Not less than V 2 -inch gypsum board or equivalent 


Garages located less than 3 feet from a dwelling unit on the same lot 


Not less than V 2 -inch gypsum board or equivalent applied to the 
interior side of exterior walls that are within this area 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



51 



BUILDING PLANNING 



accordance with NFPA 286. Materials tested in accordance 
with NFPA 286 shall meet the following criteria: 

During the 40 kW exposure, the interior finish shall com- 
ply with Item 1. During the 160 kW exposure, the interior 
finish shall comply with Item 2. During the entire test, the 
interior finish shall comply with Item 3. 

1. During the 40 kW exposure, flames shall not spread to 
the ceiling. 

2. During the 160 kW exposure, the interior finish shall 
comply with the following: 

2.1. Flame shall not spread to the outer extremity 
of the sample on any wall or ceiling. 

2.2. Flashover, as defined in NFPA 286, shall not 
occur. 

3. The total smoke released throughout the NFPA 286 
test shall not exceed 1,000 m 2 - 

R302.10 Flame spread index and smoke developed index 
for insulation. Flame spread and smoke developed index for 
insulation shall be in accordance with Sections R302.10.1 
through R302. 10.5. 

R302.10.1 Insulation. Insulation materials, including fac- 
ings, such as vapor retarders and vapor-permeable mem- 
branes installed within floor-ceiling assemblies, roof-ceiling 
assemblies, wall assemblies, crawl spaces and attics shall 
have a flame spread index not to exceed 25 with an accompa- 
nying smoke-developed index not to exceed 450 when tested 
in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723. 

Exceptions: 

1. When such materials are installed in concealed 
spaces, the flame spread index and smoke-devel- 
oped index limitations do not apply to the facings, 
provided that the facing is installed in substantial 
contact with the unexposed surface of the ceiling, 
floor or wall finish. 

2. Cellulose loose-fill insulation, which is not spray 
applied, complying with the requirements of Sec- 
tion R3 02. 10.3, shall only be required to meet the 
smoke-developed index of not more than 450. 

R302.10.2 Loose-fill insulation. Loose-fill insulation 
materials that cannot be mounted in the ASTM E 84 or UL 
723 apparatus without a screen or artificial supports shall 
comply with the flame spread and smoke-developed limits 
of Section R302.10.1 when tested in accordance with 
CAN/ULC S 102.2. 

Exception: Cellulose loose-fill insulation shall not be 
required to be tested in accordance with CAN/ULC S 102.2, 
provided such insulation complies with the requirements of 
Section R302.10.1 and Section R302.10.3. 

R302.10.3 Cellulose loose-fill insulation. Cellulose 
loose- fill insulation shall comply with CPSC 16 CFR, Parts 
1209 and 1404. Each package of such insulating material 
shall be clearly labeled in accordance with CPSC 16 CFR, 
Parts 1209 and 1404. 



R302.10.4 Exposed attic insulation. All exposed insula- 
tion materials installed on attic floors shall have a critical 
radiant flux not less than 0.12 watt per square centimeter. 

R302.10.5 Testing. Tests for critical radiant flux shall be 
made in accordance with ASTM E 970. 

R302.ll Fireblocking. In combustible construction, 
fireblocking shall be provided to cut off all concealed draft 
openings (both vertical and horizontal) and to form an effective 
fire barrier between stories, and between a top story and the 
roof space. 

Fireblocking shall be provided in wood-frame construction 
in the following locations: 

1. In concealed spaces of stud walls and partitions, includ- 
ing furred spaces and parallel rows of studs or staggered 
studs, as follows: 

1.1. Vertically at the ceiling and floor levels. 

1.2. Horizontally at intervals not exceeding 10 feet 
(3048 mm). 

2. At all interconnections between concealed vertical and 
horizontal spaces such as occur at soffits, drop ceilings 
and cove ceilings. 

3. In concealed spaces between stair stringers at the top and 
bottom of the run. Enclosed spaces under stairs shall 
comply with Section R302.7. 

4. At openings around vents, pipes, ducts, cables and wires 
at ceiling and floor level, with an approved material to 
resist the free passage of flame and products of combus- 
tion. The material filling this annular space shall not be 
required to meet the ASTM E 136 requirements. 

5. For the fireblocking of chimneys and fireplaces, see Sec- 
tion R 1003. 19. 

6. Fireblocking of cornices of a two-family dwelling is 
required at the line of dwelling unit separation. 

R302.11.1 Fireblocking materials. Except as provided in 
Section R302.ll, Item 4, fireblocking shall consist of the 
following materials. 

1. Two-inch (51 mm) nominal lumber. 

2. Two thicknesses of I-inch (25.4 mm) nominal lumber 
with broken lap joints. 

3. One thickness of 23 / 32 -inch (18.3 mm) wood structural 
panels with joints backed by 23 / 32 -inch (18.3 mm) 
wood structural panels. 

4. One thickness of 3/4-inch (19.1 mm) particleboard with 
joints backed by 3 / 4 -inch (19.1 mm) particleboard. 

5. One-half-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board. 

6. One-quarter-inch (6.4 mm) cement-based millboard. 

7. Batts or blankets of mineral wool or glass fiber or 
other approv edmaterials installed in such a manner as 
to be securely retained in place. 

R302. 11.1.1 Batts or blankets of mineral or glass 
fiber. Batts or blankets of mineral or glass fiber or other 
approvednonngid materials shall be permitted for com- 
pliance with the 10-foot (3048 mm) horizontal 



52 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



BUILDING PLANNING 



fireblocking in walls constructed using parallel rows of 
studs or staggered studs. 

R302.11.1.2 Unfaced fiberglass. Unfaced fiberglass 
batt insulation used as fireblocking shall fill the entire 
cross section of the wall cavity to a minimum height of 
16 inches (406 mm) measured vertically. When piping, 
conduit or similar obstructions are encountered, the insu- 
lation shall be packed tightly around the obstruction. 

R302.ll. 1.3 Loose-fill insulation material. Loose-fill 
insulation material shall not be used as a fireblock unless 
specifically tested in the form and manner intended for 
use to demonstrate its ability to remain in place and to 
retard the spread of fire and hot gases. 



R302.11.2 Fireblocking integrity. 

fireblocks shall be maintained. 



The integrity of all 



R302.12 Draftstopping. In combustible construction where 
there is usable space both above and below the concealed space 
of a floor/ceiling assembly, draftstops shall be installed so that 
the area of the concealed space does not exceed 1,000 square 
feet (92.9 m 2 ). Draftstopping shall divide the concealed space 
into approximately equal areas. Where the assembly is 
enclosed by a floor membrane above and a ceiling membrane 
below, draftstopping shall be provided in floor/ceiling assem- 
blies under the following circumstances: 

1. Ceiling is suspended under the floor framing. 

2. Floor framing is constructed of truss-type open-web or 
perforated members. 

R302.12.1 Materials. Draftstopping materials shall not be 
less than liz-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board, 3/ s -inch (9.5 
mm) wood structural panels or other approved materials 
adequately supported. Draftopping shall be installed paral- 
lel to the floor framing members unless otherwise approved 
by the building official. The integrity of the draftstops shall 
be maintained. 

R302.13 Combustible insulation clearance. Combustible 
insulation shall be separated a minimum of 3 inches (76 mm) 
from recessed luminaires, fan motors and other heat-producing 
devices. 

Exception: Where heat-producing devices are listed for 
lesser clearances, combustible insulation complying with 
the listing requirements shall be separated in accordance 
with the conditions stipulated in the listing. 

Recessed luminaires installed in the building thermal enve- 
lope shall meet the requirements of Section NII02.4.5. 



SECTION R303 
LIGHT, VENTILATION AND HEATING 

R303.1 Habitable rooms. All habitable rooms shall have an 
aggregate glazing area of not less than 8 percent of the floor 
area of such rooms. Natural ventilation shall be through win- 
dows, doors, louvers or other approved openings to the outdoor 
air. Such openings shall be provided with ready access or shall 
otherwise be readily controllable by the building occupants. 



The minimum openable area to the outdoors shall be 4 percent 
of the floor area being ventilated. 

Exceptions: 

1. The glazed areas need not be openable where the 
opening is not required by Section R310 and an 
approved mechanical ventilation system capable of 
producing 0.35 air change per hour in the room is 
installed or a whole-house mechanical ventilation 
system is installed capable of supplying outdoor ven- 
tilation air of 15 cubic feet per minute (cfm) (78 L/s) 
per occupant computed on the basis of two occupants 
for the first bedroom and one occupant for each addi- 
tional bedroom. 

2. The glazed areas need not be installed in rooms where 
Exception 1 above is satisfied and artificial light is pro- 
vided capable of producing an average illumination of 
6 footcandles (65 lux) over the area of the room at a 
height of 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor level. 

3. Use of sunroom additions and patio covers, as defined in 
Section R202, shall be permitted for natural ventilation 
if in excess of 40 percent of the exterior sunroom walls 
are open, or are enclosed only by insect screening. 

R303.2 Adjoining rooms. For the purpose of determining 
light and ventilation requirements, any room shall be consid- 
ered as a portion of an adjoining room when at least one-half of 
the area of the common wall is open and unobstructed and pro- 
vides an opening of not less than one-tenth of the floor area of 
the interior room but not less than 25 square feet (2.3 m 2 )- 

Exception: Openings required for light and/or ventilation 
shall be permitted to open into a thermally isolated sunroom 
addition or patio cover, provided that there is an openable 
area between the adjoining room and the sunroom addition 
or patio cover of not less than one-tenth of the floor area of 
the interior room but not less than 20 square feet (2 m 2 ) . The 
minimum openable area to the outdoors shall be based upon 
the total floor area being ventilated. 

R303.3 Bathrooms. Bathrooms, water closet compartments 
and other similar rooms shall be provided with aggregate glaz- 
ing area in windows of not less than 3 square feet (0.3 m 2 ), 
one-half of which must be openable. 

Exception: The glazed areas shall not be required where arti- 
ficiallight and a mechanical ventilation system are provided. 
The minimum ventilation rates shall be 50 cubic feet per min- 
ute (24 L/s) for intermittent ventilation or 20 cubic feet per 
minute (10 L/s) for continuous ventilation. Ventilation air 
from the space shall be exhausted directly to the outside. 

R303.4 Opening location. Outdoor intake and exhaust open- 
ings shall be located in accordance with Sections R303.4.1 and 
R303.4.2. 

R303.4.1 Intake openings. Mechanical and gravity out- 
door air intake openings shall be located a minimum of 10 
feet (3048 mm) from any hazardous or noxious contami- 
nant' such as vents, chimneys, plumbing vents, streets, 
alleys, parking lots and loading docks, except as otherwise 
specified in this code. Where a source of contaminant is 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



53 



BUILDING PLANNING 



located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of an intake opening, such 
opening shall be located a minimum of 2 feet (610 mm) 
below the contaminant source. 

For the purpose of this section, the exhaust from dwelling 
unit toilet rooms, bathrooms and kitchens shall not be con- 
sidered as hazardous or noxious. 



R303.4.2 Exhaust openings, 
directed onto walkways. 



Exhaust air shall not be 



R303.5 Outside opening protection. Air exhaust and intake 
openings that terminate outdoors shall be protected with 
corrosion-resistant screens, louvers or grilles having a mini- 
mum opening size of i/ 4 inch (6 mm) and a maximum opening 
size of i/ 2 inch (13 mm), in any dimension. Openings shall be 
protected against local weather conditions . Outdoor air exhaust 
and intake openings shall meet the provisions for exterior wall 
opening protectives in accordance with this code. 

R303.6 Stairway illumination. All interior and exterior stair- 
ways shall be provided with a means to illuminate the stairs, 
including the landings and treads. Interior stairways shall be 
provided with an artificial light source located in the immediate 
vicinity of each landing of the stairway. For interior stairs the 
artificial light sources shall be capable of illuminating treads 
and landings to levels not less than 1 foot-candle (11 lux) mea- 
sured at the center of treads and landings. Exterior stairways 
shall be provided with an artificial light source located in the 
immediate vicinity of the top landing of the stairway. Exterior 
stairways providing access to a basement from the outside 
grade level shall be provided with an artificial light source 
located in the immediate vicinity of the bottom landing of the 
stairway. 

Exception: An artificial light source is not required at the 
top and bottom landing, provided an artificial light source is 
located directly over each stairway section. 

R303.6.1 Light activation. Where lighting outlets are 
installed in interior stairways, there shall be a wall switch at 
each floor level to control the lighting outlet where the stair- 
way has six or more risers. The illumination of exterior 
stairways shall be controlled from inside the dwellingunit. 

Exception: Lights that are continuously illuminated or 
automatically controlled. 

R303.7 Required glazed openings. Required glazed openings 
shall open directly onto a street or public alley, or a yard or 
court located on the same /t^as the building. 

Exceptions: 

1. Required glazed openings may face into a roofed 
porch where the porch abuts a street, y ardor court and 
the longer side of the porch is at least 65 percent unob- 
structed and the ceiling height is not less than 7 feet 
(2134 mm). 

2. Eave projections shall not be considered as obstruct- 
ing the clear open space of a yard or court. 

3. Required glazed openings may face into the area 
under a deck, balcony, bay or floor cantilever pro- 
vided a clear vertical space at least 36 inches (914 
mm) in height is provided. 



R303.7.1 Sunroom additions. Required glazed openings 
shall be permitted to open into sunroom additions or patio 
covers that abut a street, y 'ardor court if in excess of 40 per- 
cent of the exterior sunroom walls are open, or are enclosed 
only by insect screening, and the ceiling height of the sun- 
room is not less than 7 feet (2134 mm) . 

R303.8 Required heating. When the winter design tempera- 
ture in Table R301.2(l) is below 60°F (16°C), every dwelling 
unit shall be provided with heating facilities capable of main- 
taining a minimum room temperature of 68 °F (20°C) at a point 
3 feet (914 mm) above the floor and 2 feet (610 mm) from exte- 
rior walls in all habitable rooms at the design temperature. The 
installation of one or more portable space heaters shall not be 
used to achieve compliance with this section. 



SECTION R304 
MINIMUM ROOM AREAS 

R304.1 Minimum area. Every dwellingunit shall have at least 
one habitable room that shall have not less than 120 square feet 
(11 m 2 ) of gross floor area. 

R304.2 Other rooms. Other habitable rooms shall have a floor 
area of not less than 70 square feet (6.5 m 2 ) . 

Exception: Kitchens. 

R304.3 Minimum dimensions. Habitable rooms shall not be 
less than 7 feet (2134 mm) in any horizontal dimension. 

Exception: Kitchens. 

R304.4 Height effect on room area. Portions of a room with a 
sloping ceiling measuring less than 5 feet (1524 mm) or a furred 
ceiling measuring less than 7 feet (2134 mm) from the finished 
floor to the finished ceiling shall not be considered as contribut- 
ing to the minimum required habitable area for that room. 



SECTION R305 
CEILING HEIGHT 

R305.1 Minimum height. Habitable space, hallways, bath- 
rooms, toilet rooms, laundry rooms and portions of basements 
containing these spaces shall have a ceiling height of not less 
than 7 feet (2134 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1. For rooms with sloped ceilings, at least 50 percent of 
the required floor area of the room must have a ceiling 
height of at least 7 feet (2134 mm) and no portion of 
the required floor area may have a ceiling height of 
less than 5 feet (1524 mm). 

2. Bathrooms shall have a minimum ceiling height of 6 
feet 8 inches (2032 mm) at the center of the front 
clearance area for fixtures as shown in Figure R307 . 1. 
The ceiling height above fixtures shall be such that the 
fixture is capable of being used for its intended pur- 
pose. A shower or tub equipped with a showerhead 
shall have a minimum ceiling height of 6 feet 8 inches 
(2032 mm) above a minimum area 30 inches (762 
mm) by 30 inches (762 mm) at the showerhead. 



54 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



BUILDING PLANNING 



R305.1.1 Basements. Portions of basements that do not 
contain habitable space, hallways, bathrooms, toilet rooms 
and laundry rooms shall have a ceiling height of not less 
than 6 feet 8 inches (2032 mm). 

Exception: Beams, girders, ducts or other obstructions 
may project to within 6 feet 4 inches (1931 mm) of the 
finished floor. 



SECTION R307 
TOILET, BATH AND SHOWER SPACES 

R307.1 Space required. Fixtures shall be spaced in accor- I 
dance with Figure R307.1 , and in accordance with the require- 
ments of Section P270S.1. 

R307.2 Bathtub and shower spaces. Bathtub and shower 
floors and walls above bathtubs with installed shower heads 
and in shower compartments shall be finished with a 
nonabsorbent surface. Such wall surfaces shall extend to a 
height of not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) above the floor. 



SECTION R306 
SANITATION 

R306.1 Toilet facilities. Every dwellingunit shall be provided 
with a water closet, lavatory, and a bathtub or shower. 

R306.2 Kitchen. Each dwelling unit shall be provided with a 
kitchen area and every kitchen area shall be provided with a 
sink. 

R306.3 Sewage disposal. All plumbing fixtures shall be con- 
nected to a sanitary sewer or to an approvedprivate sewage dis- 
posal system. 

R306.4 Water supply to fixtures. All plumbing fixtures shall 
be connected to an approvedwater supply. Kitchen sinks, lava- 
tories, bathtubs, showers, bidets, laundry tubs and washing 
machine outlets shall be provided with hot and cold water. 



SECTION R308 
GLAZING 

R308.1 Identification. Except as indicated in Section R308.1 .1 
each pane of glazing installed in hazardous locations as defined 
in Section R308.4 shall be provided with a manufacturer's desig- 
nation specifying who applied the designation, designating the 
type of glass and the safety glazing standard with which it com- 
plies, which is visible in the final installation. The designation 
shall be acid etched, sandblasted, ceramic-fired, laser etched, 
embossed, or be of a type which once applied cannot be removed 
without being destroyed. A labelshaW be permitted in lieu of the 
manufacturer's designation. 

Exceptions: 

1. For other than tempered glass, manufacturer's desig- 
nations are not required provided the building official 




o 



30 IN. 
MIN. 



24 IN, CLEARANCE IN 
FRONT OF OPENING 



tx/1 



J21 IN. 

[clearance 



WATER CLOSET, 
OR BIDET 



A./ 

15 IN. — h^-H / 



^ 



21 IN. 

CLEARANCE 

_i 



-V 



4 



WATER CLOSETS 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R307.1 
MINIMUM FIXTURE CLEARANCES 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



55 



BUILDING PLANNING 



approves the use of a certificate, affidavit or other evi- 
dence confirming compliance with this code. 

2. Tempered spandrel glass is permitted to be identified 
by the manufacturer with a removable paper designa- 
tion. 

R308.1.1 Identification of multiple assemblies. Multipane 
assemblies having individual panes not exceeding 1 square 
foot (0.09 m 2 ) in exposed area shall have at least one pane in 
the assembly identified in accordance with Section R308.1. 
All other panes in the assembly shall be labeled" CPSC 16 
CFR 1201" or "ANSIZ97.1" as appropriate. 

R308.2 Lou vered windows orjalousies. Regular, float, wired 
or patterned glass in jalousies and louvered windows shall be 
no thinner than nominal 3/ 16 inch (5 mm) and no longer than 48 
inches (1219 mm) . Exposed glass edges shall be smooth. 

R308.2.1 Wired glass prohibited. Wired glass with wire 
exposed on longitudinal edges shall not be used injalousies 
or louvered windows. 

R308.3 Human impact loads. Individual glazed areas, includ- 
ing glass mirrors in hazardous locations such as those indicated 
as defined in Section R308.4, shall pass the test requirements of 
Section R308. 3.1. 

Exceptions: 

1. Louvered windows and jalousies shall comply with 
Section R308 .2. 

2. Mirrors and other glass panels mounted or hung on a 
surface that provides a continuous backing support. 

3. Glass unit masonry complying with Section R610. 

R308.3.1 Impact test. Where required by other sections of 
the code, glazing shall be tested in accordance with CPSC 



16 CFR 1201. Glazing shall comply with the test criteria for 
Category I or II as indicated in Table R308.3.1 (1). 

Exception: Glazing not in doors or enclosures for hot 
tubs, whirlpools, saunas, steam rooms, bathtubs and 
showers shall be permitted to be tested in accordance 
with ANSI Z97 .1. Glazing shall comply with the test cri- 
teria for Class A or B as indicated in Table R308 .3 . 1 (2) . 

R308.4 Hazardous locations. The following shall be consid- 
ered specific hazardous locations for the purposes of glazing: 

1. Glazing in all fixed and operable panels of swinging, 
sliding and bifold doors. 

Exceptions: 



1. Glazed openings 



Ulazed openings of a size through which a 3-inch 
diameter (76 mm) sphere is unable to pass. 

2. Decorative glazing. 

Glazing in an individual fixed or operable panel adjacent 
to a door where the nearest vertical edge is within a 
24-inch (610 mm) arc of the door in a closed position and 
whose bottom edge is less than 60 inches (1524 mm) 
above the floor or walking surface. 

Exceptions: 

1. Decorative glazing. 

2. When there is an intervening wall or other per- 
manent barrier between the door and the glaz- 
ing. 

3. Glazing in walls on the latch side of and perpen- 
dicular to the plane of the door in a closed posi- 
tion. 



TABLE R308.3.1 (1) 
MINIMUM CATEGORY CLASSIFICATION OF GLAZING USING CPSC 16 CFR 1201 













GLAZING IN 














DOORS AND 










GLAZED PANELS 


GLAZED PANELS 


ENCLOSURES 






GLAZING IN STORM 




REGULATED BY 


REGULATED BY 


REGULATED BY 


SLIDING GLASS 


EXPOSED SURFACE 


OR COMBINATION 


GLAZING IN 


ITEM 7 OF 


ITEM 6 OF 


ITEM 5 OF 


DOORS PATIO 


AREA OF ONE SIDE OF 


DOORS 


DOORS 


SECTION R308.4 


SECTION R308.4 


SECTION R308.4 


TYPE 


ONE LITE 


(Category Class) 


(Category Class) 


(Category Class) 


(Category Class) 


(Category Class) 


(Category Class) 


9 square feet or less 


I 


I 


NR 


I 


n 


n 


More than 9 square feet 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 



For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m 2 . 
NR means "No Requirement." 



TABLE R308.3.1 (2) 
MINIMUM CATEGORY CLASSIFICATION OF GLAZING USING ANSI Z97.1 



EXPOSED SURFACE AREA OF ONE 
SIDE OF ONE LITE 


GLAZED PANELS REGULATED BY 

ITEM 7 OF SECTION R308.4 

(Category Class) 


GLAZED PANELS REGULATED BY 

ITEM 6 OF SECTION R308.4 

(Category Class) 


DOORS AND ENCLOSURES 

REGULATED BY ITEM 5 OF 

SECTION R308.4 a 

(Category Class) 


9 square feet or less 


No requirement 


B 


A 


More than 9 square feet 


A 


A 


A 



For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m 2 . 

a. Use is permitted only by the exception to Section R308.3.1. 



56 



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BUILDING PLANNING 



4. Glazing adjacent to a door where access 
through the door is to a closet or storage area 3 
feet (914 mm) or less in depth. 

5. Glazing that is adjacent to the fixed panel of 
patio doors. 

3. Glazing in an individual fixed or operable panel that 
meets all of the following conditions: 

3.1. The exposed area of an individual pane is larger 
than 9 square feet (0.836 m 2 ); and 

3.2. The bottom edge of the glazing is less than 18 
inches (457 mm) above the floor; and 

3.3. The top edge of the glazing is more than 36 
inches (914 mm) above the floor; and 

3.4. One or more walking surfaces are within 36 
inches (914 mm), measured horizontally and in a 
straight line, of the glazing. 

Exceptions: 

1. Decorative glazing. 

2. When a horizontal rail is installed on the 
accessible side(s) of the glazing 34 to 38 
inches (864 to 965) above the walking 
surface. The rail shall be capable of with- 
standing a horizontal load of 50 pounds 
per linear foot (730 N/m) without con- 
tacting the glass and be a minimum of V/ 2 
inches (38 mm) in cross sectional height. 

3. Outboard panes in insulating glass units 
and other multiple glazed panels when 
the bottom edge of the glass is 25 feet 
(7620 mm) or more above grade, a roof, 
walking surfaces or other horizontal 
[within 45 degrees (0.79 rad) of horizon- 
tal] surface adjacent to the glass exterior. 

4. All glazing in railings regardless of area or height above 
a walking surface. Included are structural baluster panels 
and nonstructural infill panels. 

5. Glazing in enclosures for or walls facing hot tubs, whirl- 
pools, saunas, steam rooms, bathtubs and showers where 
the bottom exposed edge of the glazing is less than 60 
inches (1524 mm) measured vertically above any stand- 
ing or walking surface. 

Exception: Glazing that is more than 60 inches (1524 
mm), measured horizontally and in a straight line, from 
the waters edge of a hot tub, whirlpool or bathtub. 

6. Glazing in walls and fences adjacent to indoor and out- 
door swimming pools, hot tubs and spas where the bot- 
tom edge of the glazing is less than 60 inches (1524 mm) 
above a walking surface and within 60 inches (1524 
mm), measured horizontally and in a straight line, of the 
water's edge. This shall apply to single glazing and all 
panes in multiple glazing. 

7. Glazing adjacent to stairways, landings and ramps 
within 36 inches (914 mm) horizontally of a walking sur- 



face when the exposed surface of the glazing is less than 
60 inches (1524 mm) above the plane of the adjacent 
walking surface. 

Exceptions: 

1. When a rail is installed on the accessible side(s) 
of the glazing 34 to 38 inches (864 to 965 mm) 
above the walking surface. The rail shall be 
capable of withstanding a horizontal load of 50 
pounds per linear foot (730 N/m) without con- 
tacting the glass and be a minimum of V/ 2 
inches (38 mm) in cross sectional height. 

2. The side of the stairway has a guardrail or hand- 
rail, including balusters or in-fill panels, com- 
plying with Sections R31 1.7.6 and R312 and 
the plane of the glazing is more than 18 inches 
(457 mm) from the railing; or 

3. When a solid wall or panel extends from the 
plane of the adjacent walking surface to 34 
inches (863 mm) to 36 inches (914 mm) above 
the walking surface and the construction at the 
top of that wall or panel is capable of withstand- 
ing the same horizontal load as a guard. 

8. Glazing adjacent to stairways within 60 inches (1524 
mm) horizontally of the bottom tread of a stairway in any 
direction when the exposed surface of the glazing is less 
than 60 inches (1524 mm) above the nose of the tread. 

Exceptions: 

1. The side of the stairway has a guardrail or hand- 
rail, including balusters or in-fill panels, com- 
plying with Sections R31 1.7.6 and R312 and 
the plane of the glass is more than 18 inches 
(457 mm) from the railing; or 

2. When a solid wall or panel extends from the plane 
of the adjacent walking surface to 34 inches (864 
mm) to 36 inches (914 mm) above the walking 
surface and the construction at the top of that wall 
or panel is capable of withstanding the same hori- 
zontalload as a guard. 

R308.5 Site built windows. Site built windows shall comply 
with Section 2404 of the International BUilding Code. 

R308.6 Skylights and sloped glazing. Skylights and sloped 
glazing shall comply with the following sections. 

R308.6.1 Definitions. 

SKYLIGHTS AND SLOPED GLAZING. Glass or other 
transparent or translucent glazing material installed at a 
slope of 15 degrees (0.26 rad) or more from vertical. Glaz- 
ing materials in skylights, including unit skylights, solari- 
ums, sunrooms, roofs and sloped walls are included in this 
definition. 

UNIT SKYLIGHT. A factory assembled, glazed fenestra- 
tion unit, containing one panel of glazing material, that 
allows for natural daylighting through an opening in the 
roof assembly while preserving the weather-resistant bar- 
rier of the roof. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



57 



BUILDING PLANNING 



R308.6.2 Permitted materials. The following types of 
glazing may be used: 

1. Laminated glass with a minimum 0.015-inch (0.38 
mm) polyvinyl butyral interlayer for glass panes 16 
square feet (1.5 m 2 ) or less in area located such that 
the highest point of the glass is not more than 12 feet 
(3658 mm) above a walking surface or other accessi- 
ble area; for higher or larger sizes, the minimum 
interlayer thickness shall be 0.030 inch (0.76 mm). 

2. Fully tempered glass. 

3. Heat-strengthened glass. 

4. Wired glass. 

5. Approved rigid plastics. 

R308.6.3 Screens, general. For fully tempered or 
heat-strengthened glass, a retaining screen meeting the 
requirements of Section R308.6.7 shall be installed below 
the glass, except for fully tempered glass that meets either 
condition listed in Section R308.6.5. 

R308.6.4 Screens with multiple glazing. When the 
inboard pane is fully tempered, heat-strengthened or wired 
glass, a retaining screen meeting the requirements of Sec- 
tion R308.6.7 shall be installed below the glass, except for 
either condition listed in Section R308.6.5. All other panes 
in the multiple glazing may be of any type listed in Section 
R308.6.2. 

R308.6.5 Screens not required. Screens shall not be 
required when fully tempered glass is used as single glazing 
or the inboard pane in multiple glazing and either of the fol- 
lowing conditions are met: 

1. Glass area 16 square feet (1.49 m 2 ) or less. Highest 
point of glass not more than 12 feet (3658 mm) above 
a walking surface or other accessible area, nominal 
glass thickness not more than 3/ 16 inch (4.8 mm), and 
(for multiple glazing only) the other pane or panes 
fully tempered, laminated or wired glass. 

2. Glass area greater than 16 square feet (1.49 m 2 ) . Glass 
sloped 30 degrees (0.52 rad) or less from vertical, and 
highest point of glass not more than 10 feet (3048 
mm) above a walking surface or other accessible area. 

R308.6.6 Glass in greenhouses. Any glazing material is 
permitted to be installed without screening in the sloped 
areas of greenhouses, provided the greenhouse height at the 
ridge does not exceed 20 feet (6096 mm) above grade. 

R308.6.7 Screen characteristics. The screen and its fasten- 
ings shall be capable of supporting twice the weight of the 
glazing, be firmly and substantially fastened to the framing 
members, and have a mesh opening of no more than 1 inch 
by 1 inch (25 mm by 25 mm). 

R308.6.8 Curbs for skylights. All unit skylights installed 
in a roof with a pitch flatter than three units vertical in 12 
units horizontal (25 -percent slope) shall be mounted on a 
curb extending at least 4 inches (102 mm) above the plane of 
the roof unless otherwise specified in the manufacturer's 
installation instructions. 



R308.6.9 Testing and labeling. Unit skylights shall be tested 
by an approved independent laboratory, and bear a label 
identifying manufacturer, performance grade rating and 
approved inspection agency to indicate compliance with the 
requirements of AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440. 



SECTION R309 
GARAGES AND CARPORTS 

R309.1 Floor surface. Garage floor surfaces shall be of 
approved noncombustible material. 

The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other 
vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids to 
a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway. 

R309.2 Carports. Carports shall be open on at least two sides. 
Carport floor surfaces shall be of approved noncombustible 
material. Carports not open on at least two sides shall be con- 
sidered a garage and shall comply with the provisions of this 
section for garages. 

Exception: Asphalt surfaces shall be permitted at ground 
level in carports. 

The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other 
vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids to 
a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway. 

R309.3 Flood hazard areas. For buildings located in flood 
hazard areas as established by Table R30 1.2(1), garage floors 
shall be: 

1. Elevated to or above the design flood elevation as deter- 
mined in Section R322; or 

2. Located below the design flood elevation provided they 
are at or above grade on at least one side, are used solely 
for parking, building access or storage, meet the require- 
ments of Section R322 and are otherwise constructed in 
accordance with this code. 

R309.4 Automatic garage door openers. Automatic garage 
door openers, if provided, shall be listed in accordance with UL 

325. 



SECTION R310 
EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENINGS 

R310.1 Emergency escape and rescue required. Basements, 
habitable attics and every sleeping room shall have at least one 
operable emergency escape and rescue opening. Where base- 
ments contain one or more sleeping rooms, emergency egress 
and rescue openings shall be required in each sleeping room. 
Where emergency escape and rescue openings are provided 
they shall have a sill height of not more than 44 inches (1118 
mm) above the floor. Where a door opening having a threshold 
below the adjacent ground elevation serves as an emergency 
escape and rescue opening and is provided with a bulkhead 
enclosure, the bulkhead enclosure shall comply with Section 
R310.3. The net clear opening dimensions required by this sec- 
tion shall be obtained by the normal operation of the emer- 
gency escape and rescue opening from the inside. Emergency 
escape and rescue openings with a finished sill height below the 
adjacent ground elevation shall be provided with a window 



58 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



BUILDING PLANNING 



well in accordance with Section R310.2. Emergency escape 
and rescue openings shall open directly into a public way, or to 
a yard or court that opens to a public way. 

Exception: Basements used only to house mechanical 
equipment and not exceeding total floor area of 200 square 
feet (18.58 m 2 ). 

R310.1.1 Minimum opening area. All emergency escape 
and rescue openings shall have a minimum net clear open- 
ing of 5.7 square feet (0.530 m 2 ). 

Exception: Grade floor openings shall have a minimum 
net clear opening of 5 square feet (0.465 m 2 ). 

R310.1.2 Minimum opening height. The minimum net 
clear opening height shall be 24 inches (610 mm). 

R310.1.3 Minimum opening width. The minimum net 
clear opening width shall be 20 inches (508 mm). 

R310.1.4 Operational constraints. Emergency escape and 
rescue openings shall be operational from the inside of the 
room without the use of keys, tools or special knowledge. 

R310.2 Window wells. The minimum horizontal area of the 
window well shall be 9 square feet (0.9 m 2 ), with a minimum 
horizontal projection and width of 36 inches (914 mm). The 
area of the window well shall allow the emergency escape and 
rescue opening to be fully opened. 

Exception: The ladder or steps required by Section R3 10.2.1 
shall be permitted to encroach a maximum of 6 inches (152 
mm) into the required dimensions of the window well. 

R3 10.2.1 Ladder and steps. Window wells with a vertical 
depth greater than 44 inches (1118 mm) shall be equipped 
with a permanently affixed ladder or steps usable with the 
window in the fully open position. Ladders or steps required 
by this section shall not be required to comply with Sections 
R311.7 and R311.8. Ladders or rungs shall have an inside 
width of at least 12 inches (305 mm), shall project at least 3 
inches (76 mm) from the wall and shall be spaced not more 
than 18 inches (457 mm) on center vertically for the full 
height of the window well. 

R310.3 Bulkhead enclosures. Bulkhead enclosures shall pro- 
vide direct access to the basement. The bulkhead enclosure with 
the door panels in the fully open position shall provide the mini- 
mum net clear opening required by Section R310.1.1. Bulkhead 
enclosures shall also comply with Section R31 1.7.8.2. 

R310.4 Bars, grilles, covers and screens. Bars, grilles, cov- 
ers, screens or similar devices are permitted to be placed over 
emergency escape and rescue openings, bulkhead enclosures, 
or window wells that serve such openings, provided the mini- 
mum net clear opening size complies with Sections R31 0.1.1 
to R31 0.1.3, and such devices shall be releasable or removable 
from the inside without the use of a key, tool, special knowl- 
edge or force greater than that which is required for normal 
operation of the escape and rescue opening. 

R310.5 Emergency escape windows under decks and porches. 
Emergency escape windows are allowed to be installed under 
decks and porches provided the location of the deck allows the 
emergency escape window to be fully opened and provides a path 
not less than 36 inches (914 mm) in height to ay ardor court. 



SECTION R311 
MEANS OF EGRESS 

R311.1 Means of egress. All dwellings shall be provided with 
a means of egress as provided in this section. The means of 
egress shall provide a continuous and unobstructed path of ver- 
tical and horizontal egress travel from all portions of the dwell- 
ing to the exterior of the dwelling at the required egress door 
without requiring travel through a garage. 

R3 1 1 .2 Egress door. At least one egress door shall be provided 
for each dwelling unit. The egress door shall be side-hinged, 
and shall provide a minimum clear width of 32 inches (813 
mm) when measured between the face of the door and the stop, 
with the door open 90 degrees (1.57 rad). The minimum clear 
height of the door opening shall not be less than 78 inches 
(1981 mm) in height measured from the top of the threshold to 
the bottom of the stop. Other doors shall not be required to 
comply with these minimum dimensions. Egress doors shall be 
readily openable from inside the dwelling without the use of a 
key or special knowledge or effort. 

R31 1.3 Floors and landings at exterior doors. There shall be 
a landing or floor on each side of each exterior door. The width 
of each landing shall not be less than the door served. Every 
landing shall have a minimum dimension of 36 inches (914 
mm) measured in the direction of travel. Exterior landings shall 
be permitted to have a slope not to exceed i/ 4 unit vertical in 12 
units horizontal (2-percent). 

Exception: Exterior balconies less than 60 square feet (5.6 
m 2 ) and only accessible from a door are permitted to have a 
landing less than 36 inches (914 mm) measured in the direc- 
tion of travel. 

R3 11.3.1 Floor elevations at the required egress doors. 
Landings or floors at the required egress door shall not be 
more than 1V 2 inches (38 mm) lower than the top of the 
threshold. 

Exception: The exterior landing or floor shall not be 
more than 7 3 / 4 inches (196 mm) below the top of the 
threshold provided the door does not swing over the 
landing or floor. 

When exterior landings or floors serving the required 
egress door are not at grade, they shall be provided with 
access to grade by means of a ramp in accordance with Sec- 
tion R311.8 or a stairway in accordance with Section 
R311.7. 

R3 11.3.2 Floor elevations for other exterior doors. Doors 
other than the required egress door shall be provided with 
landings or floors not more than 7 3 / 4 inches (196 mm) below 
the top of the threshold. 

Exception: A landing is not required where a stairway of 
two or fewer risers is located on the exterior side of the 
door, provided the door does not swing over the stairway. 

R3 1 1 .3.3 Storm and screen doors. Storm and screen doors 
shall be permitted to swing over all exterior stairs and land- 
ings. 

R31 1.4 Vertical egress. Egress from habitable levels including 
habitable attics and basements not provided with an egress 
door in accordance with Section R311.2 shall be by a ramp in 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



59 



BUILDING PLANNING 



accordance with Section R311.8 or a stairway in accordance 
with Section R31 1.7. 

R311.5 Construction. 

R3 11.5.1 Attachment. Exterior landings, decks, balconies, 
stairs and similar facilities shall be positively anchored to 
the primary structure to resist both vertical and lateral forces 
or shall be designed to be self-supporting. Attachment shall 
not be accomplished by use of toenails or nails subject to 
withdrawal. 

R311.6 Hallways. The minimum width of a hallway shall be 
not less than 3 feet (914 mm). 

R311.7 Stairways. 

R3 11.7.1 Width. Stairways shall not be less than 36 inches 
(914 mm) in clear width at all points above the permitted 
handrail height and below the required headroom height. 
Handrails shall not project more than 4.5 inches (114 mm) 
on either side of the stairway and the minimum clear width 
of the stairway at and below the handrail height, including 
treads and landings, shall not be less than 31 V 2 inches (787 
mm) where a handrail is installed on one side and 27 inches 
(698 mm) where handrails are provided on both sides. 

Exception: The width of spiral stairways shall be in 
accordance with Section R31 1.7.9.1. 

R3 11.7.2 Headroom. The minimum headroom in all parts 
of the stairway shall not be less than 6 feet 8 inches (2032 
mm) measured vertically from the sloped line adjoining the 
tread nosing or from the floor surface of the landing or plat- 
form on that portion of the stairway. 

Exception: Where the nosings of treads at the side of a 
flight extend under the edge of a floor opening through 
which the stair passes, the floor opening shall be allowed 
to project horizontally into the required headroom a 
maximum of 4 3 / 4 inches (121 mm). 

R31 1.7.3 Walkline. The walkline across winder treads 
shall be concentric to the curved direction of travel through 
the turn and located 12 inches (305 mm) from the side where 
the winders are narrower. The 12-inch (305 mm) dimension 
shall be measured from the widest point of the clear stair 
width at the walking surface of the winder. If winders are 
adjacent within the flight, the point of the widest clear stair 
width of the adjacent winders shall be used. 

R3 11.7.4 Stair treads and risers. Stair treads and risers 
shall meet the requirements of this section. For the purposes 
of this section all dimensions and dimensioned surfaces 
shall be exclusive of carpets, rugs or runners. 

R3 1 1 .7.4. 1 Riser height. The maximum riser height shall 
be 7 3 / 4 inches (196 mm). The riser shall be measured verti- 
cally between leading edges of the adjacent treads. The 
greatest riser height within any flight of stairs shall not 
exceed the smallest by more than 3/ 8 inch (9.5 mm). 

R3 11.7.4.2 Tread depth. The minimum tread depth 
shall be 10 inches (254 mm). The tread depth shall be 
measured horizontally between the vertical planes of the 
foremost projection of adjacent treads and at a right 
angle to the tread's leading edge. The greatest tread depth 



within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by 
more than 3/ 8 inch (9.5 mm). Consistently shaped wind- 
ers at the walkline shall be allowed within the same flight 
of stairs as rectangular treads and do not have to be 
within 3/ 8 inch (9.5 mm) of the rectangular tread depth. 

Winder treads shall have a minimum tread depth of 10 
inches (254 mm) measured between the vertical planes of 
the foremost projection of adjacent treads at the intersec- 
tions with the walkline. Winder treads shall have a mini- 
mum tread depth of 6 inches (152 mm) at any point within 
the clear width of the stair. Within any flight of stairs, the 
largest winder tread depth at the walkline shall not exceed 
the smallest winder tread by more than 3/ 8 inch (9.5 mm). 

R31 1. 7.4.3 Profile. The radius of curvature at the nosing 
shall be no greater than 9/ 16 inch (14 mm). A nosing not 
less than 3/ 4 inch (19 mm) but not more than 1V 4 inches 
(32 mm) shall be provided on stairways with solid risers. 
The greatest nosing projection shall not exceed the 
smallest nosing projection by more than 3/ 8 inch (9.5 
mm) between two stories, including the nosing at the 
level of floors and landings. Beveling of nosings shall not 
exceed i/ 2 inch (12.7 mm). Risers shall be vertical or 
sloped under the tread above from the underside of the 
nosing above at an angle not more than 30 degrees (0.51 
rad) from the vertical. Open risers are permitted, pro- 
vided that the opening between treads does not permit 
the passage of a 4-inch diameter (102 mm) sphere. 

Exceptions: 

1. A nosing is not required where the tread depth 
is a minimum of 11 inches (279 mm). 

2. The opening between adj acent treads is not lim- 
ited on stairs with a total rise of 30 inches (762 
mm) or less. 

R3 11.7.4.4 Exterior wood/plastic composite stair 
treads. Wood/plastic composite stair treads shall comply 
with the provisions of Section R31 7.4. 

R3 11.7.5 Landings for stairways. There shall be a floor or 
landing at the top and bottom of each stairway. 

Exception: A floor or landing is not required at the top of 
an interior flight of stairs, including stairs in an enclosed 
garage, provided a door does not swing over the stairs. A 
flight of stairs shall not have a vertical rise larger than 12 
feet (3658 mm) between floor levels or landings. The 
width of each landing shall not be less than the width of the 
stairway served. Every landing shall have a minimum 
dimension of 36 inches (914 mm) measured in the direc- 
tion of travel. 

R3 1 1 . 7.6 Stairway walking surface. The walking surface of 
treads and landings of stairways shall be sloped no steeper 
than one unit vertical in 48 inches horizontal (2-percent 
slope). 

R3 1 1 . 7.7 Handrails . Handrails shall be provided on at least 
one side of each continuous run of treads or flight with four 
or more risers. 

R3 11.7.7.1 Height. Handrail height, measured verti- 
cally from the sloped plane adjoining the tread nosing, or 



I 



60 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



BUILDING PLANNING 



I 



finish surface of ramp slope, shall be not less than 34 
inches (864 mm) and not more than 38 inches (965 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1. The use of a volute, turnout or starting easing 
shall be allowed over the lowest tread. 

2. When handrail fittings or bendings are used to 
provide continuous transition between flights, 
the transition from handrail to guardrail, or 
used at the start of a flight, the handrail height at 
the fittings or bendings shall be permitted to 
exceed the maximum height. 

R31 1.7.7.2 Continuity. Handrails for stairways shall be 
continuous for the full length of the flight, from a point 
directly above the top riser of the flight to a point directly 
above the lowest riser of the flight. Handrail ends shall be 
returned or shall terminate in newel posts or safety termi- 
nals. Handrails adjacent to a wall shall have a space of not 
less than 1V 2 inch (38 mm) between the wall and the 
handrails. 

Exceptions: 

1. Handrails shall be permitted to be interrupted 
by a newel post at the turn. 

2. The use of a volute, turnout, starting easing or 
starting newel shall be allowed over the lowest 
tread. 

R3 1 1 . 7.7.3 Grip-size. All required handrails shall be of 
one of the following types or provide equivalent 
graspability. 

1. Type I. Handrails with a circular cross section 
shall have an outside diameter of at least l 1 / 4 inches 
(32 mm) and not greater than 2 inches (51 mm). If 
the handrail is not circular, it shall have a perimeter 
dimension of at least 4 inches (102 mm) and not 
greater than 6 1 / 4 inches (160 mm) with a maximum 
cross section of dimension of 2 i/ 4 inches (57 mm). 
Edges shall have a minimum radius of 0.01 inch 
(0.25 mm). 

2. Type II. Handrails with a perimeter greater than 
6V 4 inches (160 mm) shall have a graspable finger 
recess area on both sides of the profile. The finger 
recess shall begin within a distance of 3/ 4 inch (19 
mm) measured vertically from the tallest portion 
of the profile and achieve a depth of at least 5/ 16 
inch (8 mm) within 7/ 8 inch (22 mm) below the 
widest portion of the profile. This required depth 
shall continue for at least 3/ 8 inch (10 mm) to a level 
that is not less than l 3 / 4 inches (45 mm) below the 
tallest portion of the profile. The minimum width 
of the handrail above the recess shall be 1V 4 inches 
(32 mm) to a maximum of 2 3 / 4 inches (70 mm). 
Edges shall have a minimum radius of 0.01 inch 
(0.25 mm). 

R3 11.7.7.4 Exterior wood/plastic composite hand- 
rails. Wood/plastic composite handrails shall comply 
with the provisions of Section R31 7.4. 



R31 1.7.8 Illumination. All stairs shall be provided with 
illumination in accordance with Section R303.6. 

R31 1.7.9 Special stairways. Spiral stairways and bulkhead 
enclosure stairways shall comply with all requirements of 
Section R311.7 except as specified below. 

R31 1.7.9.1 Spiral stairways. Spiral stairways are per- 
mitted, provided the minimum clear width at and below 
the handrail shall be 26 inches (660 mm) with each tread 
having a 7 1 / 2 -inch (190 mm) minimum tread depth at 12 
inches (914 mm) from the narrower edge. All treads shall 
be identical, and the rise shall be no more than 9 V 2 inches 
(241 mm). A minimum headroom of 6 feet 6 inches 
(1982 mm) shall be provided. 

R3 11.7.9.2 Bulkhead enclosure stairways. Stairways 
serving bulkhead enclosures, not part of the required 
building egress, providing access from the outside grade 
level to the basement shall be exempt from the require- 
ments of Sections R311.3 and R311.7 where the maxi- 
mum height from the basement finished floor level to 
grade adjacent to the stairway does not exceed 8 feet 
(2438 mm) and the grade level opening to the stairway is 
covered by a bulkhead enclosure with hinged doors or 
other approved means. 

R31 1.8 Ramps. 

R3 11.8.1 Maximum slope. Ramps shall have a maximum 
slope of 1 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8.3 percent 
slope). 

Exception: Where it is technically infeasible to comply 
because of site constraints, ramps may have a maximum 
slope of one unit vertical in eight horizontal (12.5 percent 
slope). 

R3 11.8.2 Landings required. A minimum 3-foot-by-3-foot 
(914 mm by 914 mm) landing shall be provided: 

1. At the top and bottom of ramps. 

2. Where doors open onto ramps. 

3. Where ramps change direction. 

R3 11.8.3 Handrails required. Handrails shall be provided 
on at least one side of all ramps exceeding a slope of one unit 
vertical in 12 units horizontal (8. 3 3 -percent slope). 

R31 1.8.3.1 Height. Handrail height, measured above the 
finished surface of the ramp slope, shall be not less than 34 
inches (864 mm) and not more than 38 inches (965 mm). 

R3 11.8.3.2 Grip size. Handrails on ramps shall comply 
with Section R31 1.7.7.3. 

R3 11.8.3.3 Continuity. Handrails where required on 
ramps shall be continuous for the full length of the ramp. 
Handrail ends shall be returned or shall terminate in 
newel posts or safety terminals. Handrails adjacent to a 
wall shall have a space of not less than l 1 / 2 inches (38 
mm) between the wall and the handrails. 



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SECTION R312 
GUARDS 

R312.1 Where required. Guards shall be located along 
open-sided walking surfaces, including stairs, ramps and land- 
ings, that are located more than 30 inches (762 mm) measured 
vertically to the floor or grade below at any point within 36 
inches (914 mm) horizontally to the edge of the open side. 
Insect screening shall not be considered as a guard. 

R312.2 Height. Required guards at open-sided walking sur- 
faces, including stairs, porches, balconies or landings, shall be 
not less than 36 inches (914 mm) high measured vertically 
above the adjacent walking surface, adjacent fixed seating or 
the line connecting the leading edges of the treads. 

Exceptions: 

1. Guards on the open sides of stairs shall have a height 
not less than 34 inches (864 mm) measured vertically 
from a line connecting the leading edges of the treads. 

2. Where the top of the guardalso serves as a handrail on 
the open sides of stairs, the top of the guard shall not 
be not less than 34 inches (864 mm) and not more than 
38 inches (965 mm) measured vertically from a line 
connecting the leading edges of the treads. 

R312.3 Opening limitations. Required guards shall not have 
openings from the walking surface to the required guardheight 
which allow passage of a sphere 4 inches (102 mm) in diameter. 

Exceptions: 

1. The triangular openings at the open side of a stair, 
formed by the riser, tread and bottom rail of a guard, 
shall not allow passage of a sphere 6 inches (153 mm) 
in diameter. 

2. Guards on the open sides of stairs shall not have open- 
ings which allow passage of a sphere 4 3 / 8 inches (111 
mm) in diameter. 

R312.4 Exterior woodplastic composite guards. Woodplas- 
tic composite guards shall comply with the provisions of Sec- 
tion R3 17.4. 



SECTION R313 
AUTOMATIC FIRE SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 

R313.1 Townhouse automatic fire sprinkler systems. An 
automatic residential fire sprinkler system shall be installed in 
townhouses. 

Exception: An automatic residential fire sprinkler system 
shall not be required when additions or alterations are made 
to existing townhouses that do not have an automatic resi- 
dential fire sprinkler system installed. 

R313.1.1 Design and installation. Automatic residential 
fire sprinkler systems for townhouses shall be designed and 
installed in accordance with Section P2904. 

R313.2 One- and two-family dwellings automatic fire sys- 
tems. Effective January 1, 2011, an automatic residential fire 
sprinkler system shall be installed in one- and two- family 
dwellings. 



Exception: An automatic residential fire sprinkler system 
shall not be required for additions or alterations to existing 
buildings that are not already provided with an automatic 
residential sprinkler system. 

R3 13.2.1 Design and installation. Automatic residential 
fire sprinkler systems shall be designed and installed in 
accordance with Section P2904 or NFPA 13D. 



SECTION R314 
SMOKE ALARMS 

R314.1 Smoke detection and notification. All smoke alarms 
shall be listed in accordance with UL 217 and installed in 
accordance with the provisions of this code and the household 
fire warning equipment provisions of NFPA 72. 

R314.2 Smoke detection systems. Household fire alarm sys- 
tems installed in accordance with NFPA 72 that include smoke 
alarms, or a combination of smoke detector and audible notifi- 
cation device installed as required by this section for smoke 
alarms, shall be permitted. The household fire alarm system 
shall provide the same level of smoke detection and alarm as 
required by this section for smoke alarms. Where a household 
fire warning system is installed using a combination of smoke 
detector and audible notification device(s), it shall become a 
permanent fixture of the occupancy and owned by the home- 
owner. The system shall be monitored by an approved super- 
vising station and be maintained in accordance with NFPA 72. 

Exception: Where smoke alarms are provided meeting the 
requirements of Section R314.4. 

R314.3 Location. Smoke alarms shall be installed in the fol- 
lowing locations: 

1. In each sleeping room. 

2. Outside each separate sleeping area in the immediate 
vicinity of the bedrooms. 

3. On each additional story of the dwelling, including base- 
ments and habitable attics but not including crawl spaces 
and uninhabitable attics. In dwellings or dwelling units 
with split levels and without an intervening door 
between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on 
the upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower level 
provided that the lower level is less than one full story 
below the upper level. 

When more than one smoke alarm is required to be installed 
within an individual dwelling unit the alarm devices shall be 
interconnected in such a manner that the actuation of one alarm 
will activate all of the alarms in the individual unit. 

R3 14.3.1 Alterations, repairs and additions. When alter- 
ations, repairs or additions requiring a permit occur, or 
when one or more sleeping rooms are added or created in 
existing dwellings, the individual dwelling unit shall be 
equipped with smoke alarms located as required for new 
dwellings. 

Exceptions: 

1. Work involving the exterior surfaces of dwellings, 
such as the replacement of roofing or siding, or the 
addition or replacement of windows or doors, or 



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the addition of a porch or deck, are exempt from 
the requirements of this section. 

2. Installation, alteration or repairs of plumbing or 
mechanical systems are exempt from the require- 
ments of this section. 

R314.4 Power source. Smoke alarms shall receive their pri- 
mary power from the building wiring when such wiring is 
served from a commercial source, and when primary power is 
interrupted, shall receive power from a battery. Wiring shall be 
permanent and without a disconnecting switch other than those 
required for overcurrent protection. Smoke alarms shall be 
interconnected. 

Exceptions: 

1. Smoke alarms shall be permitted to be battery oper- 
ated when installed in buildings without commercial 
power. 

2. Interconnection and hard- wiring of smoke alarms in 
existing areas shall not be required where the alter- 
ations or repairs do not result in the removal of inte- 
rior wall or ceiling finishes exposing the structure, 
unless there is an attic, crawl space or basement avail- 
able which could provide access for hard wiring and 
interconnection without the removal of interior fin- 
ishes. 



SECTION R315 
CARBON MONOXIDE ALARMS 

R315.1 Carbon monoxide alarms. For new construction, an 
approved carbon monoxide alarm shall be installed outside of 
each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the 
bedrooms in dwelling units within which fuel-fired appliances 
are installed and in dwelling units that have attached garages. 

R315.2 Where required in existing dwellings. Where work 
requiring a permit occurs in existing dwellings that have 
attached garages or in existing dwellings within which 
fuel- fired appliances exist, carbon monoxide alarms shall be 
provided in accordance with Section R315 .1. 

R315.3 Alarm requirements. Single station carbon monoxide 
alarms shall be listed as complying with UL 2034 and shall be 
installed in accordance with this code and the manufacturer's 
installation instructions. 



SECTION R316 
FOAM PLASTIC 

R316.1 General. The provisions of this section shall govern 
the materials, design, application, construction and installation 
of foam plastic materials. 

R316.2 Labeling and identification. Packages and contain- 
ers of foam plastic insulation and foam plastic insulation 
components delivered to the job site shall bear the label of an 
approved agency showing the manufacturer's name, the prod- 
uct listing, product identification and information sufficient 
to determine that the end use will comply with the require- 
ments. 



R316.3 Surface burning characteristics. Unless otherwise 
allowed in Section R316.5 or R316.6, all foam plastic or foam 
plastic cores used as a component in manufactured assemblies 
used in building construction shall have a flame spread index of 
not more than 75 and shall have a smoke-developed index of 
not more than 450 when tested in the maximum thickness 
intended for use in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723. 
Loose-fill type foam plastic insulation shall be tested as board 
stock for the flame spread index and smoke-developed index. 

Exception: Foam plastic insulation more than 4 inches (102 
mm) thick shall have a maximum flame spread index of 75 
and a smoke-developed index of 450 where tested at a mini- 
mum thickness of 4 inches (102 mm), provided the end use 
is approved m accordance with Section R316.6 using the 
thickness and density intended for use. 

R316.4 Thermal barrier. Unless otherwise allowed in Section 
R316.5 or Section R316.6, foam plastic shall be separated from 
the interior of a building by an approve dthermal barrier of min- 
imum i/ 2 inch (12.7 mm) gypsum wallboard or an approvedfin- 
ish material equivalent to a thermal barrier material that will 
limit the average temperature rise of the unexposed surface to 
no more than 250°F (139°C) after 15 minutes of fire exposure 
complying with the ASTM E 1 19 or UL 263 standard time tem- 
perature curve. The thermal barrier shall be installed in such a 
manner that it will remain in place for 15 minutes based on 
NFPA 286 with the acceptance criteria of Section R302.9.4, 
FM 4880, UL 1040 or UL 1715. 

R316.5 Specific requirements. The following requirements 
shall apply to these uses of foam plastic unless specifically 
approved in accordance with Section R316.6 or by other sec- 
tions of the code or the requirements of Sections R316.2 
through R316.4 have been met. 

R316.5.1 Masonry or concrete construction. The thermal 
barrier specified in Section R316.4 is not required in a 
masonry or concrete wall, floor or roof when the foam plas- 
tic insulation is separated from the interior of the building 
by a minimum I-inch (25 mm) thickness of masonry or con- 
crete. 

R316.5.2 Roofing. The thermal barrier specified in Section 
R316.4 is not required when the foam plastic in a roof 
assembly or under a roof covering is installed in accordance 
with the code and the manufacturer's installation instruc- 
tions and is separated from the interior of the building by 
tongue-and-groove wood planks or wood structural panel 
sheathing in accordance with Section R803, not less than 
i5/ 32 inch (11.9 mm) thick bonded with exterior glue and 
identified as Exposure 1, with edges supported by blocking 
or tongue-and-groove joints or an equivalent material. The 
smoke-developed index for roof applications shall not be 
limited. 

R3 16.5.3 Attics. The thermal barrier specified in Section 
R316.4 is not required where all of the following apply: 

1. Attic access is required by Section R807.1. 

2. The space is entered only for purposes of repairs or 
maintenance. 



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3. The foam plastic insulation is protected against igni- 
tion using one of the following ignition barrier mate- 
rials: 

3.1. lV^inch-thick (38 mm) mineral fiber insula- 
tion; 

3.2. 1/4-inch-thick (6.4 mm) wood structural pan- 
els; 

3.3. 3/ s -inch (9.5 mm) particleboard; 

3.4. 1/4-inch (6.4 mm) hardboard; 

3.5. 3/ s -inch (9.5 mm) gypsum board; or 

3.6. Corrosion-resistant steel having a base metal 
thickness of 0.016 inch (0.406 mm). 

The above ignition barrier is not required where the foam 
plastic insulation has been tested in accordance with Section 
R316.6. 

R3 16.5.4 Crawl spaces. The thermal barrier specified in 
Section R316.4 is not required where all of the following 
apply: 

1. Crawlspace access is required by Section R408.4 

2. Entry is made only for purposes of repairs or mainte- 
nance. 

3. The foam plastic insulation is protected against igni- 
tion using one of the following ignition barrier mate- 
rials: 

3.1. I 1 / ^inch-thick (38 mm) mineral fiber insula- 
tion; 

3.2. 1/4-inch-thick (6.4 mm) wood structural pan- 
els; 

3.3. 3/ s -inch (9.5 mm) particleboard; 

3.4. 1/4-inch (6.4 mm) hardboard; 

3.5. 3/ s -inch (9.5 mm) gypsum board; or 

3.6. Corrosion-resistant steel having a base metal 
thickness of 0.016 inch (0.406 mm). 

The above ignition barrier is not required where the foam 
plastic insulation has been tested in accordance with Section 
R316.6. 

R316.5.5 Foam-filled exterior doors. Foam-filled exterior 
doors are exempt from the requirements of Sections R316. 3 
and R3 16.4. 

R3 16.5.6 Foam- filled garage doors. Foam-filled garage 
doors in attached or detached garages are exempt from the 
requirements of Sections R316.3 and R316.4. 

R3 16.5.7 Foam backer board. The thermal barrier speci- 
fied in Section R316.4 is not required where siding backer 
board foam plastic insulation has a maximum thickness of 
0.5 inch (12.7 mm) and a potential heat of not more than 
2000 Btu per square foot (22 720 kJ/m 2 ) when tested in 
accordance with NFPA 259 provided that: 

1. The foam plastic insulation is separated from the inte- 
rior of the building by not less than 2 inches (51 mm) 
of mineral fiber insulation or 



2. The foam plastic insulation is installed over existing 
exterior wall finish in conjunction with re-siding or 

3. The foam plastic insulation has been tested in accor- 
dance with Section R316.6. 

R3 16.5.8 Re-siding. The thermal barrier specified in Sec- 
tion R316.4 is not required where the foam plastic insula- 
tion is installed over existing exterior wall finish in 
conjunction with re-siding provided the foam plastic has a 
maximum thickness of 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) and a potential 
heat of not more than 2000 Btu per square foot (22 720 
kJ/m 2 ) when tested in accordance with NFPA 259. 

R3 16.5.9 Interior trim. The thermal barrier specified in 
Section R316.4 is not required for exposed foam plastic 
interior trim, provided all of the following are met: 

1. The minimum density is 20 pounds per cubic foot 
(320 kg/m 3 ). 

2. The maximum thickness of the trim is 0.5 inch (12.7 
mm) and the maximum width is 8 inches (204 mm). 

3. The interior trim shall not constitute more than 10 per- 
cent of the aggregate wall and ceiling area of any 
room or space. 

4. The flame spread index does not exceed 75 when 
tested per ASTM E 84. The smoke-developed index is 
not limited. 

R3 16.5. 10 Interior finish. Foam plastics shall be permitted 
as interior finish where approved'm accordance with Section 
R3 16. 6 Foam plastics that are used as interior finish shall also 
meet the flame spread index and smoke-developed index 
requirements of Sections R302.9.1 and R302.9.2. 

R3 16.5. 11 Sill plates and headers. Foam plastic shall be 
permitted to be spray applied to a sill plate and header with- 
out the thermal barrier specified in Section R316.4 subject 
to all of the following: 

1. The maximum thickness of the foam plastic shall be 
3 ! / 4 inches (83 mm). 

2. The density of the foam plastic shall be in the range of 
0.5 to 2.0 pounds per cubic foot (8 to 32 kg/m 3 ). 

3. The foam plastic shall have a flame spread index of 25 
or less and an accompanying smoke developed index 
of 450 or less when tested in accordance with ASTM 
E84. 

R3 16.5. 12 Sheathing. Foam plastic insulation used as 
sheathing shall comply with Section R316.3 and Section 
R316.4. Where the foam plastic sheathing is exposed to the 
attic space at a gable or kneewall, the provisions of Section 
R3 16.5.3 shall apply. 

R316.6 Specific approval. Foam plastic not meeting the 
requirements of Sections R316.3 through R316.5 shall be spe- 
cifically approved on the basis of one of the following 
approved tests: NFPA 286 with the acceptance criteria of Sec- 
tion R302.9.4, FM4880, UL 723, UL 1040 or UL 1715, or fire 
tests related to actual end-use configurations. The specific 
approval shall be based on the actual end use configuration and 
shall be performed on the finished foam plastic assembly in the 
maximum thickness intended for use. Assemblies tested shall 



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include seamsjoints and other typical details used in the instal- 
lation of the assembly and shall be tested in the manner 
intended for use. 

R316.7 Termite damage. The use of foam plastics in areas of 
"very heavy" termite infestation probability shall be in accor- 
dance with Section R318.4. 



SECTION R317 
PROTECTION OF WOOD AND WOOD 
BASED PRODUCTS AGAINST DECAY 

R317.1 Location required. Protection of wood and wood 
based products from decay shall be provided in the following 
locations by the use of naturally durable wood or wood that is 
preservative-treated in accordance with AWPA VI for the spe- 
cies, product, preservative and end use. Preservatives shall be 
listed in Section 4 of AWPA VI. 

1. Wood joists or the bottom of a wood structural floor 
when closer than 18 inches (457 mm) or wood girders 
when closer than 12 inches (305 mm) to the exposed 
ground in crawl spaces or unexcavated area located 
within the periphery of the building foundation. 

2. All wood framing members that rest on concrete or 
masonry exterior foundation walls and are less than 8 
inches (203 mm) from the exposed ground. 

3. Sills and sleepers on a concrete or masonry slab that is in 
direct contact with the ground unless separated from 
such slab by an impervious moisture barrier. 

4. The ends of wood girders entering exterior masonry or 
concrete walls having clearances of less than i/ 2 inch 
(12.7 mm) on tops, sides and ends. 

5. Wood siding, sheathing and wall framing on the exterior 
of a building having a clearance of less than 6 inches (152 
mm) from the ground or less than 2 inches (51 mm) mea- 
sured vertically from concrete steps, porch slabs, patio 
slabs, and similar horizontal surfaces exposed to the 
weather. 

6. Wood structural members supporting moisture-perme- 
able floors or roofs that are exposed to the weather, such 
as concrete or masonry slabs, unless separated from such 
floors or roofs by an impervious moisture barrier. 

7. Wood furring strips or other wood framing members 
attached directly to the interior of exterior masonry walls 
or concrete walls below grade except where an approved 
vapor retarder is applied between the wall and the furring 
strips or framing members. 

R317.1.1 Field treatment. Field-cut ends, notches and 
drilled holes of preservative-treated wood shall be treated in 
the field in accordance with AWPA M4. 

R317.1.2 Ground contact. All wood in contact with the 
ground, embedded in concrete in direct contact with the 
ground or embedded in concrete exposed to the weather that 
supports permanent structures intended for human occu- 
pancy shall be approved pressure-preservative-treated 
wood suitable for ground contact use, except untreated 



wood may be used where entirely below groundwater level 
or continuously submerged in fresh water. 

R317.1.3 Geographical areas. In geographical areas 
where experience has demonstrated a specific need, 
approvednatmaWy durable or pressure- preservative- treated 
wood shall be used for those portions of wood members that 
form the structural supports of buildings, balconies, porches 
or similar permanent building appurtenances when those 
members are exposed to the weather without adequate pro- 
tection from a roof, eave, overhang or other covering that 
would prevent moisture or water accumulation on the sur- 
face or at joints between members. Depending on local 
experience, such members may include: 

1. Horizontal members such as girders, joists and deck- 
ing. 

2. Vertical members such as posts, poles and columns. 

3. Both horizontal and vertical members. 

R317.1.4 Wood columns. Wood columns shall be 
approved wood of natural decay resistance or approved 
pressure-preservative-treated wood. 

Exceptions: 

1. Columns exposed to the weather or in basements 
when supported by concrete piers or metal pedes- 
tals projecting 1 inch (25.4 mm) above a concrete 
floor or 6 inches (152 mm) above exposed earth 
and the earth is covered by an app roved impervi- 
ous moisture barrier. 

2. Columns in enclosed crawl spaces or unexcavated 
areas located within the periphery of the building 
when supported by a concrete pier or metal pedes- 
tal at a height more than 8 inches (203mm) from 
exposed earth and the earth is covered by an imper- 
vious moisture barrier. 

R317.1.5 Exposed glued-laminated timbers. The portions 
of glued-laminated timbers that form the structural supports 
of a building or other structure and are exposed to weather 
and not properly protected by a roof, eave or similar covering 
shall be pressure treated with preservative, or be manufac- 
tured from naturally durable or preservative-treated wood. 

R317.2 Quality mark. Lumber and plywood required to be pres- 
sure-preservative-treated in accordance with Section R318.1 shall 
bear the quality markofan approvedinspection agency that main- 
tains continuing supervision, testing and inspection over the qual- 
ity of the product and that has been approvedby an accreditation 
body that complies with the requirements of the American Lum- 
ber Standard Committee treated wood program. 

R3 17.2.1 Required information. The required quality 
mark on each piece of pressure-preservative-treated lumber 
or plywood shall contain the following information: 

1. Identification of the treating plant. 

2. Type of preservative. 

3. The minimum preservative retention. 

4. End use for which the product was treated. 

5. Standard to which the product was treated. 



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I 



6. Identity of the approve d inspection agency. 

7. The designation "Dry," if applicable. 

Exception: Quality marks on lumber less than 1 
inch (25.4 mm) nominal thickness, or lumber less 
than nominal 1 inch by 5 inches (25 .4 mm by 127 
mm) or 2 inches by 4 inches (51 mm by 102 mm) 
or lumber 36 inches (914 mm) or less in length 
shall be applied by stamping the faces of exterior 
pieces or by end labeling not less than 25 percent 
of the pieces of a bundled unit. 

R317.3 Fasteners and connectors in contact with preserva- 
tive-treated and fire-retardant-treated wood. Fasteners and 
connectors in contact with preservative-treated wood and 
fire-retardant-treated wood shall be in accordance with this 
section. The coating weights for zinc-coated fasteners shall be 
in accordance with ASTM A 153. 

R3 17.3.1 Fasteners for preservative-treated wood. Fas- 
teners for preservative-treated wood shall be of hot dipped 
zinc-coated galvanized steel, stainless steel, silicon bronze 
or copper. Coating types and weights for connectors in con- 
tact with preservative-treated wood shall be in accordance 
with the connector manufacturer's recommendations. In the 
absence of manufacturer's recommendations, a minimum 
of ASTM A 653 type G185 zinc-coated galvanized steel, or 
equivalent, shall be used . 

Exceptions: 

1. One-half-inch (12.7 mm) diameter or greater steel 
bolts. 

2. Fasteners other than nails and timber rivets shall be 
permitted to be of mechanically deposited zinc 
coated steel with coating weights in accordance 
with ASTM B 695, Class 55 minimum. 

R3 17.3.2 Fastenings for wood foundations. Fastenings 
for wood foundations shall be as required in AF&PA Tech- 
nical Report No. 7. 

R3 17.3.3 Fasteners for fire-retardant-treated wood used 
in exterior applications or wet or damp locations. Fas- 
teners for fire-retardant-treated wood used in exterior appli- 
cations or wet or damp locations shall be of hot-dipped 
zinc-coated galvanized steel, stainless steel, silicon bronze 
or copper. Fasteners other than nails and timber rivets shall 
be permitted to be of mechanically deposited zinc-coated 
steel with coating weights in accordance with ASTM B 695, 
Class 55 minimum. 

R3 17.3.4 Fasteners for fire-retardant-treated wood used 
in interior applications. Fasteners for fire-retar- 
dant-treated wood used in interior locations shall be in 
accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. In 
the absence of the manufacturer's recommendations, Sec- 
tion R317.3.3 shall apply. 

R317.4 Wood/plastic composites. Wood/plastic composites 
used in exterior deck boards, stair treads, handrails and guard- 
rail systems shall bear a label indicating the required perfor- 
mance levels and demonstrating compliance with the 
provisions of ASTM D 7032. 



R3 17.4.1 Wood/plastic composites shall be installed 
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 



SECTION R318 

PROTECTION AGAINST 

SUBTERRANEAN TERMITES 

R318.1 Subterranean termite control methods. In areas sub- 
ject to damage from termites as indicated by Table R30 1.2(1), 
methods of protection shall be one of the following methods or 
a combination of these methods: 

1. Chemical termiticide treatment, as provided in Section 
R318.2. 

2. Termite baiting system installed and maintained accord- 
ing to the label. 

3. Pressure-preservative-treated wood in accordance with 
the provisions of Section R31 7.1. 

4. Naturally durable termite-resistant wood. 

5. Physical barriers as provided in Section R3 18.3 and used 
in locations as specified in Section R318.1. 

6. Cold-formed steel framing in accordance with Sections 
R505.2.1 andR603.2.1. 

R318.1.1 Quality mark. Lumber and plywood required to 
be pressure-preservative-treated in accordance with Section 
R318.1 shall bear the quality mark of an approved inspec- 
tion agency which maintains continuing supervision, test- 
ing and inspection over the quality of the product and which 
has been approvedby an accreditation body which complies 
with the requirements of the American Lumber Standard 
Committee treated wood program. 

R318.1.2 Field treatment. Field-cut ends, notches, and 
drilled holes of pressure-preservative-treated wood shall be 
retreated in the field in accordance with AWPA M4. 

R318.2 Chemical termiticide treatment. Chemical 
termiticide treatment shall include soil treatment and/or field 
applied wood treatment. The concentration, rate of application 
and method of treatment of the chemical termiticide shall be in 
strict accordance with the termiticide label. 

R318.3 Barriers. Approvedphysical barriers, such as metal or 
plastic sheeting or collars specifically designed for termite pre- 
vention, shall be installed in a manner to prevent termites from 
entering the structure. Shields placed on top of an exterior 
foundation wall are permitted to be used only if in combination 
with another method of protection. 

R318.4 Foam plastic protection. In areas where the probability 
of termite infestation is "very heavy" as indicated in Figure 
R301.2(6), extruded and expanded polystyrene, polyiso- 
cyanurate and other foam plastics shall not be installed on the 
exterior face or under interior or exterior foundation walls or slab 
foundations located below grade. The clearance between foam 
plastics installed above grade and exposed earth shall be at least 
6 inches (152 mm) . 

Exceptions: 

1. Buildings where the structural members of walls, 
floors, ceilings and roofs are entirely of noncom- 



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bustible materials or pressure-preservative-treated 
wood. 

When in addition to the requirements of Section 
R318.1, an approved method of protecting the foam 
plastic and structure from subterranean termite dam- 
age is used. 

On the interior side of basement walls. 



SECTION R319 
SITE ADDRESS 

R319.1 Address numbers. Buildings shall have approved 
address numbers, building numbers or approvedbuilding iden- 
tification placed in a position that is plainly legible and visible 
from the street or road fronting the property. These numbers 
shall contrast with their background. Address numbers shall be 
Arabic numbers or alphabetical letters. Numbers shall be a 
minimum of 4 inches (102 mm) high with a minimum stroke 
width of 7/ 2 inch (12.7 mm). Where access is by means of a pri- 
vate road and the building address cannot be viewed from the 
public way, a monument, pole or other sign or means shall be 
used to identify the structure. 



SECTION R320 
ACCESSIBILITY 

R320.1 Scope. Where there are four or more dwelling units or 
sleeping units in a single structure, the provisions of Chapter 11 
of the International BUilding Code fox Group R-3 shall apply. 



SECTION R321 
ELEVATORS AND PLATFORM LIFTS 

R321.1 Elevators. Where provided, passenger elevators, lim- 
ited-use/limited-application elevators or private residence ele- 
vators shall comply with ASME A17.1. 

R321.2 Platform lifts. Where provided, platform lifts shall 
comply with ASME A18.1. 

R321.3 Accessibility. Elevators or platform lifts that are part of 
an accessible route required by Chapter 11 of the International 
Building Code, shall comply with ICC All 7.1. 



SECTION R322 
FLOOD-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION 

R322.1 General. Buildings and structures constructed in 
whole or in part in flood hazard areas (including A or V Zones) 
as established in Table R301.2(l) shall be designed and con- 
structed in accordance with the provisions contained in this 
section. 

Exception: Buildings and structures located in whole or in 
part in identified floodways shall be designed and con- 
structed in accordance with ASCE 24. 

R322.1.1 Alternative provisions. As an alternative to the 
requirements in Section R322.3 for buildings and structures 
located in whole or in part in coastal high-hazard areas (V 



Zones), ASCE 24 is permitted subject to the limitations of 
this code and the limitations therein. 

R322.1.2 Structural systems. All structural systems of all 
buildings and structures shall be designed, connected and 
anchored to resist flotation, collapse or permanent lateral 
movement due to structural loads and stresses from flooding 
equal to the design flood elevation. 

R322.1.3 Flood-resistant construction. All buildings and 
structures erected in areas prone to flooding shall be con- 
structed by methods and practices that minimize flood dam- 
age. 

R322.1.4 Establishing the design flood elevation. The 
design flood elevation shall be used to define areas prone to 
flooding. At a minimum, the design flood elevation is the 
higher of: 

1. The base flood elevation at the depth of peak eleva- 
tion of flooding (including wave height) which has a 1 
percent (100-year flood) or greater chance of being 
equaled or exceeded in any given year, or 

2. The elevation of the design flood associated with the 
area designated on a flood hazard map adopted by the 
community, or otherwise legally designated. 

R322. 1.4.1 Determination of design flood elevations. 
If design flood elevations are not specified, the building 
officials authorized to require the applicant to: 

1. Obtain and reasonably use data available from a 
federal, state or other source; or 

2. Determine the design flood elevation in accor- 
dance with accepted hydrologic and hydraulic 
engineering practices used to define special flood 
hazard areas. Determinations shall be undertaken 
by a registered design professional who shall doc- 
ument that the technical methods used reflect cur- 
rently accepted engineering practice. Studies, 
analyses and computations shall be submitted in 
sufficient detail to allow thorough review and 
approval. 

R322.1.4.2 Determination of impacts. In riverine flood 
hazard areas where design flood elevations are specified 
but floodways have not been designated, the applicant 
shall demonstrate that the effect of the proposed build- 
ings and structures on design flood elevations, including 
fill, when combined with all other existing and antici- 
pated flood hazard area encroachments, will not increase 
the design flood elevation more than 1 foot (305 mm) at 
any point within the jurisdiction. 

R322.1.5 Lowest floor. The lowest floor shall be the floor 
of the lowest enclosed area, including basement, but exclud- 
ing any unfinished flood-resistant enclosure that is useable 
solely for vehicle parking, building access or limited storage 
provided that such enclosure is not built so as to render the 
building or structure in violation of this section. 

R322.1.6 Protection of mechanical and electrical systems. 
Electrical systems, equipmentand components; heating, ven- 
tilating, air conditioning; plumbing appliances and plumbing 
fixtures; duct systems; and other service equipment shall be 



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67 



BUILDING PLANNING 



located at or above the elevation required in Section R322.2 
(flood hazard areas including A Zones) or R322.3 (coastal 
high-hazard areas including V Zones). If replaced as part of 
a substantial improvement, electrical systems, equipment 
and components; heating, ventilating, air conditioning and 
plumbing appliances and plumbing fixtures; duct systems; 
and other service equipment shall meet the requirements of 
this section. Systems, fixtures, and equipment and compo- 
nents shall not be mounted on or penetrate through walls 
intended to break away under flood loads. 

Exception: Locating electrical systems, equipment and 
components; heating, ventilating, air conditioning; 
plumbing appliances and plumbing fixtures; duct sys- 
tems; and other service equipments permitted below the 
elevation required in Section R322.2 (flood hazard areas 
including A Zones) or R322.3 (coastal high-hazard areas 
including V Zones) provided that they are designed and 
installed to prevent water from entering or accumulating 
within the components and to resist hydrostatic and 
hydrodynamic loads and stresses, including the effects 
of buoyancy, during the occurrence of flooding to the 
design flood elevation in accordance with ASCE 24. 
Electrical wiring systems are permitted to be located 
below the required elevation provided they conform to 
the provisions of the electrical part of this code for wet 
locations. 

R322.1.7 Protection of water supply and sanitary sew- 
age systems. New and replacement water supply systems 
shall be designed to minimize or eliminate infiltration of 
flood waters into the systems in accordance with the plumb- 
ing provisions of this code. New and replacement sanitary 
sewage systems shall be designed to minimize or eliminate 
infiltration of floodwaters into systems and discharges from 
systems into floodwaters in accordance with the plumbing 
provisions of this code and Chapter 3 of the International 
Private Sewage Disposal Code. 

R322.1.8 Flood-resistant materials. Building materials 
used below the elevation required in Section R322.2 (flood 
hazard areas including A Zones) or R322.3 (coastal high- 
hazard areas including V Zones) shall comply with the fol- 
lowing: 

1. All wood, including floor sheathing, shall be pres- 
sure-preservative-treated in accordance with AWPA 
VI for the species, product, preservative and end use 
or be the decay-resistant heartwood of redwood, 
black locust or cedars. Preservatives shall be listed in 
Section 4 of AWPA VI. 

2. Materials and installation methods used for flooring 
and interior and exterior walls and wall coverings 
shall conform to the provisions ofFEMA/FIA-TB-2. 

R322.1.9 Manufactured homes. New or replacement 
manufactured homes shall be elevated in accordance with 
Section R322.2 or Section R322.3 in coastal high-hazard 
areas (V Zones). The anchor and tie-down requirements of 
Sections AE604 and AE605 of Appendix E shall apply. The 
foundation and anchorage of manufactured homes to be 
located in identified floodways shall be designed and con- 
structed in accordance with ASCE 24. 



R322.1.10 As-built elevation documentation. A regis- 
tered design professional shall prepare and seal documenta- 
tion of the elevations specified in Section R322.2 or R322.3. 

R322.2 Flood hazard areas (including A Zones). All areas 
that have been determined to be prone to flooding but not sub- 
ject to high velocity wave action shall be designated as flood 
hazard areas. Flood hazard areas that have been delineated as 
subject to wave heights between 1V 2 feet (457 mm) and 3 feet 
(914 mm) shall be designated as Coastal A Zones. All building 
and structures constructed in whole or in part in flood hazard 
areas shall be designed and constructed in accordance with 
Sections R322.2.1 through R322.2.3. 

R322.2.1 Elevation requirements. 

1. Buildings and structures in flood hazard areas not 
designated as Coastal A Zones shall have the lowest 
floors elevated to or above the design flood elevation. 

2. Buildings and structures in flood hazard areas desig- 
nated as Coastal A Zones shall have the lowest floors 
elevated to or above the base flood elevation plus 1 
foot (305 mm), or to the design flood elevation, 
whichever is higher. 

3. In areas of shallow flooding (AO Zones), buildings 
and structures shall have the lowest floor (including 
basement) elevated at least as high above the highest 
adjacent grade as the depth number specified in feet 
on the FIRM, or at least 2 feet (610 mm) if a depth 
number is not specified. 

4. Basement floors that are below grade on all sides 
shall be elevated to or above the design flood eleva- 
tion. 

Exception: Enclosed areas below the design flood eleva- 
tion, including basements whose floors are not below 
grade on all sides, shall meet the requirements of Section 
R322.2.2. 

R322.2.2 Enclosed area below design flood elevation. 
Enclosed areas, including crawl spaces, that are below the 
design flood elevation shall: 

1. Be used solely for parking of vehicles, building 
access or storage. 

2. Be provided with flood openings that meet the fol- 
lowing criteria: 

2.1. There shall be a minimum of two openings on 
different sides of each enclosed area; if a 
building has more than one enclosed area be- 
low the design flood elevation, each area shall 
have openings on exterior walls. 

2.2. The total net area of all openings shall be at 
least 1 square inch (645 mm 2 ) for each square 
foot (0.093 m 2 ) of enclosed area, or the open- 
ings shall be designed and the construction 
documents shall include a statement by a reg- 
istered design professional that the design of 
the openings will provide for equalization of 
hydrostatic flood forces on exterior walls by 
allowing for the automatic entry and exit of 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



BUILDING PLANNING 



floodwaters as specified in Section 2.6.2.2 of 
ASCE 24. 

2.3. The bottom of each opening shall be 1 foot 
(305 mm) or less above the adjacent ground 
level. 

2.4. Openings shall be not less than 3 inches (76 
mm) in any direction in the plane of the wall. 

2.5. Any louvers, screens or other opening covers 
shall allow the automatic flow of floodwaters 
into and out of the enclosed area. 

2.6. Openings installed in doors and windows, that 
meet requirements 2.1 through 2.5, are ac- 
ceptable; however, doors and windows with- 
out installed openings do not meet the 
requirements of this section. 

R322.2.3 Foundation design and construction. Founda- 
tion walls for all buildings and structures erected in flood 
hazard areas shall meet the requirements of Chapter 4. 

Exception: Unless designed in accordance with Section 
R404: 

1. The unsupported height of 6-inch (152 mm) plain 
masonry walls shall be no more than 3 feet (914 
mm). 

2. The unsupported height of 8-inch (203 mm) plain 
masonry walls shall be no more than 4 feet (1219 
mm). 

3. The unsupported height of 8-inch (203 mm) rein- 
forced masonry walls shall be no more than 8 feet 
(2438 mm). 

For the purpose of this exception, unsupported 
height is the distance from the finished grade of the 
under- floor space and the top of the wall. 

R322.3 Coastal high-hazard areas (including V Zones). 
Areas that have been determined to be subject to wave heights 
in excess of 3 feet (914 mm) or subject to high- velocity wave 
action or wave-induced erosion shall be designated as coastal 
high-hazard areas. Buildings and structures constructed in 
whole or in part in coastal high-hazard areas shall be designed 
and constructed in accordance with Sections R322.3.1 through 
R322.3.6. 

R322.3.1 Location and site preparation. 

1. New buildings and buildings that are determined to be 
substantially improved pursuant to Section 
R 105. 3. 1.1, shall be located landward of the reach of 
mean high tide. 

2. For any alteration of sand dunes and mangrove stands 
the building official shall require submission of an 
engineering analysis which demonstrates that the pro- 
posed alteration will not increase the potential for 
flood damage. 

R322.3.2 Elevation requirements. 

1. All buildings and structures erected within coastal 
high hazard areas shall be elevated so that the lowest 
portion of all structural members supporting the low- 



est floor, with the exception of mat or raft founda- 
tions' piling, pile caps, columns, grade beams and 
bracing, is: 

1.1. Located at or above the design flood eleva- 
tion, if the lowest horizontal structural mem- 
ber is oriented parallel to the direction of wave 
approach, where parallel shall mean less than 
or equal to 20 degrees (0.35 rad) from the di- 
rection of approach, or 

1.2. Located at the base flood elevation plus 1 foot 
(305 mm), or the design flood elevation, 
whichever is higher, if the lowest horizontal 
structural member is oriented perpendicular 
to the direction of wave approach, where per- 
pendicular shall mean greater than 20 degrees 
(0.35 rad) from the direction of approach. 

2. Basement floors that are below grade on all sides are 
prohibited. 

3. The use of fill for structural support is prohibited. 

4. Minor grading, and the placement of minor quantities 
of fill, shall be permitted for landscaping and for 
drainage purposes under and around buildings and for 
support of parking slabs, pool decks, patios and walk- 
ways. 

Exception: Walls and partitions enclosing areas 
below the design flood elevation shall meet the 
requirements of Sections R322.3.4 and R322.3.5. 

R322.3.3 Foundations. Buildings and structures erected in 
coastal high-hazard areas shall be supported on pilings or 
columns and shall be adequately anchored to those pilings 
or columns. Pilings shall have adequate soil penetrations to 
resist the combined wave and wind loads (lateral and uplift). 
Water loading values used shall be those associated with the 
design flood. Wind loading values shall be those required by 
this code. Pile embedment shall include consideration of 
decreased resistance capacity caused by scour of soil strata 
surrounding the piling. Pile systems design and installation 
shall be certified in accordance with Section R322.3.6. Mat, 
raft or other foundations that support columns shall not be 
permitted where soil investigations that are required in 
accordance with Section R401.4 indicate that soil material 
under the mat, raft or other foundation is subject to scour or 
erosion from wave-velocity flow conditions. Slabs, pools, 
pool decks and walkways shall be located and constructed 
to be structurally independent of buildings and structures 
and their foundations to prevent transfer of flood loads to 
the buildings and structures during conditions of flooding, 
scour or erosion from wave- velocity flow conditions, unless 
the buildings and structures and their foundation are 
designed to resist the additional flood load. 

R322.3.4 Walls below design flood elevation. Walls and 
partitions are permitted below the elevated floor, provided 
that such walls and partitions are not part of the structural 
support of the building or structure and: 

1. Electrical, mechanical, and plumbing system compo- 
nents are not to be mounted on or penetrate through 



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69 



BUILDING PLANNING 



walls that are designed to break away under flood 
loads; and 

2. Are constructed with insect screening or open lattice; 
or 

3. Are designed to break away or collapse without caus- 
ing collapse, displacement or other structural damage 
to the elevated portion of the building or supporting 
foundation system. Such walls, framing and connec- 
tions shall have a design safe loading resistance of not 
less than 10 (479 Pa) and no more than 20 pounds per 
square foot (958 Pa); or 

4. Where wind loading values of this code exceed 20 
pounds per square foot (958 Pa), the construction 
documents shall include documentation prepared and 
sealed by a registered design professional that: 

4.1. The walls and partitions below the design 
flood elevation have been designed to col- 
lapse from a water load less than that which 
would occur during the design flood. 

4.2. The elevated portion of the building and sup- 
porting foundation system have been designed 
to withstand the effects of wind and flood loads 
acting simultaneously on all building compo- 
nents (structural and nonstructural). Water 
loading values used shall be those associated 
with the design flood. Wind loading values 
shall be those required by this code. 

R322.3.5 Enclosed areas below design flood elevation. 
Enclosed areas below the design flood elevation shall be 
used solely for parking of vehicles, building access or stor- 
age. 

R322.3.6 Construction documents. The construction doc- 
uments shall include documentation that is prepared and 
sealed by a registered design professional that the design 
and methods of construction to be used meet the applicable 
criteria of this section. 



SECTION R323 
STORM SHELTERS 

R323.1 General. This section applies to the construction of 
storm shelters when constructed as separate detached buildings 
or when constructed as safe rooms within buildings for the pur- 
pose of providing safe refuge from storms that produce high 
winds, such as tornados and hurricanes. In addition to other 
applicable requirements in this code, storm shelters shall be 
constructed in accordance with ICC/NSSA-500. 



70 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



CHAPTER 4 

FOUNDATIONS 



SECTION R401 
GENERAL 

R401.1 Application. The provisions of this chapter shall con- 
trol the design and construction of the foundation and founda- 
tion spaces for all buildings. In addition to the provisions of this 
chapter, the design and construction of foundations in areas 
prone to flooding as established by Table R301.2(l) shall meet 
the provisions of Section R322. Wood foundations shall be 
designed and installed in accordance with AF&PA PWF. 

Exception: The provisions of this chapter shall be permit- 
ted to be used for wood foundations only in the following 
situations: 

1. In buildings that have no more than two floors and a roof. 

2. When interior basement and foundation walls are con- 
structed at intervals not exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm). 

Wood foundations in Seismic Design Category Do, D x or D 2 
shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering 
practice. 

R401.2 Requirements. Foundation construction shall be 
capable of accommodating all loads according to Section R30 1 
and of transmitting the resulting loads to the supporting soil. 
Fill soils that support footings and foundations shall be 
designed, installed and tested in accordance with accepted 
engineering practice. Gravel fill used as footings for wood and 
precast concrete foundations shall comply with Section R403. 

R401.3 Drainage. Surface drainage shall be diverted to a storm 
sewer conveyance or other approvedpoint of collection that does 
not create a hazard. Lots shall be graded to drain surface water 
away from foundation walls. The grade shall fall a minimum of 
6 inches (152 mm)within the first 10 feet (3048 mm). 

Exception: Where lot lines, walls, slopes or other physical 
barriers prohibit 6 inches (152 mm) of fall within 10 feet 
(3048 mm), drains or swales shall be constructed to ensure 
drainage away from the structure. Impervious surfaces 
within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the building foundation shall be 
sloped a minimum of 2 percent away from the building. 

R401.4 Soil tests. Where quantifiable data created by accepted 
soil science methodologies indicate expansive, compressible, 
shifting or other questionable soil characteristics are likely to 
be present, the building official shall determine whether to 
require a soil test to determine the soil's characteristics at a par- 
ticular location. This test shall be done by an approved agency 
using an approved method. 

R401.4.1 Geotechnical evaluation. In lieu of a complete 
geotechnical evaluation, the load-bearing values in Table 
R401.4.1 shall be assumed. 



TABLE R401.4.1 

PRESUMPTIVE LOAD-BEARING VALUES OF 

FOUNDATION MATERIALS 3 



CLASS OF MATERIAL 


LOAD-BEARING 

PRESSURE 

(pounds per square foot) 


Crystalline bedrock 


12,000 


Sedimentary and foliated rock 


4,000 


Sandy gravel and/or gravel (GWand GP) 


3,000 


Sand, silty sand, clayey sand, silty gravel 

and clayey gravel 

(SW, SP, SM, SC, GM and GC) 


2,000 


Clay, sandy clay, silty clay, clayey silt, 
silt and sandy silt 
(CL, ML, MH and CH) 


1,500 b 



For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 

a. When soil tests are required by SectionR401.4,the allowable bearing capaci- 

ties of the soil shall be part of the recommendations. 

b. Where the building official determines that in-place soils with an allowable 
bearing capacity of less than 1,500 psf are likely to be present at the site, the 
allowable bearing capacity shall be determined by a soils ilNestigation. 

R40 1.4.2 Compressible or shifting soil. Instead of a com- 
plete geotechnical evaluation, when top or subsoils are com- 
pressible or shifting, they shall be removed to a depth and 
width sufficient to assure stable moisture content in each 
active zone and shall not be used as fill or stabilized within 
each active zone by chemical, dewatering or pre saturation. 

SECTION R402 
MATERIALS 

R402.1 Wood foundations. Wood foundation systems shall be 
designed and installed in accordance with the provisions of this 
code. 

R402.1.1 Fasteners. Fasteners used below grade to attach 
plywood to the exterior side of exterior basement ox crawl- 
space wall studs, or fasteners used in knee wall construc- 
tion, shall be of Type 304 or 316 stainless steel. Fasteners 
used above grade to attach plywood and alliumber-to-Ium- 
ber fasteners except those used in knee wall construction 
shall be of Type 304 or 316 stainless steel, silicon bronze, 
copper, hot-dipped galvanized (zinc coated) steel nails, or 
hot- tumbled galvanized (zinc coated) steel nails. Electro- 
galvanized steel nails and galvanized (zinc coated) steel sta- 
ples shall not be permitted. 

R402.1.2 Wood treatment. All lumber and plywood shall 
be pressure-preservative treated and dried after treatment in 
accordance with AWPA Ul (Commodity Specification A, 
Use Category 4B and Section 5.2), and shall bear the label 
of an accredited agency. Where lumber and/or plywood is 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



71 



FOUNDATIONS 



cut or drilled after treatment, the treated surface shall be 
field treated with copper naphthenate, the concentration of 
which shall contain a minimum of 2 percent copper metal, 
by repeated brushing, dipping or soaking until the wood 
absorbs no more preservative. 

R402.2 Concrete. Concrete shall have a minimum specified 
compressive strength of f c , as shown in Table R402 .2. Concrete 
subject to moderate or severe weathering as indicated in Table 
R301.2(l) shall be air entrained as specified in Table R402.2. 
The maximum weight of fly ash, other pozzolans, silica fume, 
slag or blended cements that is included in concrete mixtures for 
garage floor slabs and for exterior porches, carport slabs and 
steps that will be exposed to deicing chemicals shall not exceed 
the percentages of the total weight of cementitious materials 
specified in Section 4.2.3 of ACI 318. Materials used to produce 
concrete and testing thereof shall comply with the applicable 
standards listed in Chapter 3 of ACI 318 or ACI 332. 

R402.3 Precast concrete. Precast concrete foundations shall 
be designed in accordance with Section R404.5 and shall be 
installed in accordance with the provisions of this code and the 
manufacturer's installation instructions. 

R402.3.1 Precast concrete foundation materials. Materi- 
als used to produce precast concrete foundations shall meet 
the following requirements. 

1. All concrete used in the manufacture of precast con- 
crete foundations shall have a minimum compressive 
strength of 5,000 psi (34 470 kPa) at 28 days. Con- 
crete exposed to a freezing and thawing environment 
shall be air entrained with a minimum total air content 
of 5 percent. 

2. Structural reinforcing steel shall meet the require- 
ments of ASTM A 615, A 706 or A 996. The mini- 
mum yield strength of reinforcing steel shall be 
40,000 psi (Grade 40) (276 MPa). Steel reinforce- 



ment for precast concrete foundation walls shall have 
a minimum concrete cover of 3/ 4 inch (19.1 mm). 

3. Panel-to-panel connections shall be made with Grade 
II steel fasteners. 

4. The use of nonstructural fibers shall conform to 
ASTMC 1116. 

5. Grout used for bedding precast foundations placed 
upon concrete footings shall meet ASTM C 1107. 



SECTION R403 
FOOTINGS 

R403.1 General. All exterior walls shall be supported on con- 
tinuous solid or fully grouted masonry or concrete footings, 
crushed stone footings, wood foundations, or other approved 
structural systems which shall be of sufficient design to accom- 
modate all loads according to Section R301 and to transmit the 
resulting loads to the soil within the limitations as determined 
from the character of the soil. Footings shall be supported on 
undisturbed natural soils or engineered fill. Concrete footing 
shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provi- 
sions of Section R403 or in accordance with ACI 332. 

R403.1.1 Minimum size. Minimum sizes for concrete and 
masonry footings shall be as set forth in Table R403.1 and 
Figure R403.1(l). The footing width, W, shall be based on 
the load-bearing value of the soil in accordance with Table 
R40 1.4.1. Spread footings shall be at least 6 inches (152 mm) 
in thickness, T. Footing projections, P, shall be at least 2 
inches (51 mm) and shall not exceed the thickness of the foot- 
ing. The size of footings supporting piers and columns shall 
be based on the tributary load and allowable soil pressure in 
accordance with Table R40 1.4.1 . Footings for wood founda- 
tions shall be in accordance with the details set forth in Sec- 
tion R403 .2, and Figures R403.1 (2) and R403.1 (3). 



TABLE R402.2 
MINIMUM SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE 



TYPE OR LOCATION OF CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 


MINIMUM SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH a (fc) 


Weathering Potential 13 


Negligible 


Moderate 


Severe 


Basement walls, foundations and other concrete not 
exposed to the weather 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 c 


Basement slabs and interior slabs on grade, except 
garage floor slabs 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 c 


Basement walls, foundation walls, exterior walls and 
other vertical concrete work exposed to the weather 


2,500 


3,000d 


3,000d 


Porches, carport slabs and steps exposed to the weather, 
and garage floor slabs 


2,500 


3,000d,e,f 


3,500d,e,f 



For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Strength at 28 days psi. 

b. See Table R30 1.2(1) for weathering potential. 

c. Concrete in these locations that may be subject to freezing and thawing during construction shall be air-entrained concrete in accordance with Footnote d. 

d. Concrete shall be air-entrained. Total air content (percent by volume of concrete) shall be not less than 5 percent or more than 7 percent. 

e. See Section R402.2 for maximum cementitious materials content. 

f. For garage floors with a steel troweled finish, reduction of the total air content (percent by volume of concrete) to not less than 3 percent is permitted if the specified 
compressive strength of the concrete is increased to not less than 4,000 psi. 



72 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R403.1 

MINIMUM WIDTH OF CONCRETE, 

PRECAST OR MASONRY FOOTINGS 

(inches)a 





LOAD-BEARING VALUE OF SOIL (pst) 


1,500 


2,000 


3,000 


> 4,000 


Conventional light-frame construction 


I-story 


12 


12 


12 


12 


2-story 


15 


12 


12 


12 


3-story 


23 


17 


12 


12 


4-inch brick veneer over light frame or a-inch hollow concrete masonry 


I-story 


12 


12 


12 


12 


2-story 


21 


16 


12 


12 


3-story 


32 


24 


16 


12 


a-inch solid orfUlly grouted masonry 


I-story 


16 


12 


12 


12 


2-story 


29 


21 


14 


12 


3-story 


42 


32 


21 


16 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 
a. Where minimum footing width is 12 inches, use of a single wythe of solid or 
fully grouted 12-inch nominal concrete masonry units is permitted. 

R403.1.2 Continuous footing in Seismic Design Catego- 
ries Do, D { and D 2 « The braced wallpanels at exterior walls 
of buildings located in Seismic Design Categories Do, D 1 
and D 2 shall be supported by continuous footings. All 
required interior braced wallpanels in buildings with plan 
dimensions greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm) shall also be 
supported by continuous footings. 

R403.1.3 Seismic reinforcing. Concrete footings located in 
Seismic Design Categories Do, T) x and D 2 , as established in 
Table R30 1.2(1), shall have minimum reinforcement. Bot- 
tom reinforcement shall be located a minimum of 3 inches 
(76 mm) clear from the bottom of the footing. 

In Seismic Design Categories Do, D x and D 2 where a con- 
struction j oint is created between a concrete footing and a 
stem wall, a minimum of one No. 4 bar shall be installed at 
not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) on center. The vertical bar 
shall extend to 3 inches (76 mm) clear of the bottom of the 
footing, have a standard hook and extend a minimum of 14 
inches (357 mm) into the stem wall. 

In Seismic Design Categories Do, D x and D 2 where a 
grouted masonry stem wall is supported on a concrete foot- 
ing and stem wall, a minimum of one No. 4 bar shall be 
installed at not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) on center. The 
vertical bar shall extend to 3 inches (76 mm) clear of the bot- 
tom of the footing and have a standard hook. 

In Seismic Design Categories Do, D l and D 2 masonry 
stem walls without solid grout and vertical reinforcing are 
not permitted. 

Exception: In detached one- and two-family dwellings 
which are three stories or less in height and constructed 
with stud bearing walls, plain concrete footings without 
longitudinal reinforcement supporting walls and isolated 
plain concrete footings supporting columns or pedestals 
are permitted. 



R403. 1.3.1 Foundations with stemwalls. Foundations 
with stem walls shall have installed a minimum of one 
No. 4 bar within 12 inches (305 mm) of the top of the wall 
and one No. 4 bar located 3 inches (76 mm) to 4 inches 
(102 mm) from the bottom of the footing. 

R403. 1.3.2 Slabs-on-ground with turned-down foot- 
ings. Slabs on ground with turned down footings shall 
have a minimum of one No. 4 bar at the top and the bot- 
tom of the footing. 

Exception: For slabs-on-ground cast monolithically 
with the footing, locating one No. 5 bar or two No. 4 
bars in the middle third of the footing depth shall be 
permitted as an alternative to placement at the footing 
top and bottom. 

Where the slab is not cast monolithically with the foot- 
ing' No. 3 or larger vertical dowels with standard hooks 
on each end shall be provided in accordance with Figure 
R403. 1.3.2. Standard hooks shall comply with Section 
R611.5.4.5. 

R403.1.4 Minimum depth. All exterior footings shall be 
placed at least 12 inches (305 mm) below the undisturbed 
ground surface. Where applicable, the depth of footings shall 
also conform to Sections R403. 1.4.1 through R403.1.4.2. 

R403. 1.4.1 Frost protection. Except where otherwise 
protected from frost, foundation walls, piers and other 
permanent supports of buildings and structures shall be 
protected from frost by one or more of the following meth- 
ods: 

1. Extended below the frost line specified in Table 
R301.2.(l); 

2. Constructing in accordance with Section R403.3; 

3. Constructing in accordance with ASCE 32; or 

4. Erected on solid rock. 
Exceptions: 

1. Protection of freestanding accessory structures 
with an area of600 square feet (56 m 2 ) or less, of 
light-frame construction, with an eave height of 
10 feet (3048 mm) or less shall not be required. 

2. Protection of freestanding accessory structures 
with an area of 400 square feet (37 m 2 ) or less, 
of other than light-frame construction, with an 
eave height of 10 feet (3048 mm) or less shall 
not be required. 

3. Decks not supported by a dwelling need not be 
provided with footings that extend below the 
frost line. 

Footings shall not bear on frozen soil unless the frozen 
condition is permanent. 

R403. 1.4.2 Seismic conditions. In Seismic Design Cat- 
egories Do, D { and D 2 , interior footings supporting bear- 
ing or bracing walls and cast monolithically with a slab 
on grade shall extend to a depth of not less than 12 inches 
(305 mm) below the top of the slab. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



73 



FOUNDATIONS 



BEARING WALL 



'//AW 



3.5 IN. MIN 




iL 



r^v-:: .... 



•7// 

|\W//// 



////\\V , 



[* — w — J[ 



MONOLITHIC SLAB WITH 
INTEGRAL FOOTING 



I* — W — A 




INTERIOR 



3.5 IN. MIN. 



^ 



\\^Z^| 



3. 



y//\\\v///\\Vi^/; 
m\\V /// A\\v//T\\^ 

y/A\\\ 

\\v 



:,: 



-W- 



GROUND SUPPORT SLAB 
WITH MASONRY WALL 
AND SPREAD FOOTING 



mA 



V^A\\ N 



:§••:•• -Si :•:• 



-w- 



INTERIOR 



BASEMENT OR CRAWL SPACE 
WITH MASONRY WALL AND 
SPREAD FOOTING 



^^^ \ 



KL 



k 



W 



INTERIOR 



A 



BASEMENT OR CRAWL SPACE 
WITH CONCRETE WALL AND 
SPREAD FOOTING 



WV ^ 



J^L 



INTERIOR 



W 



BASEMENT OR CRAWL SPACE 
WITH FOUNDATION WALL 
BEARING DIRECTLY ON SOIL 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R403.1 (1) 
CONCRETE AND MASONRY FOUNDATION DETAILS 



74 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FOUNDATIONS 



D 



PRESSURE-PRESERVATIVE TREATED 



FIELD-APPLIED 2 x 6 IN. TOP PLATI 
2 x 6 IN. TOP PLAT 




MIN. 3.5 IN. CONCRETE SLAB WITH 
VAPOR BARRIER AND OPTIONAL 
1 IN. SCREED BOARD 




FLASHING 

2x 6 IN. STUD WALL INSULATED 
w AS APPROPRIATE AND WARM SIDE 
VAPOR BARRIER 



21N. AIR GAP 

1 IN. THICK PRESSURE-PRESERVATIVE 
TREATED LUMBER OR PLYWOOD STRIP 
PROTECTING TOP OF POLYETHYLENE FILM 

PRESSURE-PRESERVATIVE 
TREATED PLYWOOD 
///K (SEE TABLE R404.2.3) 

6 MIL POLYETHYLENE FILM 



6 MIL POLYETHYLENE FILM 
ON CRUSHED STONE OR 
GRAVEL BACKFILL 

FINISH GRADE SLOPE l/ 2 IN. 
PER FOOT, MIN. 6 FT FROM 
WALL 



PRESSURE-PRESERVATIVE 
TREATED 2 x 6 IN. BOTTOM PLATE 



PRESSURE-PRESERVATIVE 
TREATED 2x 8 IN. FOOTING PLATE 



4 IN. GRAVEL OR CRUSHED 
STONE FILL UNDER FLOOR 
(SEE SECTION R403.2) 



For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 



FIGURE R403.1 (2) 
PERMANENT WOOD FOUNDATION BASEMENT WALL SECTION 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



75 



FOUNDATIONS 



□ PRESSURE-PRESERVATIVE TREATED 



FLOOR JOIST 



6 MIL POLYETHYLENE FILM 



61N. 



FIELD-APPLIED 2 x 6 IN. TOP PLATE 

FLASHING 

2x 6 IN. TOP PLATE 



6 IN. GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE 
(SEE SECTION R403.2) 




FINISH GRADE SLOPE i/ 2 IN. 
PER FOOT, MIN. 6 FT FROM 



PRESSURE-PRESERVATIVE 
TREATED 2 x 6 IN. STUD WALL 

PRESSURE-PRESERVATIVE 
TREATED PLYWOOD 
(SEE TABLE R404.2.3) 



PRESSURE-PRESERVATIVE 
TREATED 2 x 6 IN. BOTTOM PLATE 



PRESSURE-PRESERVATIVE 
TREATED 2 x 8 IN. FOOTING PLATE 



BELOW FROST LINE 



.(NOMINAL 

DIMENSIONS) 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 



FIGURE R403.1 (3) 
PERMANENT WOOD FOUNDATION CRAWL SPACE SECTION 



NO. 4 MINIMUM 
HORIZONTAL BAR 
TOP AND BOTTOM 



-H^ 



r- CONSTRUCTION JOINT 



¥ / , / 



\ 




3/ 2 IN. MINIMUM 
SLAB THICKNESS 



mrnrn^ 



NO. 3 MINIMUM @ 48 IN. ON 
CENTER VERTICAL DOWELS 



FOOTING 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



3 IN. COVER BOTTOM 
AND SIDES 



FIGURE R403.1.3.2 
DOWELS FOR SLABS-ON-GROUND WITH TURNED-DOWN FOOTINGS 



76 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FOUNDATIONS 



I 



R403.1.5 Slope. The top surface of footings shall be level. 
The bottom surface of footings shall not have a slope 
exceeding one unit vertical in 10 units horizontal (10-per- 
cent slope). Footings shall be stepped where it is necessary 
to change the elevation of the top surface of the footings or 
where the slope of the bottom surface of the footings will 
exceed one unit vertical in ten units horizontal (10- percent 
slope). 

R403.1.6 Foundation anchorage. Sill plates and walls 
supported directly on continuous foundations shall be 
anchored to the foundation in accordance with this section. 

Wood sole plates at all exterior walls on monolithic slabs, 
wood sole plates of braced wallpanels at building interiors 
on monolithic slabs and all wood sill plates shall be 
anchored to the foundation with anchor bolts spaced a maxi- 
mum of 6 feet (1829 mm) on center. Bolts shall be at least i/ 2 
inch (12.7 mm) in diameter and shall extend a minimum of 7 
inches (1 78 mm) into concrete or grouted cells of concrete 
masonry units. A nut and washer shall be tightened on each 
anchor bolt. There shall be a minimum of two bolts per plate 
section with one bolt located not more than 12 inches (305 
mm) or less than seven bolt diameters from each end of the 
plate section. Interior bearing wall sole plates on monolithic 
slab foundation that are not part of a braced wallpane I shall 
be positively anchored with app roved fasteners. Sill plates 
and sole plates shall be protected against decay and termites 
where required by Sections R317 and R318. Cold-formed 
steel framing systems shall be fastened to wood sill plates or 
anchored directly to the foundation as required in Section 
R505.3.1 orR603.3.1. 

Exceptions: 

1. Foundation anchorage, spaced as required to pro- 
vide equivalent anchorage to V 2 -inch-diameter 
(12.7 mm) anchor bolts. 

2. Walls 24 inches (610 mm) total length or shorter 
connecting offset braced wall panels shall be 
anchored to the foundation with a minimum of one 
anchor bolt located in the center third of the plate 
section and shall be attached to adjacent braced 
wall panels at corners as shown in Figure 
R602.10.4.4Q). 

3. Connection of walls 12 inches (305 mm) total 
length or shorter connecting offset braced wall 
panels to the foundation without anchor bolts shall 
be permitted. The wall shall be attached to adjacent 
braced wall panels at corners as shown in Figure 
R602.10.4.4(l). 

R403. 1.6.1 Foundation anchorage in Seismic Design 
Categories C, Do, D { and D 2 « In addition to the require- 
ments of Section R403.1.6, the following requirements 
shall apply to wood light-frame structures in Seismic 
Design Categories Do, D x and D 2 and wood light-frame 
townhouses in Seismic Design Category C. 

1. Plate washers conforming to Section R602.11.1 
shall be provided for all anchor bolts over the full 
length of required braced wall lines except where 
approved anchor straps are used. Properly sized 



cut washers shall be permitted for anchor bolts in 
wall lines not containing braced wallpanels. 

2. Interior braced wall plates shall have anchor bolts 
spaced at not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) on center 
and located within 12 inches (305 mm) of the ends 
of each plate section when supported on a continu- 
ous foundation. 

3. Interior bearing wall sole plates shall have anchor 
bolts spaced at not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) on 
center and located within 12 inches (305 mm) of 
the ends of each plate section when supported on a 
continuous foundation. 

4. The maximum anchor bolt spacing shall be 4 feet 
(1219 mm) for buildings over two stories in height. 

5. Stepped cripple walls shall conform to Section 
R602.11.2. 

6. Where continuous wood foundations in accor- 
dance with Section R404.2 are used, the force 
transfer shall have a capacity equal to or greater 
than the connections required by Section 
R602.11.1 or the braced wall panel shall be con- 
nected to the wood foundations in accordance with 
the braced wall panel-to- floor fastening require- 
ments of Table R602.3(l). 

R403.1.7 Footings on or adjacent to slopes. The placement 
of buildings and structures on or adjacent to slopes steeper 
than one unit vertical in three units horizontal (3 3. 3 -percent 
slope) shall conform to Sections R403. 1.7.1 through 
R403. 1.7.4. 

R403. 1.7.1 Building clearances from ascending 
slopes. In general, buildings below slopes shall be set a 
sufficient distance from the slope to provide protection 
from slope drainage, erosion and shallow failures. 
Except as provided in Section R403. 1.7.4 and Figure 
R403. 1.7.1, the following criteria will be assumed to 
provide this protection. Where the existing slope is 
steeper than one unit vertical in one unit horizontal 
(100-percent slope), the toe of the slope shall be assumed 
to be at the intersection of a horizontal plane drawn from 
the top of the foundation and a plane drawn tangent to the 
slope at an angle of 45 degrees (0.79 rad) to the horizon- 
tal. Where a retaining wall is constructed at the toe of the 
slope, the height of the slope shall be measured from the 
top of the wall to the top of the slope. 

R403. 1.7.2 Footing setback from descending slope 
surfaces. Footings on or adjacent to slope surfaces shall 
be founded in material with an embedment and setback 
from the slope surface sufficient to provide vertical and 
lateral support for the footing without detrimental settle- 
ment. Except as provided for in Section R403.1.7.4 and 
Figure R403. 1.7.1, the following setback is deemed ade- 
quate to meet the criteria. Where the slope is steeper than 
one unit vertical in one unit horizontal (100- percent 
slope), the required setback shall be measured from an 
imaginary plane 45 degrees (0.79 rad) to the horizontal, 
projected upward from the toe of the slope. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



77 



FOUNDATIONS 



FACE OF 
W FOOTING 



TOP OF 
SLOPE 



r 



ACEOF 
STRUCTURE 



TOE OF 
SLOPE 




//// \\\ s 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



r \ ■ 



H/3 BUT NEED NOT 

EXCEED 40 FT MAX. 



H/2 BUT NOT EXCEED 15 FT. MAX. 



FIGURE R403.1.7.1 
FOUNDATION CLEARANCE FROM SLOPES 



R403.1.7.3 Foundation elevation. On graded sites, the 
top of any exterior foundation shall extend above the ele- 
vation of the street gutter at point of discharge or the inlet 
of an app roved drainage device a minimum of 12 inches 
(305 mm) plus 2 percent. Alternate elevations are per- 
mitted subject to the approval of the building official, 
provided it can be demonstrated that required drainage to 
the point of discharge and away from the structure is pro- 
vided at all locations on the site. 

R403. 1.7.4 Alternate setback and clearances. Alternate 
setbacks and clearances are permitted, subject to the 
approval of the building official. The building officialis per- 
mitted to require an investigation and recommendation of a 
qualified engineer to demonstrate that the intent of this sec- 
tion has been satisfied. Such an investigation shall include 
consideration of material, height of slope, slope gradient, 
load intensity and erosion characteristics of slope material. 

R403.1.8 Foundations on expansive soils. Foundation and 
floor slabs for buildings located on expansive soils shall be 
designed in accordance with Section 1805.8 of the Interna- 
tional BUilding Code. 

Exception: Slab-on-ground and other foundation sys- 
tems which have performed adequately in soil conditions 
similar to those encountered at the building site are per- 
mitted subject to the approval of the building official. 

R403. 1.8.1 Expansive soils classifications. Soils meet- 
ing all four of the following provisions shall be consid- 
ered expansive, except that tests to show compliance 
with Items 1, 2 and 3 shall not be required if the test pre- 
scribed in Item 4 is conducted: 

1. Plasticity Index (PI) of 15 or greater, determined in 
accordance with ASTM D 4318. 

2. More than 10 percent of the soil particles pass a No. 
200 sieve (75 jLim) , determined in accordance with 
ASTMD 422. 

3. More than 10 percent of the soil particles are less 
than 5 micrometers in size, determined in accor- 
dance with ASTM D 422. 

4. Expansion Index greater than 20, determined in 
accordance with ASTM D 4829. 

R403.2 Footings for wood foundations. Footings for wood 
foundations shall be in accordance with Figures R403.1 (2) and 



R403.1 (3). Gravel shall be washed and well graded. The maxi- 
mum size stone shall not exceed 3/ 4 inch (19.1 mm). Gravel 
shall be free from organic, clayey or silty soils. Sand shall be 
coarse, not smaller than i/ 16 -inch (1.6 mm) grains and shall be 
free from organic, clayey or silty soils. Crushed stone shall 
have a maximum size of i/ 2 inch (12.7 mm). 

R403.3 Frost protected shallow foundations. For buildings 
where the monthly mean temperature of the building is main- 
tained at a minimum of 64 OF (18°C), footings are not required to 
extend below the frost line when protected from frost by insula- 
tion in accordance with Figure R403.3(l) and Table R403.3(l). 
Foundations protected from frost in accordance with Figure 
R403.3(l) and Table R403.3(l) shall not be used for unheated 
spaces such as porches, utility rooms, garages and carports, and 
shall not be attached to basements or crawl spaces that are not main- 
tained at a minimum monthly mean temperature of 64°F (18°C). 

Materials used below grade for the purpose of insulating foot- 
ings against frost shall be labeled as complying with ASTM C 

578. 

R403.3.1 Foundations adjoining frost protected shallow 
foundations. Foundations that adjoin frost protected shallow 
foundations shall be protected from frost in accordance with 
Section R403. 1.4. 

R403.3.1.1 Attachment to unheated slab-on-ground 
structure. Vertical wall insulation and horizontal insulation 
of frost protected shallow foundations that adjoin a 
slab-on-ground foundation that does not have a monthly 
mean temperature maintained at a minimum of 64°F 
(18°C) shall be in accordance with Figure R403.3(3) and 
Table R403.3(l). Vertical wall insulation shall extend 
between the frost protected shallow foundation and the 
adjoining slab foundation. Required horizontal insulation 
shall be continuous under the adjoining slab foundation and 
through any foundation walls adjoining the frost protected 
shallow foundation. Where insulation passes through a 
foundation wall, it shall either be of a type complying with 
this section and having bearing capacity equal to or greater 
than the structural loads imposed by the building, or the 
building shall be designed and constructed using beams, 
lintels, cantilevers or other means of transferring building 
loads such that the structural loads of the building do not 
bear on the insulation. 



78 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FOUNDATIONS 



INSULATION DETAIL 

FLASHING PER SECTION R703 

INSULATION PROTECTION PER SECTION R403.3.1 
SLOPE FINAL GRADE PER SECTION R403.3.2 




SLAB-ON-GROUND FOUNDATION FLOOR 
PER SECTIONS R403.1 AND R506 



''/// WW//, 
WW/// 

'y//\\v 

WW/// 
'////\\V 
'WW/// 
'///\\V 
WW/// 



N0MINAL4 IN. SCREENED AND 
WASHED GRAVEL OR CRUSHED 
STONE DRAINED PER SECTION 
R403.3.2 



W7 AW'/// \W///^WAW/// AW/// \\\v 

VERTICAL WALL INSUALTION a 

HORIZONTAL INSULATION 3 



HORIZONTAL INSULATION PLAN 




For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. See Table R403.3(l) for required dimensions and R-values for vertical and horizontal insulation and minimum footing depth. 

FIGURE R403.3(1) 
INSULATION PLACEMENT FOR FROST PROTECTED FOOTINGS IN HEATED BUILDINGS 



TABLE R403.3(1) 
MINIMUM FOOTING DEPTH AND INSULATION REQUIREMENTS FOR FROST-PROTECTED FOOTINGS IN HEATED BUILDINGsa 


AIR FREEZING 
INDEX (OF-days)b 


MINIMUM 
FOOTING 
DEPTH, 
(inches) 


VERTICAL 
INSULATION 
R-VALUEc,d 


HORIZONTAL INSULATION 
R-VALUEc,e 


HORIZONTAL INSULATION DIMENSIONS 
PER FIGURE R403.3(1) (inches) 


Along walls 


At corners 


A 


B 


C 


1,500 or less 


12 


4.5 


Not required 


Not required 


Not required 


Not required 


Not required 


2,000 


14 


5.6 


Not required 


Not required 


Not required 


Not required 


Not required 


2,500 


16 


6.7 


1.7 


4.9 


12 


24 


40 


3,000 


16 


7.8 


6.5 


8.6 


12 


24 


40 


3,500 


16 


9.0 


8.0 


11.2 


24 


30 


60 


4,000 


16 


10.1 


10.5 


13.1 


24 


36 


60 



a. Insulation requirements are for protection against frost damage in heated buildings. Greater values may be required to meet energy conservation standards. 

b. See Figure R403.3(2) or Table R403.3(2) for Air Freezing Index values. 

c. Insulation materials shall provide the stated minimum R-values under long-term exposure to moist, below-ground conditions in freezing climates. The following 
R-values shall be used to determine insulation thicknesses required for this application: Type II expanded polystyrene-2.4Rper inch; Type IV extruded polysty- 
rene- 4.5Rper inch; Type VI extruded poly styrene-4.5Rper inch; Type IX expanded polystyrene- 3. 2Rper inch; Type X extruded poly styrene-4.5Rper inch. 

d. Vertical insulation shall be expanded polystyrene insulation or extruded polystyrene insulation. 

e. Horizontal insulation shall be extruded polystyrene insulation. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



79 



00 

o 



ho 

o 

& 



-I 
m 
73 

2 

3 

o 

2 
> 

r 

m 
c/> 

D 
m 

> 

r 
O 


c 
m 

® 






c 

2 



(/> 



For SI: C = [(F) -32J/1.8. 

Note: The air-freezing index is defined as cumulative degree days below 32F. It is used as a measure of the combined magnitude and duration of air temperature below freezing. The index was computed over a 
12-month period (July- June) for each of the 3,044 stations used in the above analysis. Date from the 1951-80 period were fitted to a Weibull probability distribution to produce an estimate of the 100-year 
return period. 

FIGURE R403.3(2) 

AIR-FREEZING INDEX 

AN ESTIMATE OF THE 100-YEAR RETURN PERIOD 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R403.3(2) 
AIR-FREEZING INDEX FOR U.S. LOCATIONS BY COUNTY 



STATE 


AIR-FREEZING INDEX 


1500 or less 


2000 


2500 


3000 


3500 


4000 


Alabama 


All counties 












Alaska 


Ketchikan Gateway, 
Prince of Wales-Outer 
Ketchikan (CA) , Sitka, 

Wrangell-Petersburg 

(CA) 




Aleutians West 

(CA) , Haines, 

Juneau, 

Skagway-Hoonah- 

Angoon (CA), 

Yakutat 






All counties 
not listed 


Arizona 


All counties 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Arkansas 


All counties 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


California 


All counties not listed 


Nevada, Sierra 










Colorado 


All counties not listed 


Archuleta, Custer, 

Fremont, 

Huerfano, Las Animas, 

Ouray, 

Pitkin, San Miguel 


Clear Creek, 

Conejos, Costilla, 

Dolores, Eagle, 

La Plata, Park, Routt, 

San Juan, Summit 


Alamosa, Grand, 
Jackson, 

Larimer, Moffat, 
Rio Blanco, 
Rio Grande 


Chaffee, 

Gunnison, 

Lake, Saguache 


Hinsdale, 
Mineral 


Connecticut 


All counties not listed 


Hartford, 
Litchfield 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Delaware 


All counties 












District of 
Columbia 


All counties 












Florida 


All counties 












Georgia 


All counties 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Hawaii 


All counties 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Idaho 


All counties not listed 


Adams, Bannock, 

Blaine, Clearwater, 

Idaho, Lincoln, 

Oneida, Power, 

Valley, Washington 


Bingham, 
Bonneville, Camas, 

Caribou, Elmore, 

Franklin, Jefferson, 

Madison, Teton 


Bear Lake, 

Butte, Custer, 

Fremont, Lemhi 


Clark 




Illinois 


All counties not listed 


Boone, Bureau, Cook, 

Dekalb, DuPage, Fulton, 

Grundy, Henderson, 

Henry, 

Iroquois, Jo Daviess, Kane, 

Kankakee, Kendall, Knox, 

La Salle, Lake, Lee, 

Livingston, Marshall, 

Mason, McHenry, 

McLean, 

Mercer, Peoria, Putnam, 

Rock Island, Stark 

Tazewell, Warren, 

Whiteside, Will, Woodford 


Carroll, Ogle, 
Stephenson, 
Winnebago 








Indiana 


All counties not listed 


Allen, Benton, Cass, 
Fountain, Fulton, Howard, 

Jasper, Kosciusko, 
La Porte, Lake, Marshall, 
Miami, Newton, Porter, 
Pulaski, Starke, Steuben, 

Tippecanoe, Tipton, 
Wabash, Warren, White 











(continued) 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



81 



FOUNDATIONS 







TABLE R403.3(2)-continued 
AIR-FREEZING INDEX FOR U.S. LOCATIONS BY COUNTY 






STATE 


AIR-FREEZING INDEX 


1500 or less 


2000 


2500 


3000 


3500 


4000 


Iowa 


Appanoose, 

Davis, 

Fremont, Lee, 

Van Buren 


All counties not 
listed 


Allamakee, Black Hawk, Boone, 

Bremer, Buchanan, Buena Vista, 

Butler, Calhoun, Cerro Gordo, 

Cherokee, Chickasaw, Clay, 

Clayton, Delaware, Dubuque, 

Fayette, Floyd, Franklin, 

Grundy, Hamilton, Hancock, 

Hardin, Humboldt, Ida, Jackson, 

Jasper, Jones, Linn, Marshall, 

Palo Alto, Plymouth, 

Pocahontas, Poweshiek, Sac, 

Sioux, Story, Tama, Webster, 

Winnebago, Woodbury, 

Worth, Wright 


Dickinson, 

Emmet, Howard, 

Kossuth, Lyon, 

Mitchell, 

O'Brien, 

Osceola, 

Winneshiek 


- 


- 


Kansas 


All counties 












Kentucky 


All counties 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Louisiana 


All counties 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Maine 


York 


Knox, Lincoln, 
Sagadahoc 


Androscoggin, Cumberland, 

Hancock, Kennebec, Waldo, 

Washington 


Aroostook, 

Franklin, Oxford, 

Penobscot, 

Piscataquis, 

Somerset 


- 


- 


Maryland 


All counties 












Massachusetts 


All counties 
not listed 


Berkshire, Franklin, 
Hampden, Worcester 










Michigan 


Berrien, 

Branch, Cass, 

Kalamazoo, 

Macomb, 

Ottawa, 

St. Clair, 

St. Joseph 


All counties not 
listed 


Alger, Charlevoix, Cheboygan, 

Chippewa, Crawford, Delta, 

Emmet, Iosco, Kalkaska, Lake, 

Luce, Mackinac, Menominee, 

Missaukee, Montmorency, 

Ogemaw, Osceola, Otsego, 

Roscommon, Schoolcraft, 

Wexford 


Baraga, 

Dickinson, Iron, 

Keweenaw, 

Marquette 


Gogebic, 
Houghton, 
Ontonagon 




Minnesota 






Houston, Winona 


All counties not 
listed 


Aitkin, 

Big Stone, 

Carlton, Crow 

Wing, Douglas, 

Itasca, Kanabec, 

Lake, Morrison, 

Pine, Pope, 

Stearns, Stevens, 

Swift, Todd, 

Wadena 


Becker, 

Beltrami, Cass, 

Clay, 

Clearwater, 

Grant, Hubbard, 

Kittson, 

Koochiching, 

Lake of the 

Woods, 

Mahnomen, 

Marshall, 

Norman, 

Otter Tail, 

Pennington, 

Polk, Red Lake, 

Roseau, 

St Louis, 

Traverse, 

Wilkin 


Mississippi 


All counties 












Missouri 


All counties 
not listed 


Atchison, Mercer, 
Nodaway, Putnam 


- 


- 


- 


- 



(continued) 



82 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R403.3(2)-continued 
AIR-FREEZING INDEX FOR U.S. LOCATIONS BY COUNTY 



STATE 


AIR-FREEZING INDEX 


1500 or less 


2000 


2500 


3000 


3500 


4000 


Montana 


Mineral 


Broadwater, 

Golden Valley, 

Granite, Lake, 

Lincoln, 

Missoula, Ravalli, 

Sanders, 

Sweet Grass 


Big Horn, Carbon, 
Jefferson, Judith Basin, 

Lewis and Clark, 

Meagher, Musselshell, 

Powder River, Powell, 

Silver Bow, Stillwater, 

Westland 


Carter, Cascade, Deer 

Lodge, Falcon, Fergus, 

Flathead, Gallanting, 

Glacier, Madison, Park, 

Petroleum, Ponder, 

Rosebud, Teton, 

Treasure, Yellowstone 


Beaverhead, 
Blaine, Chouteau, 

Custer, Dawson, 
Garfield, Liberty, 
McCone, Prairie, 

Toole, Wibaux 


Daniels, 

Hill, 

Phillips, 

Richland, 

Roosevelt, 

Sheridan, 

Valley 


Nebraska 


Adams, Banner, Chase, 

Cheyenne, Clay, Deuel, 

Dundy, Fillmore, 

Franklin, Frontier, 

Furnas, Gage, Garden, 

Gasper, Harlan, Hayes, 

Hitchcock, Jefferson, 

Kimball, Morrill, 

Nemaha, Nuckolls, 

Pawnee, Perkins, 

Phelps, Red Willow, 

Richardson, Saline, 

Scotts Bluff, Seward, 

Thayer, Webster 


All counties not 
listed 


Boyd, Burt, Cedar, 

Cuming, Dakota, 

Dixon, Dodge, Knox, 

Thurston 








Nevada 


All counties not listed 


Elko, Eureka, 

Nye, Washoe, 

White Pine 










New 
Hampshire 




All counties not 
listed 








Carroll, 

Coos, 

Grafton 


New Jersey 


All counties 


. 


. 


. 


. 


. 


New Mexico 


All counties not listed 


Rio Arriba 


Colfax, Mora, Taos 


- 


- 


- 


New York 


Albany, Bronx, Cayuga, 

Columbia, Cortland, 

Dutchess, Genessee, 

Kings, Livingston, 

Monroe, Nassau, New 

York, Niagara, 

Onondaga, Ontario, 

Orange, Orleans, 

Putnam, Queens, 

Richmond, Rockland, 

Seneca, Suffolk, Wayne, 

Westchester, Yates 


All counties not 
listed 


Clinton, Essex, 

Franklin, Hamilton, 

Herkimer, Jefferson, 

Lewis, St. Lawrence, 

Warren 








North 
Carolina 


All counties 












North Dakota 


- 


- 


- 


Billings, Bowman 


Adams, Dickey, 

Golden Valley, 

Hettinger, 

LaMoure, Oliver, 

Ransom, Sargent, 

Sioux, Slope, Stark 


All 
counties 
not listed 


Ohio 


All counties not listed 


Ashland, 

Crawford, 

Defiance, 

Holmes, Huron, 

Knox, Licking, 

Morrow, 

Paulding, Putnam, 

Richland, Seneca, 

Williams 











(continued) 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



83 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R403.3(2)-continued 
AIR-FREEZING INDEX FOR U.S. LOCATIONS BY COUNTY 



STATE 


AIR-FREEZING INDEX 


1500 or less 


2000 


2500 


3000 


3500 


4000 


Oklahoma 


All counties 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Oregon 


All counties 
not listed 


Baker, Crook, Grant, 
Harney 










Pennsylvania 


All counties 
not listed 


Berks, Blair, Bradford, 

Cambria, Cameron, Centre, 

Clarion, Clearfield, Clinton, 

Crawford, Elk, Forest, 

Huntingdon, Indiana, 

Jefferson, Lackawanna, 

Lycoming, McKean, Pike, 

Potter, Susquehanna, Tioga, 

Venango, Warren, Wayne, 

Wyoming 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Rhode Island 


All counties 












South 
Carolina 


All counties 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


South Dakota 




Bennett, Custer, Fall River, 

Lawrence, Mellette, 

Shannon, Todd, Tripp 


Bon Homme, 

Charles Mix, 

Davison, 

Douglas, 

Gregory, Jackson, 

Jones, Lyman 


All counties not listed 


Beadle, Brookings, 

Brown, Campbell, 

Codington, Corson, 

Day, Deuel, 

Edmunds, Faulk, 

Grant, Hamlin, 

Kingsbury, Marshall, 

McPherson, Perkins, 

Roberts, Spink, 

Walworth 




Tennessee 


All counties 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Texas 


All counties 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Utah 


All counties 
not listed 


Box Elder, Morgan, Weber 


Garfield, Salt 
Lake, Summit 


Carbon, Daggett, Duchesne, 

Rich, Sanpete, Uintah, 

Wasatch 






Vermont 


- 


Bennington, Grand Isle, 
Rutland, Windham 


Addison, 

Chittenden, 

Franklin, Orange, 

Washington, 

Windsor 


Caledonia, Essex, Lamoille, 
Orleans 


- 


- 


Virginia 


All counties 


. 


. 


. 


. 


. 


Washington 


All counties 
not listed 


Chelan, Douglas, Ferry, 
Okanogan 










West Virginia 


All counties 












Wisconsin 


- 


Kenosha, Kewaunee, 

Racine, Sheboygan, 

Walworth 


All counties not 
listed 


Ashland, Barron, Burnett, 

Chippewa, Clark, Dunn, 

Eau Claire, Florence, 

Forest, Iron, Jackson, 

La Crosse, Langlade, 

Marathon, Monroe, Pepin, 

Polk, Portage, Price, Rust, 

St. Croix, Taylor, 
Trempealeau, Vilas, Wood 


Bayfield, Douglas, 

Lincoln, Oneida, 

Sawyer, Washburn 


- 


Wyoming 


Goshen, 
Platte 


Converse, Crook, Laramie, 
Niobrara 


Campbell, 

Carbon, Hot 

Springs, Johnson, 

Natrona, 

Sheridan, Uinta, 

Weston 


Albany, Big Horn, Park, 

Washakie 


Fremont, Teton 


Lincoln, 

Sublette, 

Sweetwater 



84 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



INSULATION DETAIL 



FOUNDATIONS 



FLASHING PER SECTION R703.8 
INSULATION PROTECTION PER SECTION R403.3.2 



FINISH GRADE OR CONCRETE 
SLAB OF ADJACENT UNHEATED 
SLAB-ON-GROUND STRUCTURE 



BEAM LINTEL OR CANTILEVER 
TO CARRY LOAD OVER 
NONLOAD-BEARING 
INSULATION 

CONCRETE MASONRY OR 
PERMANENT WOOD 
FOUNDATION GRADE BEAM 
OR WALL OF ADJACENT 
UNHEATED STRUCTURE 



FOOTING AS REQUIRED 




FROST PROTECTED SHALLOW 
FOUNDATION SLAB-ON-GRADE 
LOOR PER SECTION 403.3 



NOMINAL 4 IN. SCREEN AND 

WASHED GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE, 

DRAINED PER SECTION R403.3.3 

VERTICAL WALL INSULATION 3 

HORIZONTAL INSULATION 3 



HORIZONTAL INSULATION PLAN 



ATTACHED SLAB 
FOUNDATION OF UNHEATED 
SLAB-ON-GROUND 
STRUCTURE PER 
SECTION R403.1 
AND R403.2 



FOUNDATION PERIMETER- 



HEATED BUILDING AREA 



- B 



L A 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. See Table R403.3(l) for required dimensions and R- values for vertical and horizontal insulation. 

FIGURE R403.3(3) 
INSULATION PLACEMENT FOR FROST-PROTECTED FOOTINGS ADJACENT TO UNHEATED SLAB-ON-GROUND STRUCTURE 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



85 



FOUNDATIONS 



R403.3.1.2 Attachment to heated structure. Where a 
frost protected shallow foundation abuts a structure that 
has a monthly mean temperature maintained at a mini- 
mum of 64of (18°C), horizontal insulation and vertical 
wall insulation shall not be required between the frost 
protected shallow foundation and the adjoining struc- 
ture. Where the frost protected shallow foundation abuts 
the heated structure, the horizontal insulation and verti- 
cal wall insulation shall extend along the adjoining foun- 
dation in accordance with Figure R403.3(4) a distance of 
not less than Dimension A in Table R403.3(I). 

Exception: Where the frost protected shallow foun- 
dation abuts the heated structure to form an inside cor- 
ner, vertical insulation extending along the adjoining 
foundation is not required. 

R403.3.2 Protection of horizontal insulation below 
ground. Horizontal insulation placed less than 12 inches 
(305 mm) below the ground surface or that portion of hori- 
zontal insulation extending outward more than 24 inches 
(610 mm) from the foundation edge shall be protected 
against damage by use of a concrete slab or asphalt paving 
on the ground surface directly above the insulation or by 
cementitious board, plywood rated for below-ground use, 
or other approved materials placed below ground, directly 
above the top surface of the insulation. 

R403.3.3 Drainage. Final grade shall be sloped in accor- 
dance with Section R40I.3. In other than Group I Soils, as 
detailed in Table R405.1 , gravel or crushed stone beneath 
horizontal insulation below ground shall drain to daylight or 
into an approved sewer system. 

R403.3.4 Termite damage. The use of foam plastic in areas 
of "very heavy" termite infestation probability shall be in 
accordance with Section R3I8.4. 



R403.4 Footings for precast concrete foundations. Footings 
for precast concrete foundations shall comply with Section 
R403.4. 

R403.4.1 Crushed stone footings. Clean crushed stone shall 
be free from organic, clayey or silty soils. Crushed stone shall 
be angular in nature and meet ASTM C 33, with the maxi- 
mum size stone not to exceed i/ 2 inch (12 .7 mm) and the mini- 
mum stone size not to be smaller than i/i6-inch (1 .6 mm) . 
Crushed stone footings for precast foundations shall be 
installed in accordance with Figure R403.4(I) and Table 
R403.4. Crushed stone footings shall be consolidated using a 
vibratory plate in a maximum of 8- inch lifts. Crushed stone 
footings shall be limited to Seismic Design Categories A, B 
and C. 

R403.4.2 Concrete footings. Concrete footings shall be 
installed in accordance with Section R403.I and Figure 
R403 .4(2) . 

SECTION R404 
FOUNDATION AND RETAINING WALLS 

R404.1 Concrete and masonry foundation walls. Concrete 
foundation walls shall be selected and constructed in accor- 
dance with the provisions of Section R404.I.2. Masonry foun- 
dation walls shall be selected and constructed in accordance 
with the provisions of Section R404.1.1. 

R404.1.1 Design of masonry foundation walls. Masonry 
foundation walls shall be designed and constructed in accor- 
dance with the provisions of this section or in accordance 
with the provisions of ACI530/ASCE 5/TMS 402 or NCMA 
TR68-A. When ACI530/ASCE 5/TMS 402, NCMA 
TR68-A or the provisions of this section are used to design 
masonry foundation walls, project drawings, typical details 
and specifications are not required to bear the seal of the 
architect or engineer responsible for design, unless otherwise 
required by the state law of thejurisdiction having authority. 



FOUNDATION OF HEATED 
STRUCTURE PER 
SECTION R403J, 
R403.2, AND R403.3.2 



\ 


h-A 














\ 


1 




1 








1 












^FROST-PROTECTION 
SHALLOW FOUNDATION 






B 




















f 




\ 


1 




1 

1 








\ 


1 A 











% — INSIDE CORNER 



FIGURE R403.3(4) 
INSULATION PLACEMENT FOR FROST-PROTECTED FOOTINGS ADJACENT TO HEATED STRUCTURE 



86 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FOUNDATIONS 











TABLE R403.4 
MINIMUM DEPTH OF CRUSHED STONE FOOTINGS (D), (inches) 














IOAD BEARING VALUE OF SOil (pst) 


1500 


2000 


3000 


4000 


MH, CH, CI, Ml 


SC, GC, SM, GM, SP, SW 


GP,GW 




Wall width (inches) 


Wall width (inches) 


Wall width (inches) 


Wall width (inches) 


6 


a 


10 


12 


6 


a 


10 


12 


6 


a 


10 


12 


6 


a 


10 


12 


Conventional light-frame construction 


I- story 


1100 plf 


6 


4 


4 


4 


6 


4 


4 


4 


6 


4 


4 


4 


6 


4 


4 


4 


2-story 


1800 plf 


8 


6 


4 


4 


6 


4 


4 


4 


6 


4 


4 


4 


6 


4 


4 


4 


3 -story 


2000 plf 


16 


14 


12 


10 


10 


8 


6 


6 


6 


4 


4 


4 


6 


4 


4 


4 


4-inch brick veneer over light-frame or a-inch hollow concrete masonry 


I- story 


1500 plf 


6 


4 


4 


4 


6 


4 


4 


4 


6 


4 


4 


4 


6 


4 


4 


4 


2-story 


2700 plf 


14 


12 


10 


8 


10 


8 


6 


4 


6 


4 


4 


4 


6 


4 


4 


4 


3 -story 


4000 plf 


22 


22 


20 


18 


16 


14 


12 


10 


10 


8 


6 


4 


6 


4 


4 


4 


a-inch solid orfUlly grouted masonry 


I- story 


2000 plf 


10 


8 


6 


4 


6 


4 


4 


4 


6 


4 


4 


4 


6 


4 


4 


4 


2-story 


3600 plf 


20 


18 


16 


16 


14 


12 


10 


8 


8 


6 


4 


4 


6 


4 


4 


4 


3-story 


5300 plf 


32 


30 


28 


26 


22 


22 


20 


18 


14 


12 


10 


8 


10 


8 


6 


4 



For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.89 kPa. 




A 



/ 



. PRECAST 
CONCRETE 
WALL 



CRASHED STONE ~\ 
FOOTING \\ 



INTERIOR 



W 




& 



/ 



PRECAST 

CONCRETE 

WALL 



FIGURE R403.4(1) 

BASEMENT OR CRAWL SPACE WITH PRECAST 

FOUNDATION WALL BEARING ON CRUSHED STONE 



FIGURE R403.4(2) 

BASEMENT OR CRAWL SPACE WITH PRECAST 

FOUNDATION WALL ON SPREAD FOOTING 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



87 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R404.1.1 (1) 
PLAIN MASONRY FOUNDATION WALLS 





MAXIMUM 


PLAIN MASONRya MINIMUM NOMINAL WALL THICKNESS (inches) 


Soil classes' 3 








MAXIMUM WALL HEIGHT 


UNBALANCED 


GW,GP,SW 


GM, GC, SM, 


SC, MH, ML-CL 


(feet) 


BACKFILL HEIGHT (feet) 


and SP 


SM-SC and ML 


and inorganic CL 


5 


4 


6 solid d or 8 


6 solid d or 8 


6 solid d or 8 


5 


6 solid d or 8 


8 


10 




4 


6 solid d or 8 


6 solid d or 8 


6 solid d or 8 


6 


5 


6 solid d or 8 


8 


10 




6 


8 


10 


12 




4 


6 solid d or 8 


8 


8 


7 


5 


6 solid d or 8 


10 


10 


6 


10 


12 


10 solid d 




7 


12 


10 solid d 


12 solid d 




4 


6 solid d or 8 


6 solid d or 8 


8 




5 


6 solid d or 8 


10 


12 


8 


6 


10 


12 


12 solid d 




7 


12 


12 solid d 


Footnote e 




8 


10 solid d 


12 solid d 


Footnote e 




4 


6 solid d or 8 


6 solid d or 8 


8 




5 


8 


10 


12 


9 


6 


10 


12 


12 solid d 


7 


12 


12 solid d 


Footnote e 




8 


12 solid d 


Footnote e 


Footnote e 




9 


Footnote e 


Footnote e 


Footnote e 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 Ik 

a. Mortar shall be Type M or S and masonry shall be laid in running bond.Ungrouted hollow masonry units are permitted except where otherwise indicated. 

b. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1. 

c. Unbalanced backfill height is the difference in height between the exterior finish ground level and the lower of the top of the concrete footing that supports the foun- 
dation wall or the interior finish ground level. Where an interior concrete slab-on-grade is provided and is in contact with the interior surface of the foundation wall, 
measurement of the unbalanced backfill height from the exterior finish ground level to the top of the interior concrete slab is permitted. 

d. Solid grouted hollow units or solid masonry units. 

e. Wall construction shall be in accordance with either Table R404. 1.1(2) , Table R404. 1.1(3) , Table R404. 1.1(4) , or a design shall be provided. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R404.1.1 (2) 

8-INCH MASONRY FOUNDATION WALLS WITH REINFORCING 

WHERE d >5 INCHESa,c 





HEIGHT OF 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT AND SPACING (INCHES)b, c 


Soil classes and lateral soilload d (psf per foot below grade) 












UNBALANCED 


GW, GP, SWand SP soils 


GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML soils 


SC, ML-CLand inorganic 


CL soils 


WALL HEIGHT 


BACKFILL 6 


30 


45 


60 






4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 48 


#4 at 48 


#4 at 48 




6 feet 8 inches 


5 feet 


#4 at 48 


#4 at 48 


#4 at 48 






6 feet 8 inches 


#4 at 48 


#5 at 48 


#6 at 48 






4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 48 


#4 at 48 


#4 at 48 




7 feet 4 inches 


5 feet 


#4 at 48 


#4 at 48 


#4 at 48 




6 feet 


#4 at 48 


#5 at 48 


#5 at 48 






7 feet 4 inches 


#5 at 48 


#6 at 48 


#6 at 40 






4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 48 


#4 at 48 


#4 at 48 






5 feet 


#4 at 48 


#4 at 48 


#4 at 48 




8 feet 


6 feet 


#4 at 48 


#5 at 48 


#5 at 48 






7 feet 


#5 at 48 


#6 at 48 


#6 at 40 






8 feet 


#5 at 48 


#6 at 48 


#6 at 32 






4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 48 


#4 at 48 


#4 at 48 






5 feet 


#4 at 48 


#4 at 48 


#5 at 48 




8 feet 8 inches 


6 feet 


#4 at 48 


#5 at 48 


#6 at 48 






7 feet 


#5 at 48 


#6 at 48 


#6 at 40 






8 feet 8 inches 


#6 at 48 


#6 at 32 


#6 at 24 






4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 48 


#4 at 48 


#4 at 48 






5 feet 


#4 at 48 


#4 at 48 


#5 at 48 




9 feet 4 inches 


6 feet 


#4 at 48 


#5 at 48 


#6 at 48 




7 feet 


#5 at 48 


#6 at 48 


#6 at 40 






8 feet 


#6 at 48 


#6 at 40 


#6 at 24 






9 feet 4 inches 


#6 at 40 


#6 at 24 


#6 at 16 






4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 48 


#4 at 48 


#4 at 48 






5 feet 


#4 at 48 


#4 at 48 


#5 at 48 






6 feet 


#4 at 48 


#5 at 48 


#6 at 48 




10 feet 


7 feet 


#5 at 48 


#6 at 48 


#6 at 32 






8 feet 


#6 at 48 


#6 at 32 


#6 at 24 






9 feet 


#6 at 40 


#6 at 24 


#6 at 16 






10 feet 


#6 at 32 


#6 at 16 


#6 at 16 





For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot per foot =0.157 kPaimm. 

a. Mortar shall be Type M or S and masonry shall be laid in running bond. 

b. Alternative reinforcing bar sizes and spacings having an equivalent cross-sectional area of reinforcement per lineal foot of wall shall be permitted provided the 
spacing of the reinforcement does not exceed 72 inches. 

c. Vertical reinforcement shall be Grade 60 minimum. The distance , d, from the face of the soil side of the wall to the center of vertical reinforcement shall be at least 5 
inches. 

d. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System and design lateral soil loads are for moist conditions without hydrostatic pressure. Refer 
to Table R405.1. 

e. Unbalanced backfill height is the difference in height between the exterior finish ground level and the lower of the top of the concrete footing that supports the foun- 
dation wall or the interior finish ground level. Where an interior concrete slab-on-grade is provided and is in contact with the interior surface of the foundation wall, 
measurement of the unbalanced backfill height from the exterior finish ground level to the top of the interior concrete slab is permitted. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



89 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R404.l.l(3) 

10-INCH FOUNDATION WALLS WITH REINFORCING 

WHERE d > 6.75 INCHESa,c 





HEIGHT OF 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT AND SPACING (INCHES)b, c 


Soil classes and later soilload d (psf per foot below grade) 












UNBALANCED 


GW, GP, SWand SP soils 


GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML soils 


SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL soils 


WALL HEIGHT 


BACKFILL 6 


30 


45 


60 






4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 




6 feet 8 inches 


5 feet 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 






6 feet 8 inches 


#4 at 56 


#5 at 56 


#5 at 56 






4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 




7 feet 4 inches 


5 feet 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 




6 feet 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 


#5 at 56 






7 feet 4 inches 


#4 at 56 


#5 at 56 


#6 at 56 






4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 






5 feet 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 




8 feet 


6 feet 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 


#5 at 56 






7 feet 


#4 at 56 


#5 at 56 


#6 at 56 






8 feet 


#5 at 56 


#6 at 56 


#6 at 48 






4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 






5 feet 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 




8 feet 8 inches 


6 feet 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 


#5 at 56 






7 feet 


#4 at 56 


#5 at 56 


#6 at 56 






8 feet 8 inches 


#5 at 56 


#6 at 48 


#6 at 32 






4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 






5 feet 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 




9 feet 4 inches 


6 feet 


#4 at 56 


#5 at 56 


#5 at 56 




7 feet 


#4 at 56 


#5 at 56 


#6 at 56 






8 feet 


#5 at 56 


#6 at 56 


#6 at 40 






9 feet 4 inches 


#6 at 56 


#6 at 40 


#6 at 24 






4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 






5 feet 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 






6 feet 


#4 at 56 


#5 at 56 


#5 at 56 




10 feet 


7 feet 


#5 at 56 


#6 at 56 


#6 at 48 






8 feet 


#5 at 56 


#6 at 48 


#6 at 40 






9 feet 


#6 at 56 


#6 at 40 


#6 at 24 






10 feet 


#6 at 48 


#6 at 32 


#6 at 24 





For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.157 kPalmm. 

a. Mortar shall be Type M or S and masonry shall be laid in running bond. 

b. Alternative reinforcing bar sizes and spacings having an equivalent cross-sectional area of reinforcement per lineal foot of wall shall be permitted provided the 
spacing of the reinforcement does not exceed 72 inches. 

c. Vertical reinforcement shall be Grade 60 minimum. The distance, d, from the face of the soil side of the wall to the center of vertical reinforcement shall be at least 
6.75 inches. 

d. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System and design lateral soil loads are for moist conditions without hydrostatic pressure. Refer 
to Table R405.1. 

e. Unbalanced backfill height is the difference in height between the exterior finish ground level and the lower of the top of the concrete footing that supports the foun- 
dation wall or the interior finish ground level. Where an interior concrete slab-on-grade is provided and is in contact with the interior surface of the foundation wall, 
measurement of the unbalanced backfill height from the exterior finish ground level to the top of the interior concrete slab is permitted. 



90 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R404.1.1 (4) 

12-INCH MASONRY FOUNDATION WALLS WITH REINFORCING 

WHERE d > 8.75 INCHESa,c 





HEIGHT OF 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT AND SPACING (INCHES)b, c 


Soil classes and lateral soilload d (psf per foot below grade) 












UNBALANCED 


GW, GP, SWand SP soils 


GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML soils 


SC, ML-CLand inorganic 


CL soils 


WALL HEIGHT 


BACKFILL 6 


30 


45 


60 






4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 




6 feet 8 inches 


5 feet 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 






6 feet 8 inches 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 


#5 at 72 






4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 




7 feet 4 inches 


5 feet 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 




6 feet 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 


#5 at 72 






7 feet 4 inches 


#4 at 72 


#5 at 72 


#6 at 72 






4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 






5 feet 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 




8 feet 


6 feet 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 


#5 at 72 






7 feet 


#4 at 72 


#5 at 72 


#6 at 72 






8 feet 


#5 at 72 


#6 at 72 


#6 at 64 






4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 






5 feet 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 




8 feet 8 inches 


6 feet 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 


#5 at 72 






7 feet 


#4 at 72 


#5 at 72 


#6 at 72 






8 feet 8 inches 


#5 at 72 


#7 at 72 


#6 at 48 






4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 






5 feet 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 




9 feet 4 inches 


6 feet 


#4 at 72 


#5 at 72 


#5 at 72 




7 feet 


#4 at 72 


#5 at 72 


#6 at 72 






8 feet 


#5 at 72 


#6 at 72 


#6 at 56 






9 feet 4 inches 


#6 at 72 


#6 at 48 


#6 at 40 






4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 






5 feet 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 






6 feet 


#4 at 72 


#5 at 72 


#5 at 72 




10 feet 


7 feet 


#4 at 72 


#6 at 72 


#6 at 72 






8 feet 


#5 at 72 


#6 at 72 


#6 at 48 






9 feet 


#6 at 72 


#6 at 56 


#6 at 40 






10 feet 


#6 at 64 


#6 at 40 


#6 at 32 





For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.157 kPalmm. 

a. Mortar shall be Type M or S and masonry shall be laid in running bond. 

b. Alternative reinforcing bar sizes and spacings having an equivalent cross-sectional area of reinforcement per lineal foot of wall shall be permitted provided the 
spacing of the reinforcement does not exceed 72 inches. 

c. Vertical reinforcement shall be Grade 60 minimum. The distance, d, from the face of the soil side of the wall to the center of vertical reinforcement shall be at least 
8.75 inches. 

d. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System and design lateral soil loads are for moist conditions without hydrostatic pressure. Refer 
to Table R405.1. 

e. Unbalanced backfill height is the difference in height between the exterior finish ground level and the lower of the top of the concrete footing that supports the founda- 
tion wall or the interior finish ground levels. Where an interior concrete slab-on-grade is provided and i n contact with the interior surface of the foundation wall, mea- 
surement of the unbalanced backfill height is permitted to be measured from the exterior finish ground level to the top of the interior concrete slab is permitted. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



91 



FOUNDATIONS 



R404. 1.1.1 Masonry foundation walls. Concrete 
masonry and clay masonry foundation walls shall be con- 
structed as set forth in Table R404.1.1 (1), R404.1.1 (2), 
R404.1.1(3) or R404.1.1 (4) and shall also comply with 
applicable provisions of Sections R606, R607 and R608. 
In buildings assigned to Seismic Design Categories Do, D 1 
and D 2 , concrete masonry and clay masonry foundation 
walls shall also comply with Section R404. 1.4.1. Rubble 
stone masonry foundation walls shall be constructed in 
accordance with Sections R404.1.8 and R607.2.2. Rubble 
stone masonry walls shall not be used in Seismic Design 
Categories Do, D { and D 2 « 

R404.1.2 Concrete foundation walls. Concrete foundation 
walls that support light-frame walls shall be designed and 
constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section, 
ACI 318, ACI 332 or PCA 100. Concrete foundation walls 
that support above-grade concrete walls that are within the 
applicability limits of Section R611.2 shall be designed and 
constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section, 
ACI 318, ACI 332 or PCA 100. Concrete foundation walls 
that support above-grade concrete walls that are not within 
the applicability limits of Section R611.2 shall be designed 
and constructed in accordance with the provisions of ACI 
318, ACI 332 or PCA 100. When ACI 318, ACI 332, PCA 
100 or the provisions of this section are used to design con- 
crete foundation walls, project drawings, typical details and 
specifications are not required to bear the seal of the architect 
or engineer responsible for design, unless otherwise required 
by the state law of the jurisdiction having authority. 

R404. 1.2.1 Concrete cross-section. Concrete walls 
constructed in accordance with this code shall comply 
with the shapes and minimum concrete cross-sectional 
dimensions required by Table R611.3. Other types of 
forming systems resulting in concrete walls not in com- 
pliance with this section and Table R611.3 shall be 
designed in accordance with ACI 318. 

R404. 1.2.2 Reinforcement for foundation walls. Con- 
crete foundation walls shall be laterally supported at the 
top and bottom. Horizontal reinforcement shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Table R404. 1 .2 (1). Vertical rein- 
forcement shall be provided in accordance with Table 
R404.1.2(2), R404.1.2(3), R404.1.2(4), R404.1.2(5), 
R404. 1.2(6), R404. 1.2(7) or R404. 1.2(8). Vertical rein- 
forcement for flat basement walls retaining 4 feet (1219 
mm) or more of unbalanced backfill is permitted to be 
determined in accordance with Table R404.1.2(9). For 
basement walls supporting above-grade concrete walls, 
vertical reinforcement shall be the greater of that required 
by Tables R404. 1.2(2) through R404. 1.2(8) or by Section 
R61 1.6 for the above-grade wall. In buildings assigned to 
Seismic Design Category Do, D r or D 2 , concrete founda- 
tion walls shall also comply with Section R404. 1.4.2. 

R404. 1.2.2.1 Concrete foundation stem walls sup- 
porting above-grade concrete walls. Foundation 
stem walls that support above-grade concrete walls 
shall be designed and constructed in accordance with 
this section. 

1. Stem walls not laterally supported at top. Con- 
crete stem walls that are not monolithic with 



slabs-on-ground or are not otherwise laterally 
supported by slabs-on-ground shall comply with 
this section. Where unbalanced backfill retained 
by the stem wall is less than or equal to 18 inches 
(457 mm), the stem wall and above-grade wall it 
supports shall be provided with vertical rein- 
forcement in accordance with Section R611.6 
and Table R611.6(l), R611.6(2) or R611.6(3) 
for above-grade walls. Where unbalanced back- 
fill retained by the stem wall is greater than 18 
inches (457 mm), the stem wall and above-grade 
wall it supports shall be provided with vertical 
reinforcement in accordance with Section 
R611.6 and Table R61 1.6(4). 

2. Stem walls laterally supported at top. Concrete 
stem walls that are monolithic with slabs-on- 
ground or are otherwise laterally supported by 
slabs-on-ground shall be vertically reinforced in 
accordance with Section R611.6 and Table 
R61 1.6(1), R61 1.6(2) or R61 1.6(3) for above- 
grade walls. Where the unbalanced backfill 
retained by the stem wall is greater than 18 inches 
(457 mm), the connection between the stem wall 
and the slab-on-ground, and the portion of the 
slab-on-ground providing lateral support for the 
wall shall be designed in accordance with PCA 
100 or in accordance with accepted engineering 
practice. Where the unbalanced backfill retained 
by the stem wall is greater than 18 inches (457 
mm), the minimum nominal thickness of the wall 
shall be 6 inches (152 mm). 

R404. 1.2.2.2 Concrete foundation stem walls sup- 
porting light-frame above-grade walls. Concrete 
foundation stem walls that support light-frame 
above-grade walls shall be designed and constructed 
in accordance with this section. 

1. Stem walls not laterally supported at top. Con- 
crete stem walls that are not monolithic with 
slabs-on-ground or are not otherwise laterally 
supported by slabs-on-ground and retain 48 
inches (1219 mm) or less of unbalanced fill, 
measured from the top of the wall, shall be con- 
structed in accordance with Section R404.1.2. 
Foundation stem walls that retain more than 48 
inches (1219 mm) of unbalanced fill, measured 
from the top of the wall, shall be designed in 
accordance with Sections R404.1.3 and R404.4. 

2. Stem walls laterally supported at top. Concrete 
stem walls that are monolithic with slabs-on- 
ground or are otherwise laterally supported by 
slabs-on-ground shall be constructed in accor- 
dance with Section R404.1.2. Where the unbal- 
anced backfill retained by the stem wall is greater 
than 48 inches (1219 mm), the connection 
between the stem wall and the slab-on- ground, 
and the portion of the slab-on-ground providing 
lateral support for the wall shall be designed in 
accordance with PCA 100 or in accordance with 
accepted engineering practice. 



92 



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FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R404. 1.2(1) 
MINIMUM HORIZONTAL REINFORCEMENT FOR CONCRETE BASEMENT WALLS a ,b 



MAXIMUM UNSUPPORTED 
HEIGHT OF BASEMENT WALL 

(feet) 


LOCATION OF HORIZONTAL REINFORCEMENT 


<8 


One No. 4 bar within 12 inches of the top of the wall story and one No. 4 bar near mid-height of the wall story 


>8 


One No. 4 bar within 12 inches of the top of the wall story and one No. 4 bar near third points in the wall story 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Horizontal reinforcement requirements are for reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi and concrete with a minimum concrete compressive 
strength 2,500 psi. 

b. See Section R404. 1.2.2 for minimum reinforcement required for foundation walls supporting above-grade concrete walls. 



TABLE R404. 1.2(2) 
MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT FOR 6-INCH NOMINAL FLAT CONCRETE BASEMENT WALLS b ,c,d,e, g ,h, ij 



MAXIMUM UNSUPPORTED 
WALL HEIGHT 

(feet) 


MAXIMUM UNBALANCED 
BACKFILL HEIGHT 

(feet) 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT-BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches) 


Soil classes 3 and design lateral soil (psf per foot of depth) 


GW, GP, SW, SP 
30 


GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML 
45 


SC, ML-CLand inorganic CL 
60 


8 


4 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5 


NR 


6 @39 


6@48 


6 


5 @39 


6 @48 


6@35 


7 


6@48 


6@34 


6@25 


8 


6@ 39 


6@25 


6@ 18 


9 


4 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5 


NR 


5 @37 


6 @48 


6 


5@36 


6@44 


6@32 


7 


6@47 


6@30 


6@22 


8 


6@34 


6@22 


6@ 16 


9 


6@27 


6 @ 17 


DR 


10 


4 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5 


NR 


5 @35 


6 @48 


6 


6@48 


6 @41 


6 @30 


7 


6@43 


6 @28 


6@20 


8 


6@31 


6 @20 


DR 


9 


6@24 


6@ 15 


DR 


10 


6@ 19 


DR 


DR 



For SI:1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.1571 kr^ 2 /m, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1. 

b. Table values are based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi and 
vertical reinforcement being located at the centerline of the wall. See Section R404. 1.2.3.7.2. 

c. Vertical reinforcement with a yield strength of less than 60,000 psi and! or bars of a different size than specified in the table are permitted in accordance with Section 
R404. 1.2.3.7.6 and Table R404. 1.2(9). 

d. Deflection criterion is L1240, where Lis the height of the basement wall in inches. 

e. Interpolation is not permitted. 

f. Where walls will retain 4 feet or more of unbalanced backfill, they shall be laterally supported at the top and bottom before backfilling. 

g. NR indicates no vertical wall reinforcement is required, except for 6-inch nominal walls formed with stay-in-place forming systems in which case vertical rein- 
forcement shall be No. 4@48 inches on center. 

h. See Section R404. 1.2.2 for minimum reinforcement required for basement walls supporting above-grade concrete walls. 

i. See Table R611 .3 for tolerance from nominal thickness permitted for flat walls. 

j . DR means design is required in accordance with the applicable building code, or where there is no code, in accordance with ACI 318. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



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FOUNDATIONS 



R404.1.2.3 Concrete, materials for concrete, and 
forms. Materials used in concrete, the concrete itself and 
forms shall conform to requirements of this section or 
ACI318. 

R404.1.2.3.1 Compressive strength. The minimum 
specified compressive strength of concrete, fc shall 
comply with Section R402 .2 and shall be not less than 
2,500 psi (17.2 MPa) at 28 days in buildings assigned 
to Seismic Design Category A, B or C and 3000 psi 
(20.5 MPa) in buildings assigned to Seismic Design 
Category Do, D { or D z . 



R404.1.2.3.2 Concrete mixing and delivery. Mixing 
and delivery of concrete shall comply with ASTM C 
94 or ASTM C 685. 

R404. 1.2.3.3 Maximum aggregate size. The nomi- 
nal maximum size of coarse aggregate shall not 
exceed one-fifth the narrowest distance between sides 
of forms, or three-fourths the clear spacing between 
reinforcing bars or between a bar and the side of the 
form. 

Exception: When approved, these limitations shall 
not apply where removable forms are used and 
workability and methods of consolidation permit 
concrete to be placed without honeycombs or voids. 



MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT FOR a 


TABLE R404.1.2(3) 
-INCH (203 mm) NOMINAL FLAT CONCRETE BASEMENT WALLS b ,c,d,e,f,h, i 


MAXIMUM UNSUPPORTED 
WALL HEIGHT 

(feet) 


MAXIMUM UNBALANCED 
BACKFILL HEIGHT9 

(feet) 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT-BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches) 


Soil classes 3 and design lateral soil (psf per foot of depth) 


GW, GP, SW, SP 
30 


GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML 
45 


SC, ML-CLand inorganic CL 
60 


8 


4 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5 


NR 


NR 


NR 


6 


NR 


NR 


6 @ 37 


7 


NR 


6 @ 36 


6 @ 35 


8 


6 @ 41 


6 @ 35 


6 @ 26 


9 


4 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5 


NR 


NR 


NR 


6 


NR 


NR 


6 @ 35 


7 


NR 


6 @ 35 


6 @ 32 


8 


6 @ 36 


6 @ 32 


6 @ 23 


9 


6 @ 35 


6@ 25 


6 @ 18 


10 


4 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5 


NR 


NR 


NR 


6 


NR 


NR 


6 @ 35 


7 


NR 


6 @ 35 


6 @ 29 


8 


6 @ 35 


6 @ 29 


6@ 21 


9 


6 @ 34 


6@ 22 


6 @ 16 


10 


6@ 27 


6@ 17 


6 @ 13 



For SI:1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0. 1571 klk 2 /m, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1. 

b. Table values are based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi (420 MPa), concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 
2,500 psi and vertical reinforcement being located at the centerline of the wall. See Section R404. 1.2.3.7.2. 

c. Vertical reinforcement with a yield strength ofless than 60,000 psi and/or bars of a different size than specified in the table are permitted in accordance with Section 
R404. 1.2.3.7.6 and Table R404. 1.2(9). 

d. NR indicates no vertical reinforcement is required. 

e. Deflection criterion is L/240, where Lis the height of the basement wall in inches. 

f. Interpolation is not permitted. 

g. Where walls will retain 4 feet or more of unbalanced backfill, they shall be laterally supported at the top and bottom before backfilling, 
h. See Section R404. 1.2.2 for minimum reinforcement required for basement walls supporting above-grade concrete walls. 

i. See Table R611 .3 for tolerance from nominal thickness permitted for flat walls. 



94 



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R404. 1 .2.3.4 Proportioning and slump of concrete. 
Proportions of materials for concrete shall be estab- 
lished to provide workability and consistency to per- 
mit concrete to be worked readily into forms and 
around reinforcement under conditions of placement 
to be employed, without segregation or excessive 
bleeding. Slump of concrete placed in removable 
forms shall not exceed 6 inches (152 mm). 

Exception: When approved, the slump is permit- 
ted to exceed 6 inches (152 mm) for concrete mix- 
tures that are resistant to segregation, and are in 
accordance with the form manufacturer's recom- 
mendations. 



Slump of concrete placed in stay-in-place forms 
shall exceed 6 inches (152 mm). Slump of concrete 
shall be determined in accordance with ASTM C 143. 

R404. 1.2.3.5 Consolidation of concrete. Concrete 
shall be consolidated by suitable means during place- 
ment and shall be worked around embedded items and 
reinforcement and into corners of forms. Where 
stay-in-place forms are used, concrete shall be con- 
solidated by internal vibration. 

Exception: When approved for concrete to be 
placed in stay-in-place forms, self-consolidating 
concrete mixtures with slumps equal to or greater 
than 8 inches (203 mm) that are specifically 
designed for placement without internal vibration 
need not be internally vibrated. 



TABLE R404. 1.2(4) 
MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT FOR 10-INCH NOMINAL FLAT CONCRETE BASEMENT WALLSb,c,d,e,f,h,i 



MAXIMUM UNSUPPORTED 
WALL HEIGHT 

(feet) 


MAXIMUM UNBALANCED 
BACKFILL HEIGHT9 

(feet) 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT-BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches) 


Soil classes a and design lateral soil (psf per foot of depth) 


GW, GP, SW, SP 
30 


GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML 
45 


SC, ML-CLand inorganic CL 
60 


8 


4 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5 


NR 


NR 


NR 


6 


NR 


NR 


NR 


7 


NR 


NR 


NR 


8 


6 @ 48 


6 @ 35 


6 @ 28 


9 


4 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5 


NR 


NR 


NR 


6 


NR 


NR 


NR 


7 


NR 


NR 


6 @ 31 


8 


NR 


6 @ 31 


6 @ 28 


9 


6 @ 37 


6 @ 28 


6 @ 24 


10 


4 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5 


NR 


NR 


NR 


6 


NR 


NR 


NR 


7 


NR 


NR 


6 @ 28 


8 


NR 


6 @ 28 


6 @ 28 


9 


6 @ 33 


6 @ 28 


6@ 21 


10 


6 @ 28 


6 @ 23 


6@ 17 



For SI:1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.1571 kl& 2 /m, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1. 

b. Table values are based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi and 
vertical reinforcement being located at the centerline of the wall. See Section R404. 1.2.3. 7.2. 

c. Vertical reinforcement with a yield strength of less than 60,000 psi and/or bars of a different size than specified in the table are permitted in accordance with Sec- 
tion R404. 1.2.3.7.6 and Table R404. 1.2(9). 

d. NR indicates no vertical reinforcement is required. 

e. Deflection criterion is L/240, where Lis the height of the basement wall in inches. 

f. Interpolation is not permitted. 

g. Where walls will retain 4 feet or more of unbalanced backfill, they shall be laterally supported at the top and bottom before backfilling, 
h. See Section R404. 1.2.2 for minimum reinforcement required for basement walls supporting above-grade concrete walls. 

i. See Table R611 .3 for tolerance from nominal thickness permitted for flat walls. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



95 



FOUNDATIONS 



R404. 1.2.3.6 Form materials and form ties. Forms 
shall be made of wood, steel, aluminum, plastic, a com- 
posite of cement and foam insulation, a composite of 
cement and wood chips, or other approved material 
suitable for supporting and containing concrete. Forms 
shall provide sufficient strength to contain concrete 
during the concrete placement operation. 

Form ties shall be steel, solid plastic, foam plastic, a 
composite of cement and wood chips, a composite of 
cement and foam plastic, or other suitable material 
capable of resisting the forces created by fluid pres- 
sure of fresh concrete. 

R404.1.2.3.6.1 Stay-in-place forms. Stay-in- 
place concrete forms shall comply with this section. 

1. Surface burning characteristics. The 
flame-spread index and smoke-developed 



index of forming material, other than foam 
plastic, left exposed on the interior shall 
comply with Section R302. The surface 
burning characteristics of foam plastic used 
in insulating concrete forms shall comply 
with Section R316. 3. 

2. Interior covering. Stay-in-place forms con- 
structed of rigid foam plastic shall be pro- 
tected on the interior of the building as 
required by Section R316. Where gypsum 
board is used to protect the foam plastic, it 
shall be installed with a mechanical fasten- 
ing system. Use of adhesives in addition to 
mechanical fasteners is permitted. 

3. Exterior wall covering. Stay-in-place forms 
constructed of rigid foam plastics shall be 



TABLE R404. 1.2(5) 
MINIMUM VERTICAL WALL REINFORCEMENT FOR 6-INCH WAFFLE-GRID BASEMENT WALLS b 



MAXIMUM UNSUPPORTED 
WALL HEIGHT 

(feet) 


MAXIMUM UNBALANCED 
BACKFILL HEIGHf 

(feet) 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT-BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches) 


Soil classes 3 and design lateral soil (psf per foot of depth) 


GW, GP, SW, SP 

30 


GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML 

45 


SC, ML-CLand inorganic CL 
60 


8 


4 


4 @ 48 


4@ 46 


6 @ 39 


5 


4 @ 45 


5@ 46 


6 @ 47 


6 


5 @ 45 


6 @ 40 


DR 


7 


6 @ 44 


DR 


DR 


8 


6 @ 32 


DR 


DR 


9 


4 


4 @ 48 


4 @ 46 


4@ 37 


5 


4 @ 42 


5@ 43 


6 @ 44 


6 


5@ 41 


6@ 37 


DR 


7 


6 @ 39 


DR 


DR 


>8 


DRi 


DR 


DR 


10 


4 


4 @ 48 


4 @ 46 


4 @ 35 


5 


4 @ 40 


5 @ 40 


6 @ 41 


6 


5 @ 38 


6 @ 34 


DR 


7 


6 @ 36 


DR 


DR 


>8 


DR 


DR 


DR 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound per square foot per foot =0.1571 kPa 2 /m, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1. 

b. Table values are based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi and 
vertical reinforcement being located at the centerline of the wall. See Section R404. 1.2.3.7.2. 

c. Maximum spacings shown are the values calculated for the specified bar size. Where the bar used is Grade 60 and the size specified in the table, the actual spacing 
in the wall shall not exceed a whole-number multiple of 12 inches (Le ., 12 , 24 , 36 and 48) that is less than or equal to the tabulated spacing. Vertical reinforcement 
with a yield strength of less than 60,000 psi and/or bars of a different size than specified in the table are permitted in accordance with Section R404.1.2.3.7.6 and 
Table R404. 1.2(9). 

d. Deflection criterion is L1240, where Lis the height of the basement wall in inches. 

e. Interpolation is not permitted. 

f. Where walls will retain 4 feet or more of unbalanced backfill, they shall be laterally supported at the top and bottom before backfilling. 

g. See Section R404. 1.2.2 for minimum reinforcement required for basement walls supporting above-grade concrete walls, 
h. See Table R611 .3 for thicknesses and dimensions of waffle-grid walls. 

i. DR means design is required in accordance with the applicable building code, or where there is no code, in accordance with ACI 318. 



96 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FOUNDATIONS 



4. 



protected from sunlight and physical dam- 
age by the application of an approved exte- 
rior wall covering complying with this code. 
Exterior surfaces of other stay-in-place 
forming systems shall be protected in accor- 
dance with this code. 

Termite hazards. In areas where hazard of 
termite damage is very heavy in accordance 
with Figure R30 1.2(6), foam plastic insula- 
tion shall be permitted below grade on foun- 
dation walls in accordance with one of the 
following conditions: 



4.1. Where in addition to the requirements 
in Section R318.1, an approved 
method of protecting the foam plastic 
and structure from subterranean ter- 
mite damage is provided. 

4.2. The structural members of walls, 
floors, ceilings and roofs are entirely 
ofnoncombustible materials or pres- 
sure-preservative-treated wood. 

4.3. On the interior side of basement 
walls. 



TABLE R404.1.2(6) 
MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT FOR a-INCH WAFFLE-GRID BASEMENT WALLS b , 


c, d, e, f, h, i,j 


MAXIMUM UNSUPPORTED 
WALL HEIGHT 

(feet) 


MAXIMUM UNBALANCED 
BACKFILL HEIGHT9 

(feet) 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT-BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches) 


Soil classes 3 and design lateral soil (psf per foot of depth) 


GW, GP, SW, SP 
30 


GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML 
45 


SC, ML-CLand inorganic CL 
60 


8 


4 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5 


NR 


5@48 


5(5)46 


6 


5@48 


5@43 


6(5)45 


7 


5@46 


6@43 


6(5)31 


8 


6@48 


6@32 


6(5)23 


9 


4 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5 


NR 


5@47 


5(5)46 


6 


5(5)46 


5(5)39 


6(5)41 


7 


5@42 


6(5)38 


6(5)28 


8 


6@44 


6(5)28 


6(5)20 


9 


6@34 


6(5)21 


DR 


10 


4 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5 


NR 


5(5)46 


5(5)44 


6 


5@46 


5(5)37 


6(5)38 


7 


5@38 


6(5)35 


6(5)25 


8 


6@39 


6(5)25 


DR 


9 


6@30 


DR 


DR 


10 


6@24 


DR 


DR 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.1571 kRi 2 /m, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1. 

b. Table values are based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi and 
vertical reinforcement being located at the centerline of the wall. See Section R404. 1.2.3.7.2. 

c. Maximum spacings shown are the values calculated for the specified bar size. Where the bar used is Grade 60 (420 MPa) and the size specified in the table, the 
actual spacing in the wall shall not exceed a whole-number multiple of 12 inches (Le., 12, 24, 36 and 48) that is less than or equal to the tabulated spacing. Vertical 
reinforcement with a yield strength of less than 60,000 psi and/or bars of a different size than specified in the table are permitted in accordance with Section 
R404. 1.2.3.7.6 and Table R404. 1.2(9). 

d. NR indicates no vertical reinforcement is required. 

e. Deflection criterion is L/240, where Lis the height of the basement wall in inches. 

f. Interpolation shall not be permitted. 

g. Where walls will retain 4 feet or more of unbalanced backfill, they shall be laterally supported at the top and bottom before backfilling, 
h. See Section R404.1.2.2 for minimum reinforcement required for basement walls supporting above-grade concrete walls. 

L See Table R611.3 for thicknesses and dimensions of waffle-grid walls. 

j . DR means design is required in accordance with the applicable building code, or where there is no code, in accordance with ACI 318. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



97 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R404.1.2(7) 
MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT FOR 6-INCH (152 mm) SCREEN-GRID BASEMENT WALLSb, c, d, e, g , h, i, 


MAXIMUM UNSUPPORTED 
WALL HEIGHT 

(feet) 


MAXIMUM UNBALANCED 
BACKFILL HEIGHT 

(feet) 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT-BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches) 


Soil classes a and design lateral soil (psf per foot of depth) 


GW, GP, SW, SP 
30 


GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML 

45 


SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL 
60 


8 


4 


4 @ 48 


4 @ 48 


5@ 43 


5 


4 @ 48 


5 @ 48 


5@ 37 


6 


5 @ 48 


6 @ 45 


6 @ 32 


7 


6 @ 48 


DR 


DR 


8 


6 @ 36 


DR 


DR 


9 


4 


4 @ 48 


4 @ 48 


4 @ 41 


5 


4 @ 48 


5@ 48 


6 @ 48 


6 


5 @ 45 


6 @ 41 


DR 


7 


6 @ 43 


DR 


DR 


>8 


DR 


DR 


DR 


10 


4 


4 @ 48 


4 @ 48 


4@ 39 


5 


4 @ 44 


5 @ 44 


6 @ 46 


6 


5@ 42 


6 @ 38 


DR 


7 


6 @ 40 


DR 


DR 


>8 


DR 


DR 


DR 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0. 1571 kPaz/m, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1. 

b. Table values are based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi (420 MPa) , concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 
2,500 psi and vertical reinforcement being located at the centerline of the wall. See Section R404. 1.2.3.7.2. 

c. Maximum spacings shown are the values calculated for the specified bar size. Where the bar used is Grade 60 and the size specified in the table, the actual spacing 
in the wall shall not exceed a whole-number multiple of 12 inches (Le., 12,24,36 and 48) that is less than or equal to the tabulated spacing. Vertical reinforcement 
with a yield strength of less than 60,000 psi and/or bars of a different size than specified in the table are permitted in accordance with Section R404.1.2.3.7.6 and 
Table R404. 1.2(9). 

d. Deflection criterion is L1240, where Lis the height of the basement wall in inches. 

e. Interpolation is not permitted. 

f. Where walls will retain 4 feet or more of unbalanced backfill, they shall be laterally supported at the top and bottom before backfilling. 

g. See Sections R404. 1.2.2 for minimum reinforcement required for basement walls supporting above-grade concrete walls. 
h. See Table R611 .3 for thicknesses and dimensions of screen-grid walls. 

L DR means design is required in accordance with the applicable building code, or where there is no code, in accordance with ACI 318. 



R404. 1.2.3.7 Reinforcement. 

R404. 1.2.3.7.1 Steel reinforcement. Steel rein- 
forcement shall comply with the requirements of 
ASTM A 615, A 706, or A 996. ASTM A 996 bars 
produced from rail steel shall be Type R. In build- 
ings assigned to Seismic Design Category A, B or 
C, the minimum yield strength of reinforcing steel 
shall be 40,000 psi (Grade 40) (276 MPa). In build- 
ings assigned to Seismic Design Category Do' D : 
or D z ' reinforcing steel shall comply with the 
requirements of ASTM A 706 for low-alloy steel 
with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi 
(Grade 60) (414 MPa) . 

R404. 1.2.3.7.2 Location of reinforcement in 
wall. The center of vertical reinforcement in base- 
ment walls determined from Tables R404. 1.2(3) 
through R404.1.2(7) shall be located at the center- 



line of the wall. Vertical reinforcement in basement 
walls determined from Tables R404. 1.2(2) or 
R404.1 .2(8) shall be located to provide a maximum 
cover of 1.25 inches (32 mm) measured from the 
inside face of the wall. Regardless of the table used 
to determine vertical wall reinforcement, the center 
of the steel shall not vary from the specified location 
by more than the greater of 10 percent of the wall 
thickness and 3/ s -inch (10 mm). Horizontal and ver- 
tical reinforcement shall be located in foundation 
walls to provide the minimum cover required by 
Section R404. 1.2.3.7.4. 

R404. 1.2.3.7.3 Wall openings. Vertical wall rein- 
forcement required by Section R404. 1.2.2 that is 
interrupted by wall openings shall have additional 
vertical reinforcement of the same size placed 
within 12 inches (305 mm) of each side of the open- 
ing. 



98 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FOUNDATIONS 



MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT FOR 6-, 8-, 


TABLE R404.l.2(8) 

10-INCH AND I2-INCH NOMINAL FLAT BASEMENT WALLSb 


c,d,e,f,h,i 


k,n 


MAXIMUM 
WALL 
HEIGHT 

(feet) 


MAXIMUM 

UNBALANCED 

BACKFILL HEIGHT^ 

(feet) 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT-BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches) 


Soil classes a and design lateral soil (psf per foot of depth) 


GW, GP, SW, SP 
30 


GM, GC, SM, SM-SCand ML 

45 


SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL 
60 


Minimum nominal wall thickness (inches) 


6 


8 


10 


12 


6 


8 


10 


12 


6 


8 


10 


12 


5 


4 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


6 


4 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NRI 


NR 


NR 


4@35 


NRI 


NR 


NR 


6 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5@48 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5@36 


NR 


NR 


NR 


7 


4 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5@47 


NR 


NR 


NR 


6 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5@42 


NR 


NR 


NR 


6@43 


5@48 


NRI 


NR 


7 


5@46 


NR 


NR 


NR 


6@42 


5@46 


NRI 


NR 


6@34 


6@48 


NR 


NR 


8 


4 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


4@38 


NRI 


NR 


NR 


5@43 


NR 


NR 


NR 


6 


4@37 


NRI 


NR 


NR 


5@37 


NR 


NR 


NR 


6@37 


5@43 


NRI 


NR 


7 


5@40 


NR 


NR 


NR 


6@37 


5@41 


NRI 


NR 


6@34 


6@43 


NR 


NR 


8 


6@43 


5@47 


NRI 


NR 


6@34 


6@43 


NR 


NR 


6@27 


6@32 


6@44 


NR 


9 


4 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


4@35 


NRI 


NR 


NR 


5@40 


NR 


NR 


NR 


6 


4^)34 


NRI 


NR 


NR 


6(5)48 


NR 


NR 


NR 


6(5)36 


6(5)39 


NRI 


NR 


7 


5@36 


NR 


NR 


NR 


6@34 


5@37 


NR 


NR 


6@33 


6@38 


5@37 


NRI 


8 


6@38 


5@41 


NRI 


NR 


6@33 


6@38 


5@37 


NRI 


6@24 


6@29 


6@39 


4@48 m 


9 


6@34 


6@46 


NR 


NR 


6@26 


6@30 


6@41 


NR 


6@19 


6@23 


6@30 


6@ 39 


10 


4 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


4@33 


NRI 


NR 


NR 


5@38 


NR 


NR 


NR 


6 


5@48 


NRI 


NR 


NR 


6@45 


NR 


NR 


NR 


6@34 


5@37 


NR 


NR 


7 


6@47 


NR 


NR 


NR 


6@34 


6@48 


NR 


NR 


6@30 


6@35 


6@48 


NRI 


8 


6@34 


5@38 


NR 


NR 


6@30 


6@34 


6@47 


NRI 


6@22 


6@26 


6@35 


6@45 m 


9 


6@34 


6@41 


4@48 


NRI 


6@23 


6@27 


6@35 


4@48 m 


DR 


6@22 


6@27 


6@34 


10 


6@28 


6@33 


6@45 


NR 


DRj 


6@23 


6@29 


6@38 


DR 


6@22 


6@22 


6@28 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0. 1571 kRi 2 /m, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1. 

b. Table values are based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi. 

c. Vertical reinforcement with a yield strength of less than 60,000 psi and/or bars of a different size than specified in the table are permitted in accordance with Sec- 
tion R404. 1.2.3.7. 6 and Table R404. 1.2(9) . 

d. NR indicates no vertical wall reinforcement is required, except for 6-inch nominal walls formed with stay-in-place forming systems in which case vertical rein- 
forcement shall be #4@48 inches on center. 

e. Allowable deflection criterion is L/240, where L is the unsupported height of the basement wall in inches. 

f. Interpolation is not permitted. 

g. Where walls will retain 4 feet or more of unbalanced backfill, they shall be laterally supported at the top and bottom before backfilling. 

h. Vertical reinforcement shall be located to provide a cover of 1.25 inches measured from the inside face of the wall. The center of the steel shall not vary from the 
specified location by more than the greater of 10 percent of the wall thickness or 3/ 8 -inch. 

i. Concrete cover for reinforcement measured from the inside face of the wall shall not be less than 3/ 4 - inch. Concrete cover for reinforcement measured from the out- 
side face of the wall shall not be less than l l / 2 inches for No. 5 bars and smaller, and not less than 2 inches for larger bars. 

j . DR means design is required in accordance with the applicable building code, or where there is no code in accordance with ACI 318. 

k. Concrete shall have a specified compressive strength, V„ of not less than 2,500 psi at 28 days, unless a higher strength is required by footnote I or m. 

1. The minimum thickness is permitted to be reduced 2 inches, provided the minimum specified compressive strength of concrete, V„ is 4,000 psi. 

m. A plain concrete wall with a minimum nominal thickness of 12 inches is permitted, provided minimum specified compressive strength of concrete, J^ y is 3,500 psi. 

n. See Table R611 .3 for tolerance from nominal thickness permitted for flat walls. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



99 



FOUNDATIONS 





TABLE R404.1.2(9) 
MINIMUM SPACING FOR ALTERNATE BAR SIZE AND/OR ALTERNATE GRADE OF STEEL a ,b,c 






BAR SPACING 

FROM 

APPLICABLE 

TABLE IN 

SECTION 

R404. 1.2.2 

(inches) 


BAR SIZE FROM APPLICABLE TABLE IN SECTION R404.1.2.2 


#4 


#5 


#6 


au~ . . t ,„..:_.. i/_ „■*.....,„,... _«j„ „*„+_i ^„:.^j 


Grade 60 


Grade 40 


Grade 60 


Grade 40 


Grade 60 


Grade 40 


#5 


#6 


#4 


#5 


#6 


#4 


#6 


#4 


#5 


#6 


#4 


#5 


#4 


#5 


#6 


Maximum spacing for alternate bar size and/or alternate grade of steel (inches) 


8 


12 


18 


5 


8 


12 


5 


11 


3 


5 


8 


4 


6 


2 


4 


5 


9 


14 


20 


6 


9 


13 


6 


13 


4 


6 


9 


4 


6 


3 


4 


6 


10 


16 


22 


7 


10 


15 


6 


14 


4 


7 


9 


5 


7 


3 


5 


7 


11 


17 


24 


7 


11 


16 


7 


16 


5 


7 


10 


5 


8 


3 


5 


7 


12 


19 


26 


8 


12 


18 


8 


17 


5 


8 


11 


5 


8 


4 


6 


8 


13 


20 


29 


9 


13 


19 


8 


18 


6 


9 


12 


6 


9 


4 


6 


9 


14 


22 


31 


9 


14 


21 


9 


20 


6 


9 


13 


6 


10 


4 


7 


9 


15 


23 


33 


10 


16 


22 


10 


21 


6 


10 


14 


7 


11 


5 


7 


10 


16 


25 


35 


11 


17 


23 


10 


23 


7 


11 


15 


7 


11 


5 


8 


11 


17 


26 


37 


11 


18 


25 


11 


24 


7 


11 


16 


8 


12 


5 


8 


11 


18 


28 


40 


12 


19 


26 


12 


26 


8 


12 


17 


8 


13 


5 


8 


12 


19 


29 


42 


13 


20 


28 


12 


27 


8 


13 


18 


9 


13 


6 


9 


13 


20 


31 


44 


13 


21 


29 


13 


28 


9 


13 


19 


9 


14 


6 


9 


13 


21 


33 


46 


14 


22 


31 


14 


30 


9 


14 


20 


10 


15 


6 


10 


14 


22 


34 


48 


15 


23 


32 


14 


31 


9 


15 


21 


10 


16 


7 


10 


15 


23 


36 


48 


15 


24 


34 


15 


33 


10 


15 


22 


10 


16 


7 


11 


15 


24 


37 


48 


16 


25 


35 


15 


34 


10 


16 


23 


11 


17 


7 


11 


16 


25 


39 


48 


17 


26 


37 


16 


35 


11 


17 


24 


11 


18 


8 


12 


17 


26 


40 


48 


17 


27 


38 


17 


37 


11 


17 


25 


12 


18 


8 


12 


17 


27 


42 


48 


18 


28 


40 


17 


38 


12 


18 


26 


12 


19 


8 


13 


18 


28 


43 


48 


19 


29 


41 


18 


40 


12 


19 


26 


13 


20 


8 


13 


19 


29 


45 


48 


19 


30 


43 


19 


41 


12 


19 


27 


13 


20 


9 


14 


19 


30 


47 


48 


20 


31 


44 


19 


43 


13 


20 


28 


14 


21 


9 


14 


20 


31 


48 


48 


21 


32 


45 


20 


44 


13 


21 


29 


14 


22 


9 


15 


21 


32 


48 


48 


21 


33 


47 


21 


45 


14 


21 


30 


15 


23 


10 


15 


21 


33 


48 


48 


22 


34 


48 


21 


47 


14 


22 


31 


15 


23 


10 


16 


22 


34 


48 


48 


23 


35 


48 


22 


48 


15 


23 


32 


15 


24 


10 


16 


23 


35 


48 


48 


23 


36 


48 


23 


48 


15 


23 


33 


16 


25 


11 


16 


23 


36 


48 


48 


24 


37 


48 


23 


48 


15 


24 


34 


16 


25 


11 


17 


24 


37 


48 


48 


25 


38 


48 


24 


48 


16 


25 


35 


17 


26 


11 


17 


25 


38 


48 


48 


25 


39 


48 


25 


48 


16 


25 


36 


17 


27 


12 


18 


25 


39 


48 


48 


26 


40 


48 


25 


48 


17 


26 


37 


18 


27 


12 


18 


26 


40 


48 


48 


27 


41 


48 


26 


48 


17 


27 


38 


18 


28 


12 


19 


27 


41 


48 


48 


27 


42 


48 


26 


48 


18 


27 


39 


19 


29 


12 


19 


27 


42 


48 


48 


28 


43 


48 


27 


48 


18 


28 


40 


19 


30 


13 


20 


28 


43 


48 


48 


29 


44 


48 


28 


48 


18 


29 


41 


20 


30 


13 


20 


29 


44 


48 


48 


29 


45 


48 


28 


48 


19 


29 


42 


20 


31 


13 


21 


29 


45 


48 


48 


30 


47 


48 


29 


48 


19 


30 


43 


20 


32 


14 


21 


30 



(continued) 



100 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FOUNDATIONS 





TABLE R404.1.2(9)-continued 
MINIMUM SPACING FOR ALTERNATE BAR SIZE AND/OR ALTERNATE GRADE OF STEEL a ,b, 








BAR SPACING 

FROM 

APPLICABLE 

TABLE IN 

SECTION 

R404.1.2.2 

(inches) 


BAR SIZE FROM APPLICABLE TABLE IN SECTION R404.1.2.2 


#4 


#5 


#6 




Grade 60 


Grade 40 


Grade 60 Grade 40 


Grade 60 


Grade 40 


#5 


#6 


#4 


#5 


#6 


#4 


#6 


#4 


#5 


#6 


#4 


#5 


#4 


#5 


#6 


Maximum spacing for alternate bar size and/or alternate grade of steel (inches) 


46 


48 


48 


31 


48 


48 


30 


48 


20 


31 


44 


21 


32 


14 


22 


31 


47 


48 


48 


31 


48 


48 


30 


48 


20 


31 


44 


21 


33 


14 


22 


31 


48 


48 


48 


32 


48 


48 


31 


48 


21 


32 


45 


22 


34 


15 


23 


32 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. This table is for use with tables in Section R404. 1.2.2 that specify the minimum bar size and maximum spacing of vertical wall reinforcement for foundation walls 
and above-grade walls. Reinforcement specified in tables in Sections R404.1.2.2 is based on Grade 60 steel reinforcement. 

b. Bar spacing shall not exceed 48 inches on center and shall not be less than one-half the nominal wall thickness. 

c. For Grade 50 steel bars (ASTM A 996, Type R) , use spacing for Grade 40 bars or interpolate between Grades 40 and 60. 



R404. 1.2. 3.7.4 Support and cover. Reinforce- 
ment shall be secured in the proper location in the 
forms with tie wire or other bar support system to 
prevent displacement during the concrete place- 
ment operation. Steel reinforcement in concrete 
cast against the earth shall have a minimum cover 
of 3 inches (75 mm) . Minimum cover for rein- 
forcement in concrete cast in removable forms that 
will be exposed to the earth or weather shall be 1 / 2 
inches (38 mm) for No. 5 bars and smaller, and 2 
inches (50 mm) for No. 6 bars and larger. For con- 
crete cast in removable forms that will not be 
exposed to the earth or weather, and for concrete 
cast in stay-in-place forms, minimum cover shall 
be Jzjinch (19 mm) . The minus tolerance for cover 
shall not exceed the smaller of one-third the 
required cover or Iginch (10 mm) . 

R404.1.2.3.7.5 Lap splices. Vertical and horizon- 
tal wall reinforcement shall be the longest lengths 
practical. Where splices are necessary in rein- 
forcement, the length of lap splice shall be in 
accordance with Table R61 1.5.4.(1) and Figure 
R61 1.5.4(1). The maximum gap between 
noncontact parallel bars at a lap splice shall not 
exceed the smaller of one-fifth the required lap 
length and 6 inches (152 mm). See Figure 
R611.5.4(l). 

R404. 1.2.3. 7.6 Alternate grade of reinforcement 
and spacing. Where tables in Section R404. 1.2.2 
specify vertical wall reinforcement based on mini- 
mum bar size and maximum spacing, which are 
based on Grade 60 (414 MPa) steel reinforcement, 
different size bars and/or bars made from a different 
grade of steel are permitted provided an equivalent 
area of steel per linear foot of wall is provided. Use 
of Table R404.1 .2(9) is permitted to determine the 
maximum bar spacing for different bar sizes than 
specified in the tables and/or bars made from a dif- 
ferent grade of steel. Bars shall not be spaced less 
than one-half the wall thickness, or more than 48 
inches (1219 mm) on center. 



R404. 1.2.3.7.7 Standard hooks. Where rein- 
forcement is required by this code to terminate 
with a standard hook, the hook shall comply with 
Section R61 1.5.4.5 and Figure R61 1.5.4(3). 

R404.1.2.3.7.8 Construction joint reinforce- 
ment. Construction joints in foundation walls 
shall be made and located to not impair the 
strength of the wall. Construction joints in plain 
concrete walls, including walls required to have 
not less than No. 4 bars at 48 inches (1219 mm) on 
center by Sections R404. 1.2.2 and R404. 1.4.2, 
shall be located at points of lateral support, and a 
minimum of one No. 4 bar shall extend across the 
construction joint at a spacing not to exceed 24 
inches (610 mm) on center. Construction joint 
reinforcement shall have a minimum of 12 inches 
(305 mm) embedment on both sides of the joint. 
Construction joints in reinforced concrete walls 
shall be located in the middle third of the span 
between lateral supports, or located and con- 
structed as required for joints in plain concrete 
walls. 

Exception: Use of vertical wall reinforcement 
required by this code is permitted in lieu of con- 
structionj oint reinforcement provided the spac- 
ing does not exceed 24 inches (610 mm), or the 
combination of wall reinforcement and No .4 
bars described above does not exceed 24 inches 
(610 mm). 

R404. 1.2.3.8 Exterior wall coverings. Require- 
ments for installation of masonry veneer, stucco and 
other wall coverings on the exterior of concrete walls 
and other construction details not covered in this sec- 
tion shall comply with the requirements of this code. 

R404. 1.2.4 Requirements for Seismic Design Cate- 
gory C. Concrete foundation walls supporting 
above-grade concrete walls in townhouses assigned to 
Seismic Design Category C shall comply with ACI 318, 
ACI 332 or PC A 100 (see Section R404.1.2). 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



101 



FOUNDATIONS 



R404.1.3 Design required. Concrete or masonry founda- 
tion walls shall be designed in accordance with accepted 
engineering practice when either of the following condi- 
tions exists: 

1. Walls are subject to hydrostatic pressure from 
groundwater. 

2. Walls supporting more than 48 inches (1219 mm) 
of unbalanced backfill that do not have permanent 
lateral support at the top or bottom. 

R404.1.4 Seismic Design Category Do, D 2 or D 2 - 

R404. 1.4.1 Masonry foundation walls. In addition to 
the requirements of Table R404.1.1 (1) plain masonry 
foundation walls in buildings assigned to Seismic 
Design Category Do, D l or D 2 , as established in Table 
R30 1.2(1), shall comply with the following. 

1. Wall height shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm). 

2. Unbalanced backfill height shall not exceed 4 feet 
(1219 mm). 

3. Minimum nominal thickness for plain masonry 
foundation walls shall be 8 inches (203 mm). 

4. Masonry stem walls shall have a minimum vertical 
reinforcement of one No. 3 (No. 10) bar located a 
maximum of 4 feet (1219 mm) on center in grouted 
cells. Vertical reinforcement shall be tied to the 
horizontal reinforcement in the footings. 

Foundation walls in buildings assigned to Seismic 
Design Category Do, D 1 or D 2 , as established in Table 
R301.2(l), supporting more than 4 feet (1219 mm) of 
unbalanced backfill or exceeding 8 feet (2438 mm) in 
height shall be constructed in accordance with Table 
R404.1.1(2), R404.1.1(3) or R404.1.1 (4). Masonry 
foundation walls shall have two No. 4 (No. 13) horizon- 
tal bars located in the upper 12 inches (305 mm) of the 
wall. 

R404. 1.4.2 Concrete foundation walls. In buildings 
assigned to Seismic Design Category Do, D { or D 2 , as 
established in Table R301.2(l), concrete foundation 
walls that support light-frame walls shall comply with 
this section, and concrete foundation walls that support 
above-grade concrete walls shall comply with ACI 318, 
ACI 332 or PC A 100 (see Section R404.1.2). In addition 
to the horizontal reinforcement required by Table 
R404.1.2 (1), plain concrete walls supporting light-frame 
walls shall comply with the following. 

1. Wall height shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm). 

2. Unbalanced backfill height shall not exceed 4 feet 
(1219 mm). 

3. Minimum thickness for plain concrete foundation 
walls shall be 7.5 inches (191 mm) except that 6 
inches (152 mm) is permitted where the maximum 
wall height is 4 feet, 6 inches (1372 mm). 

Foundation walls less than 7.5 inches (191 mm) in 
thickness, supporting more than 4 feet (1219 mm) of 
unbalanced backfill or exceeding 8 feet (2438 mm) in 
height shall be provided with horizontal reinforcement in 



accordance with Table R404. 1.2(1), and vertical rein- 
forcement in accordance with Table R404.1.2(2), 
R404.1.2(3), R404. 1.2(4), R404.1.2(5), R404.1.2(6), 
R404. 1.2(7) or R404. 1.2(8). Where Tables R404. 1.2(2) 
through R404. 1 .2 (8) permit plain concrete walls, not less 
than No. 4 (No. 13) vertical bars at a spacing not exceed- 
ing 48 inches (1219 mm) shall be provided. 

R404.1.5 Foundation wall thickness based on walls sup- 
ported. The thickness of masonry or concrete foundation 
walls shall not be less than that required by Section 
R404.1.5.1 orR404.1.5.2, respectively. 

R404. 1.5.1 Masonry wall thickness. Masonry founda- 
tion walls shall not be less than the thickness of the wall 
supported, except that masonry foundation walls of at 
least 8-inch (203 mm) nominal thickness shall be permit- 
ted under brick veneered frame walls and under 
10-inch- wide (254 mm) cavity walls where the total 
height of the wall supported, including gables, is not 
more than 20 feet (6096 mm), provided the requirements 
of Section R404. 1.1 are met. 

R404. 1.5.2 Concrete wall thickness. The thickness of 
concrete foundation walls shall be equal to or greater 
than the thickness of the wall in the storyabove. Concrete 
foundation walls with corbels, brackets or other projec- 
tions built into the wall for support of masonry veneer or 
other purposes are not within the scope of the tables in 
this section. 

Where a concrete foundation wall is reduced in thick- 
ness to provide a shelf for the support of masonry veneer, 
the reduced thickness shall be equal to or greater than the 
thickness of the wall in the story above. Vertical rein- 
forcement for the foundation wall shall be based on Table 
R404. 1.2(8) and located in the wall as required by Sec- 
tion R404. 1.2. 3.7.2 where that table is used. Vertical 
reinforcement shall be based on the thickness of the thin- 
ner portion of the wall. 

Exception: Where the height of the reduced thick- 
ness portion measured to the underside of the floor 
assembly or sill plate above is less than or equal to 24 
inches (610 mm) and the reduction in thickness does 
not exceed 4 inches (102 mm), the vertical reinforce- 
ment is permitted to be based on the thicker portion of 
the wall. 

R404. 1.5.3 Pier and curtain wall foundations. Use of 
pier and curtain wall foundations shall be permitted to 
support light-frame construction not more than two stories 
in height, provided the following requirements are met: 

1. All load-bearing walls shall be placed on continu- 
ous concrete footings placed integrally with the 
exterior wall footings. 

2. The minimum actual thickness of a load-bearing 
masonry wall shall be not less than 4 inches (102 
mm) nominal or 3 3 / 8 inches (92 mm) actual thick- 
ness, and shall be bonded integrally with piers 
spaced in accordance with Section R606.9. 

3. Piers shall be constructed in accordance with Sec- 
tion R606.6 and Section R606.6.1, and shall be 



102 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FOUNDATIONS 



bonded into the load-bearing masonry wall in 
accordance with Section R608.1.1 or Section 
R608. 1.1.2. 

4. The maximum height of a 4-inch (102 mm) 
load-bearing masonry foundation wall supporting 
wood-frame walls and floors shall not be more 
than 4 feet (1219 mm). 

5. Anchorage shall be in accordance with Section 
R403.1.6, Figure R404.1.5(l), or as specified by 
engineered design accepted by the building offi- 
cial 

6. The unbalanced fill for 4-inch (102 mm) founda- 
tion walls shall not exceed 24 inches (610 mm) for 
solid masonry or 12 inches (305 mm) for hollow 
masonry. 

7. In Seismic Design Categories Do, D l and D 2 , pre- 
scriptive reinforcement shall be provided in the 
horizontal and vertical direction. Provide mini- 
mum horizontal joint reinforcement of two No.9 
gage wires spaced not less than 6 inches (152 mm) 
or one i/ 4 inch (6.4 mm) diameter wire at 10 inches 
(254 mm) on center vertically. Provide minimum 
vertical reinforcement of one No. 4 bar at 48 
inches (1220 mm) on center horizontally grouted 
in place. 

R404.1.6 Height above finished grade. Concrete and 
masonry foundation walls shall extend above the finished 
grade adjacent to the foundation at all points a minimum of 
4 inches (102 mm) where masonry veneer is used and a min- 
imum of 6 inches (152 mm) elsewhere. 

R404.1.7 Backfill placement. Backfill shall not be placed 
against the wall until the wall has sufficient strength and has 
been anchored to the floor above, or has been sufficiently 
braced to prevent damage by the backfill. 

Exception: Bracing is not required for walls supporting 
less than 4 feet (1219 mm) of unbalanced backfill. 

R404.1.8 Rubble stone masonry. Rubble stone masonry 
foundation walls shall have a minimum thickness of 16 
inches (406 mm), shall not support an unbalanced backfill 
exceeding 8 feet (2438 mm) in height, shall not support a 
soil pressure greater than 30 pounds per square foot per foot 
(4.71 kPa/m) , and shall not be constructed in Seismic 
Design Categories Do, D h D 2 or townhouses in Seismic 
Design Category C, as established in Figure R30 1.2(2). 

R404.2 Wood foundation walls. Wood foundation walls shall 
be constructed in accordance with the provisions of Sections 
R404.2.1 through R404.2.6 and with the details shown in Fig- 
ures R403.1 (2) and R403.1 (3). 

R404.2.1 Identification. All load-bearing lumber shall be 
identified by the grade mark of a lumber grading or inspec- 
tion agency which has been approved by an accreditation 
body that complies with DOC PS 20. In lieu of a grade mark, 



a certificate of inspection issued by a lumber grading or 
inspection agency meeting the requirements of this section 
shall be accepted. Wood structural panels shall conform to 
DOC PS 1 or DOC PS 2 and shall be identified by a grade 
mark or certificate of inspection issued by an approved 
agency. 

R404.2.2 Stud size. The studs used in foundation walls 
shall be 2-inch by 6-inch (51 mm by 152 mm) members. 
When spaced 16 inches (406 mm) on center, a wood species 
with an ¥b value of not less than 1,250 pounds per square 
inch (8619 kPa) as listed in AF &PA/NDS shall be used. 
When spaced 12 inches (305 mm) on center, an F b of not less 
than 875 psi (6033 kPa) shall be required. 

R404.2.3 Height of backfill. For wood foundations that 
are not designed and installed in accordance with AF&PA 
PWF, the height of backfill against a foundation wall shall 
not exceed 4 feet (1219 mm). When the height of fill is 
more than 12 inches (305 mm) above the interior grade of a 
crawl space or floor of a basement, the thickness of the ply- 
wood sheathing shall meet the requirements of Table 
R404.2.3. 

R404.2.4 Backfilling. Wood foundation walls shall not be 
backfilled until the basementfloor and first floor have been 
constructed or the walls have been braced. For crawl space 
construction, backfill or bracing shall be installed on the 
interior of the walls prior to placing backfill on the exterior. 

R404.2.5 Drainage and dampproofing. Wood foundation 
basements shall be drained and dampproofed in accordance 
with Sections R405 and R406, respectively. 

R404.2.6 Fastening. Wood structural panel foundation 
wall sheathing shall be attached to framing in accordance 
with Table R602.3(l) and Section R402. 1. 1. 

R404.3 Wood sill plates. Wood sill plates shall be a minimum 
of 2-inch by 4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) nominal lumber. Sill 
plate anchorage shall be in accordance with Sections R403.1.6 
and R602.ll. 

R404.4 Retaining walls. Retaining walls that are not laterally 
supported at the top and that retain in excess of 24 inches (610 
mm) of unbalanced fill shall be designed to ensure stability 
against overturning, sliding, excessive foundation pressure and 
water uplift. Retaining walls shall be designed for a safety fac- 
tor of 1.5 against lateral sliding and overturning. 

404.5 Precast concrete foundation walls. 

R404.5.1 Design. Precast concrete foundation walls shall 
be designed in accordance with accepted engineering prac- 
tice. The design and manufacture of precast concrete foun- 
dation wall panels shall comply with the materials 
requirements of Section R402.3 or ACI 318. The panel 
design drawings shall be prepared by a registered design 
professional where required by the statutes of the jurisdic- 
tion in which the project is to be constructed in accordance 
with Section RI06.1. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



103 



FOUNDATIONS 



GALVANIZED OR STAINLESS STEEL STRAPS, 
MIN. 276 IN. WIDE BY 12 GAGE THICK, 
MIN. 2 IN. FROM EDGE OF PIER, TYP. 



PIERS SPACED NOT 
"MORE THAN 6 FT O.C, 
\TYR 



MIN. NINE 160 NAILS 
PER STRAP 




MIN. 8 IN. X 16 IN 
MASONRY PIER, TYP. 



MIN. TWO 9 GAGE BOX TIES 
OR TWO MASONRY HEADERS 
AT 8 IN. O.C. EACH PIER 



STRAPS ANCHORED WITH 90 DEGREE HOOK, MIN. 
TWO STRAPS PER PIER, MIN. 4 IN. EMBEDMENT INTO 
FOOTING, MIN. 1.75 IN. HORZ. LEG EXTENSION 



DOUBLE RIM JOISTS 



MIN. 18 GAGE PLATE 
CONNECTORS AT 
MAX. 12 IN. O.C. (TYP 




MIN. 4 IN. MASONRY 
CURTAIN WALL 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 degree = 0.0175 rad. 



FIGURE R404.1.5(1) 
FOUNDATION WALL CLAY MASONRY CURTAIN WALL WITH CONCRETE MASONRY PIERS 



104 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R404.2.3 

PLYWOOD GRADE AND THICKNESS FOR WOOD FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION 

(30 pef equivalent-fluid weight soil pressure) 



HEIGHT OF FILL 
(inches) 


STUD SPACING 
(inches) 


FACE GRAIN ACROSS STUDS 


FACE GRAIN PARALLEL TO STUDS 


Grade 3 


Minimum 

thickness 

(inches) 


Span rating 


Grade 3 


Minimum 
thickness 
(inches)b, c 


Span rating 


24 


12 


B 


15/ 32 


32/16 


A 


15/.. 


32/16 


B 


15/^c 


32/16 


16 


B 


15/ 32 


32/16 


A 


15/„c 


32/16 


B 


i9/ 32 c (4, 5 ply) 


40/20 


36 


12 


B 


15/ 32 


32/16 


A 


15/ 32 


32/16 


B 


i5/ 32 c (4, 5 ply) 


32/16 


B 


w/gj (4, 5 ply) 


40/20 


16 


B 


'V 


32/16 


A 


l9/ T 


40/20 


B 


23/ 32 


48/24 


48 


12 


B 


15/ 32 


32/16 


A 


15/_c 


32/16 


B 


i9/ 30 c (4, 5 ply) 


40/20 


16 


B 


19/ 32 


40/20 


A 


19/ c 


40/20 


A 


23/ 32 


48/24 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per cubic foot = 0. 1572kN/m 3 . 

a. Plywood shall be of the following minimum grades in accordance with DOC PS 1 or DOC PS 2: 

1. DOC PS 1 Plywood grades marked: 

1.1. Structural I C-D (Exposure 1) 

1.2. C-D (Exposure 1) 

2. DOC PS 2 Plywood grades marked: 

2.1. Structural I Sheathing (Exposure 1) 

2.2. Sheathing (Exposure 1) 

3. Where a major portion of the wall is exposed above ground and a better appearance is desired, the following plywood grades marked exterior are suitable: 

3.1. Structural I A-C, Structural I B-C or Structural I C-C (Plugged) in accordance with DOC PS 1 

3.2. A-C Group 1, B-C Group 1, C-C (Plugged) Group 1 or MOO Group 1 in accordance with DOC PS 1 

3.3. Single Floor in accordance with DOC PS 1 or DOC PS 2 

b. Minimum thickness 15/ 32 inch, except crawl space sheathing may be 3/ 8 inch for face grain across studs 16 inches on center and maximum 2- foot depth of unequal 
fill. 

c. For this fill height, thickness and grade combination, panels that are continuous over less than three spans (across less than three stud spacings) require blocking 16 
inches above the bottom plate. Offset adjacent blocks and fasten through studs with two 16d corrosion-resistant nails at each end. 



R404.5.2 Precast concrete foundation design drawings. 
Precast concrete foundation wall design drawings shall be 
submitted to the building official and approved prior to 
installation. Drawings shall include, at a minimum, the 
information specified below: 

1. Design loading as applicable; 

2. Footing design and material; 

3. Concentrated loads and their points of application; 

4. Soil bearing capacity; 

5. Maximum allowable total uniform load; 

6. Seismic design category; and 

7. Basic wind speed. 



R404.5.3 Identification. Precast concrete foundation wall 
panels shall be identified by a certificate of inspection label 
issued by an approved third party inspection agency. 



SECTION R405 
FOUNDATION DRAINAGE 

R405.1 Concrete or masonry foundations. Drains shall be 
provided around all concrete or masonry foundations that 
retain earth and enclose habitable or usable spaces located 
below grade. Drainage tiles, gravel or crushed stone drains, 
perforated pipe or other approvedsystems or materials shall be 
installed at or below the area to be protected and shall discharge 
by gravity or mechanical means into an approveddrainagQ sys- 



1 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



105 



FOUNDATIONS 



tern. Gravel or crushed stone drains shall extend at least 1 foot 
(305 mm) beyond the outside edge of the footing and 6 inches 
(152 mm) above the top of the footing and be covered with an 
approved filter membrane material. The top of open joints of 
drain tiles shall be protected with strips of building paper, and 
the drainage tiles or perforated pipe shall be placed on a mini- 
mum of 2 inches (51 mm) of washed gravel or crushed rock at 
least one sieve size larger than the tilej oint opening or perfora- 
tion and covered with not less than 6 inches (152 mm) of the 
same material. 

Exception: A drainage system is not required when the 
foundation is installed on well-drained ground or 
sand-gravel mixture soils according to the Unified Soil 
Classification System, Group I Soils, as detailed in Table 
R405.1. 

R405.1.1 Precast concrete foundation. Precast con- 
crete walls that retain earth and enclose habitable or use- 
able space located below-grade that rest on crushed stone 
footings shall have a perforated drainage pipe installed 
below the base of the wall on either the interior or exte- 



rior side of the wall, at least one foot (305 mm) beyond 
the edge of the wall. If the exterior drainage pipe is used, 
an approved filter membrane material shall cover the 
pipe. The drainage system shall discharge into an 
approved sewer system or to daylight. 

R405.2 Wood foundations. Wood foundations enclosing hab- 
itable or usable spaces located below grade shall be adequately 
drained in accordance with Sections R405.2.1 through 
R405.2.3. 

R405.2.1 Base. A porous layer of gravel, crushed stone or 
coarse sand shall be placed to a minimum thickness of 4 
inches (102 mm) under the basement floor. Provision shall 
be made for automatic draining of this layer and the gravel 
or crushed stone wall footings. 

R405.2.2 Vapor retarder. A 6-mil-thick (0.15 mm) P01Y- I 
ethylene vapor retarder shall be applied over the porous 
layer with the basement floor constructed over the polyeth- 
ylene. 



TABLE R405.1 
PROPERTIES OF SOILS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THE UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 



SOIL 
GROUP 


UNIFIED SOIL 
CLASSIFICATION 
SYSTEM SYMBOL 


SOIL DESCRIPTION 


DRAINAGE 
CHARACTERISTICS 3 


FROST HEAVE 
POTENTIAL 


VOLUME CHANGE 
POTENTIAL 
EXPANSION 13 


Group I 


GW 


Well-graded gravels, gravel sand mixtures, 
little or no fines 


Good 


Low 


Low 


GP 


Poorly graded gravels or gravel sand 
mixtures, little or no fines 


Good 


Low 


Low 


SW 


Well-graded sands, gravelly sands, little or 
no fines 


Good 


Low 


Low 


SP 


Poorly graded sands or gravelly sands, little 
or no fines 


Good 


Low 


Low 


GM 


Silty gravels, gravel-sand-silt mixtures 


Good 


Medium 


Low 


SM 


Silty sand, sand-silt mixtures 


Good 


Medium 


Low 


Group II 


GC 


Clayey gravels, gravel-sand-clay mixtures 


Medium 


Medium 


Low 


SC 


Clayey sands, sand-clay mixture 


Medium 


Medium 


Low 


ML 


Inorganic silts and very fine sands, rock 

flour, silty or clayey fine sands or clayey 

silts with slight plasticity 


Medium 


High 


Low 


CL 


Inorganic clays of low to medium plasticity, 

gravelly clays, sandy clays, silty clays, lean 

clays 


Medium 


Medium 


Medium 
to Low 


Group III 


CH 


Inorganic clays of high plasticity, fat clays 


Poor 


Medium 


High 


MH 


Inorganic silts, micaceous or diatomaceous 
fine sandy or silty soils, elastic silts 


Poor 


High 


High 


Group IV 


OL 


Organic silts and organic silty clays of low 
plasticity 


Poor 


Medium 


Medium 


OH 


Organic clays of medium to high plasticity, 
organic silts 


Unsatisfactory 


Medium 


High 


Pt 


Peat and other highly organic soils 


Unsatisfactory 


Medium 


High 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. The percolation rate for good drainage is over 4 inches per hour, medium drainage is 

b. Soils with a low potential expansion typically have a plasticity index (PI) of to 15, soi: 
high potential expansion have a PI greater than 20. 



2 inches to 4 inches per hour, and poor is less than 2 inches per hour. 
Is with a medium potential expansion have a PI of 10 to 35 and soils with a 



106 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FOUNDATIONS 



R405.2.3 Drainage system. In other than Group I soils, a 
sump shall be provided to drain the porous layer and footings. 
The sump shall be at least 24 inches (610 mm) in diameter or 
20 inches square (0.0129 m 2 ), shall extend at least 24 inches 
(610 mm) below the bottom of the basement floor and shall 
be capable of positive gravity or mechanical drainage to 
remove any accumulated water. The drainage system shall 
discharge into an approved sewer system or to daylight. 



SECTION R406 

FOUNDATION WATERPROOFING 

AND DAMPPROOFING 

R406.1 Concrete and masonry foundation dampproofing. 
Except where required by Section R406.2 to be waterproofed, 
foundation walls that retain earth and enclose interior spaces 
and floors below grade shall be dampproofed from the top of 
the footing to the finished grade. Masonry walls shall have not 
less than 3/ 8 inch (9.5 mm) portland cement parging applied to 
the exterior of the wall. The parging shall be dampproofed in 
accordance with one of the following: 

1. Bituminous coating. 

2. Three pounds per square yard (1.63 kg/m 2 ) of acrylic 
modified cement. 

3. One-eighth inch (3.2 mm) coat of surface-bonding 
cement complying with ASTM C 887. 

4. Any material permitted for waterproofing in Section 
R406.2. 

5. Other approve d methods or materials. 

Exception: Parging of unit masonry walls is not 
required where a material is approvedfor direct appli- 
cation to the masonry. 

Concrete walls shall be dampproofed by applying anyone of 
the above listed dampproofing materials or anyone of the 
waterproofing materials listed in Section R406.2 to the exterior 
of the wall. 

R406.2 Concrete and masonry foundation waterproofing. 
In areas where a high water table or other severe soil- water con- 
ditions are known to exist, exterior foundation walls that retain 
earth and enclose interior spaces and floors below grade shall 
be waterproofed from the top of the footing to the finished 
grade. Walls shall be waterproofed in accordance with one of 
the following: 

1. Two-ply hot-mopped felts. 

2. Fifty five pound (25 kg) roll roofing. 

3. Six-mil (0.15 mm) polyvinyl chloride. 

4. Six-mil (0.15 mm) polyethylene. 

5. Forty-mil (1 mm) polymer-modified asphalt. 

6. Sixty-mil (1.5 mm) flexible polymer cement. 

7. One-eighth inch (3 mm) cement-based, fiber-reinforced, 
waterproof coating. 



8. Sixty-mil (0.22 mm) solvent-free liquid-applied syn- 
thetic rubber. 

Exception: Organic-solvent-based products such as hydro- 
carbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, ketones and esters shall 
not be used for ICF walls with expanded polystyrene form 
material. Use of plastic roofing cements, acrylic coatings, 
latex coatings, mortars and pargings to seal ICF walls is per- 
mitted. Cold-setting asphalt or hot asphalt shall conform to 
type C of ASTM D 449. Hot asphalt shall be applied at a 
temperature of less than 200°F (93°C). 

All joints in membrane waterproofing shall be lapped and 
sealed with an adhesive compatible with the membrane. 

R406.3 Dampproofing for wood foundations. Wood founda- 
tions enclosing habitable or usable spaces located below grade 
shall be dampproofed in accordance with Sections R406.3.1 
through R406.3.4. 

R406.3.1 Panel joint sealed. Plywood panel joints in the 
foundation walls shall be sealed full length with a caulking 
compound capable of producing a mOisture-proof seal 
under the conditions of temperature and moisture content at 
which it will be applied and used. 

R406.3.2 Below-grade moisture barrier. A 6-mil-thick 
(0.15 mm) polyethylene film shall be applied over the 
below-grade portion of exterior foundation walls prior to 
backfilling. Joints in the polyethylene film shall be lapped 6 
inches (152 mm) and sealed with adhesive. The top edge of 
the polyethylene film shall be bonded to the sheathing to 
form a seal. Film areas at grade level shall be protected from 
mechanical damage and exposure by a pressure 
preservatively treated lumber or plywood strip attached to 
the wall several inches above finish grade level and extend- 
ing approximately 9 inches (229 mm) below grade. The 
joint between the strip and the wall shall be caulked full 
length prior to fastening the strip to the wall. Other cover- 
ings appropriate to the architectural treatment may also be 
used. The polyethylene film shall extend down to the bot- 
tom of the wood footing plate but shall not overlap or extend 
into the gravel or crushed stone footing. 

R406.3.3 Porous fill. The space between the excavation and 
the foundation wall shall be backfilled with the same mate- 
rial used for footings, up to a height of 1 foot (305 mm) 
above the footing for well-drained sites, or one-half the total 
back-fill height for poorly drained sites. The porous fill shall 
be covered with strips of 30-pound (13.6 kg) asphalt paper 
or 6-mil (0.15 mm) polyethylene to permit water seepage 
while avoiding infiltration of fine soils. 

R406.3.4 Backfill. The remainder of the excavated area 
shall be backfilled with the same type of soil as was removed 
during the excavation. 

R406.4 Precast concrete foundation system dampproofing. 
Except where required by Section R406.2 to be waterproofed, 
precast concrete foundation walls enclosing habitable or useable 
spaces located below grade shall be dampproofed in accordance 
with Section R406.1. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



107 



FOUNDATIONS 



R406.4.1 Paneljoints sealed. Precast concrete foundation 
paneljoints shall be sealed full height with a sealant meeting 
ASTM C 920, Type S or M, Grade NS, Class 25, Use NT, M 
or A. Joint sealant shall be installed in accordance with the 
manufacturer's installation instructions. 



SECTION R407 
COLUMNS 

R407.1 Wood column protection. Wood columns shall be 
protected against decay as set forth in Section R31 7. 

R407.2 Steel column protection. All surfaces (inside and out- 
side) of steel columns shall be given a shop coat of 
rust-inhibitive paint, except for corrosion-resistant steel and 
steel treated with coatings to provide corrosion resistance. 

R407.3 Structural requirements. The columns shall be 
restrained to prevent lateral displacement at the bottom end. 
Wood columns shall not be less in nominal size than 4 inches by 
4 inches (102 mm by 102 mm). Steel columns shall not be less 
than 3 -inch-diameter (76 mm) Schedule 40 pipe manufactured 
in accordance with ASTM A 53 Grade B or approved equiva- 
lent. 

Exception: In Seismic Design Categories A, Band C, col- 
umns no more than 48 inches (1219 mm) in height on a pier 
or footing are exempt from the bottom end lateral displace- 
ment requirement within under-floor areas enclosed by a 
continuous foundation. 



SECTION R408 
UNDER-FLOOR SPACE 

R408.1 Ventilation. The under-floor space between the bot- 
tom of the floor joists and the earth under any building (except 
space occupied by a basement) shall have ventilation openings 
through foundation walls or exterior walls . The minimum net 
area of ventilation openings shall not be less than 1 square foot 
(0.0929 m 2 ) for each 150 square feet (14 m 2 ) of under-floor 
space area, unless the ground surface is covered by a Class 1 
vapor retarder material. When a Class 1 vapor retarder material 
is used, the minimum net area of ventilation openings shall not 
be less than 1 square foot (0.0929 m 2 ) for each 1,500 square 
feet (140 m 2 ) of under-floor space area. One such ventilating 
opening shall be within 3 feet (914 mm) of each corner of the 
building. 

R408.2 Openings for under-floor ventilation. The minimum 
net area of ventilation openings shall not be less than 1 square 
foot (0.0929 m 2 ) for each 150 square feet (14 m 2 ) of under-floor 
area. One ventilation opening shall be within 3 feet (915 mm) 
of each corner of the building. Ventilation openings shall be 
covered for their height and width with any of the following 
materials provided that the least dimension of the covering 
shall not exceed i/ 4 inch (6.4 mm): 

1. Perforated sheet metal plates not less than 0.070 inch 
(1 .8 mm) thick. 

2. Expanded sheet metal plates not less than 0.047 inch (1.2 
mm) thick. 

3. Cast-iron grill or grating. 



4. Extruded load-bearing brick vents. 

5. Hardware cloth of 0.035 inch (0.89 mm) wire or heavier. 

6. Corrosion-resistant wire mesh, with the least dimension 
being i/ 8 inch (3.2 mm) thick. 

Exception: The total area of ventilation openings shall be 
permitted to be reduced to i/ h 5oo of the under-floor area 
where the ground surface is covered with an approvedClass 
I vapor retarder material and the required openings are 
placed to provide cross ventilation of the space. The instal- 
lation of operable louvers shall not be prohibited. 

R408.3 Unvented crawl space. Ventilation openings in 
under-floor spaces specified in Sections R408.1 and R408.2 
shall not be required where : 

1 . Exposed earth is covered with a continuous Class I vapor 
retarder. Joints of the vapor retarder shall overlap by 6 
inches (152 mm) and shall be sealed or taped. The edges 
of the vapor retarder shall extend at least 6 inches (152 
mm) up the stem wall and shall be attached and sealed to 
the stem wall; and 

2. One of the following is provided for the under-floor 
space: 

2.1. Continuously operated mechanical exhaust ven- 
tilation at a rate equal to 1 cubic foot per minute 
(0.47 Lis) for each 50 square feet (4.7m 2 ) of 
crawlspace floor area, including an air pathway 
to the common area (such as a duct or transfer 
grille) , and perimeter walls insulated in accor- 
dance with Section Nl 102.2.9; 

2.2. Conditioned air supply sized to deliver at a rate 
equal to 1 cubic foot per minute (0.47 Lis) for 
each 50 square feet (4.7 m 2 ) of under-floor area, 
including a return air pathway to the common 
area (such as a duct or transfer grille), and perim- 
eter walls insulated in accordance with Section 
Nl 102.2.9; 

2.3. Plenum in existing structures complying with 
Section Ml 60 1.5, if under-floor space is used as 
a plenum. 

R408.4 Access. Access shall be provided to all under-floor 
spaces. Access openings through the floor shall be a minimum 
of 18 inches by 24 inches (457 mm by 610 mm). Openings 
through a perimeter wall shall be not less than 16 inches by 24 
inches (407 mm by 610 mm). When any portion of the 
through-wall access is below grade, an areaway not less than 
16 inches by 24 inches (407 mm by 610 mm) shall be provided. 
The bottom of the areaway shall be below the threshold of the 
access opening. Through wall access openings shall not be 
located under a door to the residence. See Section Ml 305. 1.4 
for access requirements where mechanical equipment is 
located under floors. 

R408.5 Removal of debris. The under-floor grade shall be 
cleaned of all vegetation and organic material. All wood forms 
used for placing concrete shall be removed before a building is 
occupied or used for any purpose. All construction materials 
shall be removed before a building is occupied or used for any 
purpose. 



108 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FOUNDATIONS 



R408.6 Finished grade. The finished grade of under-floor 
surface may be located at the bottom of the footings; however, 
where there is evidence that the groundwater table can rise to 
within 6 inches (152 mm) of the finished floor at the building 
perimeter or where there is evidence that the surface water does 
not readily drain from the building site, the grade in the 
under-floor space shall be as high as the outside finished grade, 
unless an approved drainage system is provided. 

R408.7 Flood resistance. For buildings located in areas prone 
to flooding as established in Table R30 1.2(1): 

1. Walls enclosing the under-floor space shall be provided 
with flood openings in accordance with Section 

R322.2.2. 

2. The finished ground level of the under-floor space shall 
be equal to or higher than the outside finished ground 
level on at least one side. 

Exception: Under-floor spaces that meet the requirements 
ofFEMA/FIATB 11-1. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 109 



1 1 2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



CHAPTER 5 

FLOORS 



SECTION R501 
GENERAL 

R501.1 Application. The provisions of this chapter shall con- 
trol the design and construction of the floors for all buildings 
including the floors of attic spaces used to house mechanical or 
plumbing fixtures and equipment. 

R501.2 Requirements. Floor construction shall be capable of 
accommodating all loads according to Section R301 and of trans- 
mitting the resulting loads to the supporting structural elements. 



SECTION R502 
WOOD FLOOR FRAMING 

R502.1 Identification. Load-bearing dimension lumber for 
joists, beams and girders shall be identified by a grade mark of 
a lumber grading or inspection agency that has been approved 
by an accreditation body that complies with DOC PS 20. In lieu 
of a grade mark, a certificate of inspection issued by a lumber 
grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements of this 
section shall be accepted. 

R502.1.1 Preservative-treated lumber. Preservative treated 
dimension lumber shall also be identified as required by Sec- 
tion R3 19.1. 

R502.1.2 Blocking and sub flooring. Blocking shall be a 
minimum of utility grade lumber. Subflooring may be a mini- 
mum of utility grade lumber or No. 4 common grade boards. 

R502.1.3 End-jointed lumber. Approv edend- jointed ^ lum- 
ber identified by a grade mark conforming to Section 
R502.1 may be used interchangeably with solid-sawn mem- 
bers of the same species and grade. 

R502.1.4 Prefabricated wood I-joists. Structural capaci- 
ties and design provisions for prefabricated wood I-joists 
shall be established and monitored in accordance with 
ASTMD 5055. 

IR502.1.5 Structural glued laminated timbers. Glued 
laminated timbers shall be manufactured and identified as 
required in ANSI/AITC A190.1 and ASTM D 3737. 

R502.1.6 Structural log members. Stress grading of struc- 
tural log members of nonrectangular shape, as typically 
used in log buildings, shall be in accordance with ASTM D 
3957. Such structural log members shall be identified by the 
grade mark of an approved lumber grading or inspection 
agency. In lieu of a grade mark on the material, a certificate 
of inspection as to species and grade issued by a lum- 
ber-grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements 
of this section shall be permitted to be accepted. 

IR502.1.7 Exterior wood/plastic composite deck boards. 
Wood/plastic composites used in exterior deck boards shall 
comply with the provisions of Section R317.4. 

R502.2 Design and construction. Floors shall be designed 
and constructed in accordance with the provisions of this chap- 



ter, Figure R502.2 and Sections R317 and R318 or in 
accordance with AF&PA/NDS. 

R502.2.1 Framing at braced wall lines. A load path for 
lateral forces shall be provided between floor framing and 
braced wallpanels located above or below a floor, as speci- 
fied in Section R602.1 0.6. 

R502.2.2 Decks. Where supported by attachment to an exte- 
rior wall, decks shall be positively anchored to the primary 
structure and designed for both vertical and lateral loads as 
applicable. Such attachment shall not be accomplished by the 
use of toenails or nails subject to withdrawal. Where positive 
connection to the primary building structure cannot be verified 
during inspection, decks shall be self- supporting. For decks 
with cantilevered framing members, connections to exterior 
walls or other framing members, shall be designed and con- 
structed to resist uplift resulting from the full live load specified 
in Table R301.5 acting on the cantilevered portion of the deck. 

R502.2.2.1 Deck ledger connection to band joist. For 
decks supporting a total design load of 50 pounds per 
square foot (2394 Pa) [40 pounds per square foot (1915 
Pa) live load plus 10 pounds per square foot (479 Pa) dead 
load], the connection between a deck ledger of pressure- 
preservative-treated Southern Pine, incised pressure-pre- 
servative-treated Hem-Fir or approved decay- resistant 
species, and a 2-inch (51 mm) nominal lumber bandjoist 
bearing on a sill plate or wall plate shall be constructed 
with V 2 -inch (12.7 m) lag screws or bolts with washers in 
accordance with Table R502.2.2.1. Lag screws, bolts and 
washers shall be hot-dipped galvanized or stainless steel. 

R502.2.2.1.1 Placement of lag screws or bolts in 
deck ledgers. The lag screws or bolts shall be placed 
2 inches (51 mm) in from the bottom or top of the deck 
ledgers and between 2 and 5 inches (51 and 127 mm) 
in from the ends. The lag screws or bolts shall be stag- 
gered from the top to the bottom along the horizontal 
run of the deck ledger. 

R502.2.2.2 Alternate deck ledger connections. Deck 
ledger connections not conforming to Table R502.2.2.1 
shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineer- 
ing practice. Girders supporting deck joists shall not be 
supported on deck ledgers or band joists. Deck ledgers 
shall not be supported on stone or masonry veneer. 

R502.2.2.3 Deck lateral load connection. The lateral load 
connection required by Section R502.2.2 shall be permitted 
to be in accordance with Figure R502.2.2.3. Hold-down ten- 
sion devices shall be installed in not less than two locations 
per deck, and each device shall have an allowable stress 
design capacity of not less than 1500 pounds (6672 N). 

R502.2.2.4 Exterior wood/plastic composite deck boards. 
Wood/plastic composite deck boards shall be installed in 
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



111 



FLOORS 



BOTTOM WALL 
PLATE 



OPTIONAL FINISH 
FLOOR 



21N. CLEARANCE - 
SEE SECTION 
R1001.11 



FIREPLACE 



i A 



STUDS 



I 



"SUBFLOOR OR 
FLOOR SHEATHING- 
SEE SECTION R503 



V 



/ 



JOISTS-SEE TABLES 
R502.3.1(1) AND R502.3.1(2) 



• 



V 



WOOD STRUCTURAL 



u a 

Jll 




SOLID 

BLOCKING-SEE,\ 
SECTION R502.7 



SILL PLATE 



FOUNDATION 



\ 



.TRIMMER JOIST 



>• 



HEADER-DOUBLE IF 
MORE THAN 4 FT SPAN 



/ USE HANGER IF HEADER 
SPANS MORE THAN 
6FT 



LAP JOIST 3 IN. MIN. OR 
SPLICE-SEE SECTION 
R502.6.1 



t 



JS 



:1 



Wl 



1 



GIRDER-SEE TABLES 
R502.5(1) AND R502.5(2) 



^ 



a. 



h 



SILL PLATE 



BAND, RIM OR 
V HEADER JOIST 



i 



BRIDGING BETWEEN 
JOISTS-SEE SECTION 
R502.7.1 



w !! (V\ 



PROVISION FOR PIPES 
I f AND VENTS 



DOUBLE JOISTS UNDER BEARING 
PARTITIONS. IF JOISTS ARE 
SEPARATED FOR PIPES, BLOCK 
4 FT ON CENTER MAXIMUM 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



FIGURE RS02.2 
FLOOR CONSTRUCTION 



112 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FLOORS 



TABLE R502.2.2.1 
FASTENER SPACING FOR A SOUTHERN PINE OR HEM-FIR DECK LEDGER 
AND A 2-INCH NOMINAL SOLID-SAWN SPRUCE-PINE-FIR BAND JOISTc,f,g 
(Deck live load = 40 psf, deck dead load = 1 pst) 



JOIST SPAN 


6' and less 


6T'to8' 


8T'to 10' 


10T'to 12' 


12'1"to 14' 


14'1"to 16' 


16'1"to 18' 


Connection details 


On-center spacing of fasteners d , e 


i/ 2 inch diameter lag screw with i5/ 32 inch 
maximum sheathing a 


30 


23 


18 


15 


13 


11 


10 


i/ 2 inch diameter bolt with i5/ 32 inch maximum 
sheathing 


36 


36 


34 


29 


24 


21 


19 


i/ 2 inch diameter bolt with i5/ 32 inch maximum 
sheathing and i/ 2 inch stacked washers b .h 


36 


36 


29 


24 


21 


18 


16 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa. 

a. The tip of the lag screw shall fully extend beyond the inside face of the band joist. 

b. The maximum gap between the face of the ledger board and face of the wall sheathing shall be V 2 ". 

c. Ledgers shall be flashed to prevent water from contacting the house bandjoist. 

d. Lag screws and bolts shall be staggered in accordance with Section R502.2.2.1.1. 

e. Deck ledger shall be minimum 2x8 pressure- preservative-treated No. 2 grade lumber, or other approved materials as established by standard engineering practice. 

f . When solid-sawn pressure-preservative-treated deck ledgers are attached to a minimum 1 inch thick engineered wood product (structural composite lumber, lami- 
nated veneer lumber or wood structural panel bandjoist), the ledger attachment shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice. 

g. A minimum 1 x 9 ! / 2 Douglas Fir laminated veneer lumber rimboard shall be permitted in lieu of the 2-inch nominal bandjoist. 

h. Wood structural panel sheathing, gypsum board sheathing or foam sheathing not exceeding 1 inch in thickness shall be permitted. The maximum distance between 
the face of the ledger board and the face of the bandjoist shall be 1 inch. 



FLOOR SHEATHING NAILING AT ' 
6 IN. MAXIMUM ON CENTER TO 
JOIST WITH HOLD-DOWN 



HOLD-DOWN OR SIMILAR 
TENSION DEVICE 




FLOOR JOIST 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE 502.2.2.3 
DECK ATTACHMENT FOR LATERAL LOADS 



R502.3 Allowablejoist spans. Spans for floorjoists shall be in 
accordance with Tables R502.3.1(l) and R502.3.1(2). For 
other grades and species and for other loading conditions, refer 
to the AF&PA Span Tables for Joists and Rafters. 

R502.3.1 Sleeping areas and attic joists. Table 
R502.3.1 (1) shall be used to determine the maximum allow- 
able span of floor joists that support sleeping areas and 



attics that are accessed by means of a fixed stairway in 
accordance with Section R311.7 provided that the design 
live load does not exceed 30 pounds per square foot (1.44 
kPa) and the design dead load does not exceed 20 pounds 
per square foot (0.96 kPa). The allowable span of ceiling 
joists that support attics used for limited storage or no stor- 
age shall be determined in accordance with Section R802.4. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



113 



FLOORS 



R502.3.2 Other floor joists. Table R502.3.1 (2) shall be 
used to determine the maximum allowable span of floor 
joists that support all other areas of the building, other than 
sleeping rooms and attics, provided that the design live load 
does not exceed 40 pounds per square foot (1.92 kPa) and 
the design dead load does not exceed 20 pounds per square 
foot (0.96 kPa). 

R502.3.3 Floor cantilevers. Floor cantilever spans shall not 
exceed the nominal depth of the wood floor joist. Floor canti- 
levers constructed in accordance with Table R502.3.3(l) 
shall be permitted when supporting alight-frame bearing 
wall and roof only. Floor cantilevers supporting an exterior 
balcony are permitted to be constructed in accordance with 
Table R502.3.3(2). 

R502.4 Joists under bearing partitions. Joists under parallel 
bearing partitions shall be of adequate size to support the load. 
Doublejoists, sized to adequately support the load, that are sep- 
arated to permit the installation of piping or vents shall be full 
depth solid blocked with lumber not less than 2 inches (51 mm) 
in nominal thickness spaced not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) on 
center. Bearing partitions perpendicular to joists shall not be 
offset from supporting girders, walls or partitions more than 
the joist depth unless such joists are of sufficient size to carry 
the additional load. 

R502.5 Allowable girder spans. The allowable spans of gird- 
ers fabricated of dimension lumber shall not exceed the values 
set forth in Tables R502.5Q) and R502.5(2). 

R502.6 Bearing. The ends of each joist, beam or girder shall 
have not less than 1.5 inches (38 mm) of bearing on wood or 
metal and not less than 3 inches (76 mm) on masonry or con- 
crete except where supported on a l-inch-by-4-inch (25.4 mm 
by 102 mm) ribbon strip and nailed to the adjacent stud or by 
the use of approve d]o'\si hangers. 

R502.6.1 Floor systems. Joists framing from opposite 
sides over a bearing support shall lap a minimum of 3 inches 
(76 mm) and shall be nailed together with a minimum three 
lOd face nails. A wood or metal splice with strength equal to 
or greater than that provided by the nailed lap is permitted. 

R502.6.2 Joist framing. Joists framing into the side of a 
wood girder shall be supported by approved framing 
anchors or on ledger strips not less than nominal 2 inches by 
2 inches (51 mm by 51 mm). 

R502.7 Lateral restraint at supports. Joists shall be supported 
laterally at the ends by full-depth solid blocking not less than 2 
inches (51 mm) nominal in thickness; or by attachment to a 
full-depth header, band or rimjoist, or to an adjoining stud or shall 
be otherwise provided with lateral support to prevent rotation. 

Exceptions: 

1. Trusses, structural composite lumber, structural 
glued-laminated members and I-joists shall be sup- 
ported laterally as required by the manufacturer's rec- 
ommendations. 



2. In Seismic Design Categories Do, D l and D z , lateral 
restraint shall also be provided at each intermediate 
support. 

R502.7.1 Bridging. Joists exceeding a nominal 2 inches by 
12 inches (51 mm by 305 mm) shall be supported laterally 
by solid blocking, diagonal bridging (wood or metal), or a 
continuous l-inch-by-3-inch (25.4 mm by 76 mm) strip 
nailed across the bottom of joists perpendicular to joists at 
intervals not exceeding 8 feet (2438 mm). 

Exception: Trusses, structural composite lumber, s true -I 
tural glued-laminated members and I-jOists shall be sup- 
ported laterally as required by the manufacturer's 
recommendations . 

R502.8 Drilling and notching. Structural floor members shall 
not be cut, bored or notched in excess of the limitations speci- 
fied in this section. See Figure R502.8. 

R502.8.1 Sawn lumber. Notches in solid lumberjoists, raf- 
ters and beams shall not exceed one-sixth of the depth of the 
member, shall not be longer than one-third of the depth of 
the member and shall not be located in the middle one-third 
of the span. Notches at the ends of the member shall not 
exceed one-fourth the depth of the member. The tension 
side of members 4 inches (102 mm) or greater in nominal 
thickness shall not be notched except at the ends of the 
members. The diameter of holes bored or cut into members 
shall not exceed one-third the depth of the member. Holes 
shall not be closer than 2 inches (51 mm) to the top or bot- 
tom of the member, or to any other hole located in the mem- 
ber. Where the member is also notched, the hole shall not be 
closer than 2 inches (51 mm) to the notch. 

R502.8.2 Engineered wood products. Cuts, notches and 
holes bored in trusses, structural composite lumber, struc- 
tural glue-laminated members or I-joists are prohibited 
except where permitted by the manufacturer's recommen- 
dations or where the effects of such alterations are specifi- 
cally considered in the design of the member by a registered 
design professional. 

R502.9 Fastening. Floor framing shall be nailed in accordance 
with Table R602. 3 (1). Where posts and beam or girder construc- 
tion is used to support floor framing, positive connections shall 
be provided to ensure against uplift and lateral displacement. 

R502.10 Framing of openings. Openings in floor framing 
shall be framed with a header and trimmer joists. When the 
headerjoist span does not exceed 4 feet (1219 mm), the header 
joist may be a single member the same size as the floor joist. 
Single trimmerjoists may be used to carry a single headerjoist 
that is located within 3 feet (914 mm) of the trimmerjoist bear- 
ing. When the headerjoist span exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm), the 
trimmerjoists and the headerjoist shall be doubled and of suffi- 
cient cross section to support the floor joists framing into the 
header. Approve d hangers shall be used for the headerjoist to 
trimmerjoist connections when the headerjoist span exceeds 6 
feet (1829 mm). Tailjoistsover 12 feet (3658 mm) long shall be 
supported at the header by framing anchors or on ledger strips 
not less than 2 inches by 2 inches (51 mm by 51 mm). 



114 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FLOORS 



TABLE R502.3.1 (1) 
FLOOR JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 
(Residential sleeping areas, live load =30 psf, L/A =360)3 



JOIST 
SPACING 
(inches) 


SPECIES AND GRADE 


DEAD LOAD=10pst 


DEAD LOAD =20 pst 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


Maximum floor joist spans 


(ft - in.) 


(ft - in.) 


(ft - in.) 


(ft - in.) 


(ft - in.) 


(ft - in.) 


(ft - in.) 


(ft - in.) 




Douglas fir-larch SS 


12-6 


16-6 


21-0 


25-7 


12-6 


16-6 


21-0 


25-7 




Douglas fir-larch #1 


12-0 


15-10 


20-3 


24-8 


12-0 


15-7 


19-0 


22-0 




Douglas fir-larch #2 


11-10 


15-7 


19-10 


23-0 


11-6 


14-7 


17-9 


20-7 




Douglas fir-larch #3 


9-8 


12-4 


15-0 


17-5 


8-8 


11-0 


13-5 


15-7 




Hem-fir SS 


11-10 


15-7 


19-10 


24-2 


11-10 


15-7 


19-10 


24-2 




Hem-fir #1 


11-7 


15-3 


19-5 


23-7 


11-7 


15-2 


18-6 


21-6 




Hem-fir #2 


11-0 


14-6 


18-6 


22-6 


11-0 


14-4 


17-6 


20-4 


12 


Hem-fir #3 


9-8 


12-4 


15-0 


17-5 


8-8 


11-0 


13-5 


15-7 


Southern pine SS 


12-3 


16-2 


20-8 


25-1 


12-3 


16-2 


20-8 


25-1 




Southern pine #1 


12-0 


15-10 


20-3 


24-8 


12-0 


15-10 


20-3 


24-8 




Southern pine #2 


11-10 


15-7 


19-10 


24-2 


11-10 


15-7 


18-7 


21-9 




Southern pine #3 


10-5 


13-3 


15-8 


18-8 


9-4 


11-11 


14-0 


16-8 




Spruce-pine-fir SS 


11-7 


15-3 


19-5 


23-7 


11-7 


15-3 


19-5 


23-7 




Spruce-pine-fir #1 


11-3 


14-11 


19-0 


23-0 


11-3 


14-7 


17-9 


20-7 




Spruce-pine-fir #2 


11-3 


14-11 


19-0 


23-0 


11-3 


14-7 


17-9 


20-7 




Spruce-pine-fir #3 


9-8 


12-4 


15-0 


17-5 


8-8 


11-0 


13-5 


15-7 




Douglas fir-larch SS 


11-4 


15-0 


19-1 


23-3 


11-4 


15-0 


19-1 


23-0 




Douglas fir-larch #1 


10-11 


14-5 


18-5 


21-4 


10-8 


13-6 


16-5 


19-1 




Douglas fir-larch #2 


10-9 


14-1 


17-2 


19-11 


9-11 


12-7 


15-5 


17-10 




Douglas fir-larch #3 


8-5 


10-8 


13-0 


15-1 


7-6 


9-6 


11-8 


13-6 




Hem-fir SS 


10-9 


14-2 


18-0 


21-11 


10-9 


14-2 


18-0 


21-11 




Hem-fir #1 


10-6 


13-10 


17-8 


20-9 


10-4 


13-1 


16-0 


18-7 




Hem-fir #2 


10-0 


13-2 


16-10 


19-8 


9-10 


12-5 


15-2 


17-7 


16 


Hem-fir #3 


8-5 


10-8 


13-0 


15-1 


7-6 


9-6 


11-8 


13-6 


Southern pine SS 


11-2 


14-8 


18-9 


22-10 


11-2 


14-8 


18-9 


22-10 




Southern pine #1 


10-11 


14-5 


18-5 


22-5 


10-11 


14-5 


17-11 


21-4 




Southern pine #2 


10-9 


14-2 


18-0 


21-1 


10-5 


13-6 


16-1 


18-10 




Southern pine #3 


9-0 


11-6 


13-7 


16-2 


8-1 


10-3 


12-2 


14-6 




Spruce-pine-fir SS 


10-6 


13-10 


17-8 


21-6 


10-6 


13-10 


17-8 


21-4 




Spruce-pine-fir #1 


10-3 


13-6 


17-2 


19-11 


9-11 


12-7 


15-5 


17-10 




Spruce-pine-fir #2 


10-3 


13-6 


17-2 


19-11 


9-11 


12-7 


15-5 


17-10 




Spruce-pine-fir #3 


8-5 


10-8 


13-0 


15-1 


7-6 


9-6 


11-8 


13-6 




Douglas fir-larch SS 


10-8 


14-1 


18-0 


21-10 


10-8 


14-1 


18-0 


21-0 




Douglas fir-larch #1 


10-4 


13-7 


16-9 


19-6 


9-8 


12-4 


15-0 


17-5 




Douglas fir-larch #2 


10-1 


12-10 


15-8 


18-3 


9-1 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 




Douglas fir-larch #3 


7-8 


9-9 


11-10 


13-9 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 




Hem-fir SS 


10-1 


13-4 


17-0 


20-8 


10-1 


13-4 


17-0 


20-7 




Hem-fir #1 


9-10 


13-0 


16-4 


19-0 


9-6 


12-0 


14-8 


17-0 




Hem-fir #2 


9-5 


12-5 


15-6 


17-1 


8-11 


11-4 


13-10 


16-1 


19.2 


Hem-fir #3 


7-8 


9-9 


11-10 


13-9 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 


Southern pine SS 


10-6 


13-10 


17-8 


21-6 


10-6 


13-10 


17-8 


21-6 




Southern pine #1 


10-4 


13-7 


17-4 


21-1 


10-4 


13-7 


16-4 


19-6 




Southern pine #2 


10-1 


13-4 


16-5 


19-3 


9-6 


12-4 


14-8 


17-2 




Southern pine #3 


8-3 


10-6 


12-5 


14-9 


7-4 


9-5 


11-1 


13-2 




Spruce-pine-fir SS 


9-10 


13-0 


16-7 


20-2 


9-10 


13-0 


16-7 


19-6 




Spruce-pine-fir #1 


9-8 


12-9 


15-8 


18-3 


9-1 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 




Spruce-pine-fir #2 


9-8 


12-9 


15-8 


18-3 


9-1 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 




Spruce-pine-fir #3 


7-8 


9-9 


11-10 


13-9 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 




Douglas fir-larch SS 


9-11 


13-1 


16-8 


20-3 


9-11 


13-1 


16-2 


18-9 




Douglas fir-larch #1 


9-7 


12-4 


15-0 


17-5 


8-8 


11-0 


13-5 


15-7 




Douglas fir-larch #2 


9-1 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 


8-1 


10-3 


12-7 


14-7 




Douglas fir-larch #3 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 


6-2 


7-9 


9-6 


11-0 




Hem-fir SS 


9-4 


12-4 


15-9 


19-2 


9-4 


12-4 


15-9 


18-5 




Hem-fir #1 


9-2 


12-0 


14-8 


17-0 


8-6 


10-9 


13-1 


15-2 




Hem-fir #2 


8-9 


11-4 


13-10 


16-1 


8-0 


10-2 


12-5 


14-4 


24 


Hem-fir #3 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 


6-2 


7-9 


9-6 


11-0 


Southern pine SS 


9-9 


12-10 


16-5 


19-11 


9-9 


12-10 


16-5 


19-11 




Southern pine #1 


9-7 


12-7 


16-1 


19-6 


9-7 


12-4 


14-7 


17-5 




Southern pine #2 


9-4 


12-4 


14-8 


17-2 


8-6 


11-0 


13-1 


15-5 




Southern pine #3 


7-4 


9-5 


11-1 


13-2 


6-7 


8-5 


9-11 


11-10 




Spruce-pine-fir SS 


9-2 


12-1 


15-5 


18-9 


9-2 


12-1 


15-0 


17-5 




Spruce-pine-fir #1 


8-11 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 


8-1 


10-3 


12-7 


14-7 




Spruce-pine-fir #2 


8-11 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 


8-1 


10-3 


12-7 


14-7 




Spruce-pine-fir #3 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 


6-2 


7-9 


9-6 


11-0 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 
Note: Check sources for availability of lumber in lengths greater than 20 feet. 

a. Dead load limits for townhouses in Seismic Design Category C and all structures in Seismic Design Categories 
with Section R301.2. 2.2.1. 



, and 9 shall be determined in accordance 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



115 



FLOORS 



TABLE R502.3.1 (2) 

FLOOR JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 

(Residential living areas, live load =40 psf, L/A =360)b 



JOIST 
SPACING 




DEAD LOAD=10pst 


DEAD LOAD =20 pst 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


Mlovimiim fl/t/ti- irtict cnone 










" ' '* W| " 








(inches) 


SPECIES AND GRADE 


(ft- in.) 


(ft- in.) 


(ft- in.) 


(ft- in.) 


(ft- in.) 


(ft- in.) 


(ft- in.) 


(ft- in.) 




Douglas fir-larch SS 


11-4 


15-0 


19-1 


23-3 


11-4 


15-0 


19-1 


23-3 




Douglas fir-larch #1 


10-11 


14-5 


18-5 


22-0 


10-11 


14-2 


17-4 


20-1 




Douglas fir-larch #2 


10-9 


14-2 


17-9 


20-7 


10-6 


13-3 


16-3 


18-10 




Douglas fir-larch #3 


8-8 


11-0 


13-5 


15-7 


7-11 


10-0 


12-3 


14-3 




Hem-fir SS 


10-9 


14-2 


18-0 


21-11 


10-9 


14-2 


18-0 


21-11 




Hem-fir #1 


10-6 


13-10 


17-8 


21-6 


10-6 


13-10 


16-11 


19-7 




Hem-fir #2 


10-0 


13-2 


16-10 


20-4 


10-0 


13-1 


16-0 


18-6 


12 


Hem-fir #3 


8-8 


11-0 


13-5 


15-7 


7-11 


10-0 


12-3 


14-3 


Southern pine SS 


11-2 


14-8 


18-9 


22-10 


11-2 


14-8 


18-9 


22-10 




Southern pine #1 


10-11 


14-5 


18-5 


22-5 


10-11 


14-5 


18-5 


22-5 




Southern pine #2 


10-9 


14-2 


18-0 


21-9 


10-9 


14-2 


16-11 


19-10 




Southern pine #3 


9-4 


11-11 


14-0 


16-8 


8-6 


10-10 


12-10 


15-3 




Spruce-pine-fir SS 


10-6 


13-10 


17-8 


21-6 


10-6 


13-10 


17-8 


21-6 




Spruce-pine-fir #1 


10-3 


13-6 


17-3 


20-7 


10-3 


13-3 


16-3 


18-10 




Spruce-pine-fir #2 


10-3 


13-6 


17-3 


20-7 


10-3 


13-3 


16-3 


18-10 




Spruce-pine-fir #3 


8-8 


11-0 


13-5 


15-7 


7-11 


10-0 


12-3 


14-3 




Douglas fir-larch SS 


10-4 


13-7 


17-4 


21-1 


10-4 


13-7 


17-4 


21-0 




Douglas fir-larch #1 


9-11 


13-1 


16-5 


19-1 


9-8 


12-4 


15-0 


17-5 




Douglas fir-larch #2 


9-9 


12-7 


15-5 


17-10 


9-1 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 




Douglas fir-larch #3 


7-6 


9-6 


11-8 


13-6 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 




Hem-fir SS 


9-9 


12-10 


16-5 


19-11 


9-9 


12-10 


16-5 


19-11 




Hem-fir #1 


9-6 


12-7 


16-0 


18-7 


9-6 


12-0 


14-8 


17-0 




Hem-fir #2 


9-1 


12-0 


15-2 


17-7 


8-11 


11-4 


13-10 


16-1 


16 


Hem-fir #3 


7-6 


9-6 


11-8 


13-6 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 


Southern pine SS 


10-2 


13-4 


17-0 


20-9 


10-2 


13-4 


17-0 


20-9 




Southern pine #1 


9-11 


13-1 


16-9 


20-4 


9-11 


13-1 


16-4 


19-6 




Southern pine #2 


9-9 


12-10 


16-1 


18-10 


9-6 


12-4 


14-8 


17-2 




Southern pine #3 


8-1 


10-3 


12-2 


14-6 


7-4 


9-5 


11-1 


13-2 




Spruce-pine-fir SS 


9-6 


12-7 


16-0 


19-6 


9-6 


12-7 


16-0 


19-6 




Spruce-pine-fir #1 


9-4 


12-3 


15-5 


17-10 


9-1 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 




Spruce-pine-fir #2 


9-4 


12-3 


15-5 


17-10 


9-1 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 




Spruce-pine-fir #3 


7-6 


9-6 


11-8 


13-6 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 




Douglas fir-larch SS 


9-8 


12-10 


16-4 


19-10 


9-8 


12-10 


16-4 


19-2 




Douglas fir-larch #1 


9-4 


12-4 


15-0 


17-5 


8-10 


11-3 


13-8 


15-11 




Douglas fir-larch #2 


9-1 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 


8-3 


10-6 


12-10 


14-10 




Douglas fir-larch #3 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 


6-3 


7-11 


9-8 


11-3 




Hem-fir SS 


9-2 


12-1 


15-5 


18-9 


9-2 


12-1 


15-5 


18-9 




Hem-fir #1 


9-0 


11-10 


14-8 


17-0 


8-8 


10-11 


13-4 


15-6 




Hem-fir #2 


8-7 


11-3 


13-10 


16-1 


8-2 


10-4 


12-8 


14-8 


19.2 


Hem-fir #3 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 


6-3 


7-11 


9-8 


11-3 


Southern pine SS 


9-6 


12-7 


16-0 


19-6 


9-6 


12-7 


16-0 


19-6 




Southern pine #1 


9-4 


12-4 


15-9 


19-2 


9-4 


12-4 


14-11 


17-9 




Southern pine #2 


9-2 


12-1 


14-8 


17-2 


8-8 


11-3 


13-5 


15-8 




Southern pine #3 


7-4 


9-5 


11-1 


13-2 


6-9 


8-7 


10-1 


12-1 




Spruce-pine-fir SS 


9-0 


11-10 


15-1 


18-4 


9-0 


11-10 


15-1 


17-9 




Spruce-pine-fir # 


8-9 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 


8-3 


10-6 


12-10 


14-10 




Spruce-pine-fir #2 


8-9 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 


8-3 


10-6 


12-10 


14-10 




Spruce-pine-fir #3 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 


6-3 


7-11 


9-8 


11-3 




Douglas fir-larch SS 


9-0 


11-11 


15-2 


18-5 


9-0 


11-11 


14-9 


17-1 




Douglas fir-larch #1 


8-8 


11-0 


13-5 


15-7 


7-11 


10-0 


12-3 


14-3 




Douglas fir-larch #2 


8-1 


10-3 


12-7 


14-7 


7-5 


9-5 


11-6 


13-4 




Douglas fir-larch #3 


6-2 


7-9 


9-6 


11-0 


5-7 


7-1 


8-8 


10-1 




Hem-fir SS 


8-6 


11-3 


14-4 


17-5 


8-6 


11-3 


14-4 


16-10 a 




Hem-fir #1 


8-4 


10-9 


13-1 


15-2 


7-9 


9-9 


11-11 


13-10 




Hem-fir #2 


7-11 


10-2 


12-5 


14-4 


7-4 


9-3 


11-4 


13-1 


24 


Hem-fir #3 


6-2 


7-9 


9-6 


11-0 


5-7 


7-1 


8-8 


10-1 


Southern pine SS 


8-10 


11-8 


14-11 


18-1 


8-10 


11-8 


14-11 


18-1 




Southern pine #1 


8-8 


11-5 


14-7 


17-5 


8-8 


11-3 


13-4 


15-11 




Southern pine #2 


8-6 


11-0 


13-1 


15-5 


7-9 


10-0 


12-0 


14-0 




Southern pine #3 


6-7 


8-5 


9-11 


11-10 


6-0 


7-8 


9-1 


10-9 




Spruce-pine-fir SS 


8-4 


11-0 


14-0 


17-0 


8-4 


11-0 


13-8 


15-11 




Spruce-pine-fir #1 


8-1 


10-3 


12-7 


14-7 


7-5 


9-5 


11-6 


13-4 




Spruce-pine-fir #2 


8-1 


10-3 


12-7 


14-7 


7-5 


9-5 


11-6 


13-4 




Spruce-pine-fir #3 


6-2 


7-9 


9-6 


11-0 


5-7 


7-1 


8-8 


10-1 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 
Note: Check sources for availability of lumber in lengths greater than 20 feet. 

a. End bearing length shall be increased to 2 inches. 

b. Dead load limits for townhouses in Seismic Design Category C and all structures in Seismic Design Categories , v and 2 shall be determined in accordance 
with Section R301.2. 2.2.1. 



116 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FLOORS 



TABLE R502.3.3(1) 
CANTILEVER SPANS FOR FLOOR JOISTS SUPPORTING LIGHT-FRAME EXTERIOR BEARING WALL AND ROOF ONLya, b, c, f, g, h 

(Floor Live Load < 40 pst, Root Live Load < 20 pst) 



Member & Spacing 


Maximum Cantilever Span (Uplift Force at Backspan Support in Lbs.)d, e 


Ground Snow Load 


< 20 pSf 


30pSf 


50pSf 


70pSf 


Roof Width 


Roof Width 


Roof Width 


Roof Width 


24 ft 


32 ft 


40 ft 


24 ft 


32 ft 


40 ft 


24 ft 


32 ft 


40 ft 


24 ft 


32 ft 


40 ft 


2x8 @ 12" 


20" 

(177) 


15" 

(227) 


- 


18" 
(209) 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2x 10 @ 16" 


29" 

(228) 


21" 

(297) 


16" 
(364) 


26" 

(271) 


18" 
(354) 


- 


20" 

(375) 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2x 10 @ 12" 


36" 
(166) 


26" 
(219) 


20" 

(270) 


34" 
(198) 


22" 
(263) 


16" 
(324) 


26" 

(277) 






19" 
(356) 






2x 12 @ 16" 


- 


32" 
(287) 


25" 
(356) 


36" 
(263) 


29" 
(345) 


21" 

(428) 


29" 

(367) 


20" 
(484) 


- 


23" 
(471) 


- 


- 


2x 12 @ 12" 


- 


42" 
(209) 


31" 
(263) 


- 


37" 
(253) 


27" 
(317) 


36" 

(271) 


27" 
(358) 


17" 
(447) 


31" 
(348) 


19" 
(462) 


- 


2x 12 @ 8" 




48" 
(136) 


45" 
(169) 




48" 
(164) 


38" 
(206) 




40" 

(233) 


26" 
(294) 


36" 

(230) 


29" 
(304) 


18" 
(379) 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa. 

a. Tabulated values are for clear-span roof supported solely by exterior bearing walls. 

b. Spans are based on No. 2 Grade lumber of Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, southern pine, and spruce-pine-fir for repetitive (3 or more) members. 

c. Ratio of backspan to cantilever span shall be at least 3:1. 

d. Connections capable of resisting the indicated uplift force shall be provided at the backspan support. 

e. Uplift force is for a backspan to cantilever span ratio of 3 : 1. Tabulated uplift values are permitted to be reduced by multiplying by a factor equal to 3 divided by the 
actual backspan ratio provided (3/backspan ratio) . 

f. See Section R30 1.2.2.2.5, Item 1, for additional limitations on cantilevered floor joists for detached one- and two-family dwellings in Seismic DeSign Category Do, 
D : , or D z and townhouses in Seismic Design Category C, Do, D : , or D z . 

g. A full-depth rimjoist shall be prOVided at the unsupported end of the cantileverjoists. Solid blocking shall be prOVided at the supported end. 
h. Linear interpolation shall be permitted for building widths and ground snow loads other than shown. 



TABLE R502.3.3(2) 
CANTILEVER SPANS FOR FLOOR JOISTS SUPPORTING EXTERIOR BALCONya,b, e 


,f 


Member Size 


Spacing 


Maximum Cantilever Span 
(Uplift Force at Backspan Support in lb)C, d 


Ground Snow Load 


< 30 psf 


50 psf 


70 psf 


2x8 


12" 


42" (139) 


39" (156) 


34" (165) 


2x8 


16" 


36" (151) 


34" (171) 


29" (180) 


2x 10 


12" 


61" (164) 


57" (189) 


49" (201) 


2x 10 


16" 


53" (180) 


49" (208) 


42" (220) 


2x 10 


24" 


43" (212) 


40" (241) 


34" (255) 


2x 12 


16" 


72" (228) 


67" (260) 


57" (268) 


2x 12 


24" 


58" (279) 


54" (319) 


47" (330) 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa. 

a. Spans are based on No. 2 Grade lumber of Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, southern pine, and spruce-pine-fir for repetitive (3 or more) members. 

b. Ratio of backspan to cantilever span shall be at least 2: 1. 

c. Connections capable of resisting the indicated uplift force shall be provided at the backspan support. 

d. Uplift force is for a backspan to cantilever span ratio of 2 : 1. Tabulated uplift values are permitted to be reduced by multiplying by a factor equal to 2 divided by the 
actual backspan ratio provided (2/backspan ratio) . 

e. A full-depth rimjoist shall be provided at the unsupported end of the cantileverjoists. Solid blocking shall be provided at the supported end. 

f. Linear interpolation shall be permitted for ground snow loads other than shown. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



117 



FLOORS 



TABLE R502.5(1) 

GIRDER SPANS a AND HEADER SPANS a FOR EXTERIOR BEARING WALLS 

(Maximum spans for Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, southern pine and spruce-pine-fir b and required number of jack studs) 



GIRDERS AND 

HEADERS 
SUPPORTING 


SIZE 


GROUND SNOW LOAD (psf)e 


30 


50 


70 


Building width (feet) 


20 




28 


36 


20 




28 


36 


20 


28 


36 


Span 


NJ d 


Spar 


l NJ d 


Span 


NJ d 


Span 


NJ d 


Span 


NJ d 


Span 


NJ d 


Span 


NJ d 


Span 


NJ d 


Span 


NJ d 


Roof and ceiling 


2-2x4 


3-6 


1 


3-2 


1 


2-10 


1 


3-2 


1 


2-9 


1 


2-6 


1 


2-10 


1 


2-6 


1 


2-3 


1 


2-2x6 


5-5 


1 


4-8 


1 


4-2 


1 


4-8 


1 


4-1 


1 


3-8 


2 


4-2 


1 


3-8 


2 


3-3 


2 


2-2x8 


6-10 


1 


5-11 


2 


5-4 


2 


5-11 


2 


5-2 


2 


4-7 


2 


5-4 


2 


4-7 


2 


4-1 


2 


2-2x10 


8-5 


2 


7-3 


2 


6-6 


2 


7-3 


2 


6-3 


2 


5-7 


2 


6-6 


2 


5-7 


2 


5-0 


2 


2-2x12 


9-9 


2 


8-5 


2 


7-6 


2 


8-5 


2 


7-3 


2 


6-6 


2 


7-6 


2 


6-6 


2 


5-10 


3 


3-2x8 


8-4 


1 


7-5 


1 


6-8 


1 


7-5 


1 


6-5 


2 


5-9 


2 


6-8 


1 


5-9 


2 


5-2 


2 


3-2x10 


10-6 


1 


9-1 


2 


8-2 


2 


9-1 


2 


7-10 


2 


7-0 


2 


8-2 


2 


7-0 


2 


6-4 


2 


3-2x12 


12-2 


2 


10-7 


2 


9-5 


2 


10-7 


2 


9-2 


2 


8-2 


2 


9-5 


2 


8-2 


2 


7-4 


2 


4-2x8 


9-2 


1 


8-4 


1 


7-8 


1 


8-4 


1 


7-5 


1 


6-8 


1 


7-8 


1 


6-8 


1 


5-11 


2 


4-2x10 


11-8 


1 


10-6 


1 


9-5 


2 


10-6 


1 


9-1 


2 


8-2 


2 


9-5 


2 


8-2 


2 


7-3 


2 


4-2x12 


14-1 


1 


12-2 


2 


10-11 


2 


12-2 


2 


10-7 


2 


9-5 


2 


10-11 


2 


9-5 


2 


8-5 


2 


Roof, ceiling and one 
center-bearing floor 


2-2x4 


3-1 


1 


2-9 


1 


2-5 


1 


2-9 


1 


2-5 


1 


2-2 


1 


2-7 


1 


2-3 


1 


2-0 


1 


2-2x6 


4-6 


1 


4-0 


1 


3-7 


2 


4-1 


1 


3-7 


2 


3-3 


2 


3-9 


2 


3-3 


2 


2-11 


2 


2-2x8 


5-9 


2 


5-0 


2 


4-6 


2 


5-2 


2 


4-6 


2 


4-1 


2 


4-9 


2 


4-2 


2 


3-9 


2 


2-2x10 


7-0 


2 


6-2 


2 


5-6 


2 


6-4 


2 


5-6 


2 


5-0 


2 


5-9 


2 


5-1 


2 


4-7 


3 


2-2x12 


8-1 


2 


7-1 


2 


6-5 


2 


7-4 


2 


6-5 


2 


5-9 


3 


6-8 


2 


5-10 


3 


5-3 


3 


3-2x8 


7-2 


1 


6-3 


2 


5-8 


2 


6-5 


2 


5-8 


2 


5-1 


2 


5-11 


2 


5-2 


2 


4-8 


2 


3-2x10 


8-9 


2 


7-8 


2 


6-11 


2 


7-11 


2 


6-11 


2 


6-3 


2 


7-3 


2 


6-4 


2 


5-8 


2 


3-2x12 


10-2 


2 


8-11 


2 


8-0 


2 


9-2 


2 


8-0 


2 


7-3 


2 


8-5 


2 


7-4 


2 


6-7 


2 


4-2x8 


8-1 


1 


7-3 


1 


6-7 


1 


7-5 


1 


6-6 


1 


5-11 


2 


6-10 


1 


6-0 


2 


5-5 


2 


4-2x10 


10-1 


1 


8-10 


2 


8-0 


2 


9-1 


2 


8-0 


2 


7-2 


2 


8-4 


2 


7-4 


2 


6-7 


2 


4-2x12 


11-9 


2 


10-3 


2 


9-3 


2 


10-7 


2 


9-3 


2 


8-4 


2 


9-8 


2 


8-6 


2 


7-7 


2 


Roof, ceiling and one 
clear span floor 


2-2x4 


2-8 


1 


2-4 


1 


2-1 


1 


2-7 


1 


2-3 


1 


2-0 


1 


2-5 


1 


2-1 


1 


1-10 


1 


2-2x6 


3-11 


1 


3-5 


2 


3-0 


2 


3-10 


2 


3-4 


2 


3-0 


2 


3-6 


2 


3-1 


2 


2-9 


2 


2-2x8 


5-0 


2 


4-4 


2 


3-10 


2 


4-10 


2 


4-2 


2 


3-9 


2 


4-6 


2 


3-11 


2 


3-6 


2 


2-2x10 


6-1 


2 


5-3 


2 


4-8 


2 


5-11 


2 


5-1 


2 


4-7 


3 


5-6 


2 


4-9 


2 


4-3 


3 


2-2x12 


7-1 


2 


6-1 


3 


5-5 


3 


6-10 


2 


5-11 


3 


5-4 


3 


6-4 


2 


5-6 


3 


5-0 


3 


3-2x8 


6-3 


2 


5-5 


2 


4-10 


2 


6-1 


2 


5-3 


2 


4-8 


2 


5-7 


2 


4-11 


2 


4-5 


2 


3-2x10 


7-7 


2 


6-7 


2 


5-11 


2 


7-5 


2 


6-5 


2 


5-9 


2 


6-10 


2 


6-0 


2 


5-4 


2 


3-2x12 


8-10 


2 


7-8 


2 


6-10 


2 


8-7 


2 


7-5 


2 


6-8 


2 


7-11 


2 


6-11 


2 


6-3 


2 


4-2x8 


7-2 


1 


6-3 


2 


5-7 


2 


7-0 


1 


6-1 


2 


5-5 


2 


6-6 


1 


5-8 


2 


5-1 


2 


4-2x10 


8-9 


2 


7-7 


2 


6-10 


2 


8-7 


2 


7-5 


2 


6-7 


2 


7-11 


2 


6-11 


2 


6-2 


2 


4-2x12 


10-2 


2 


8-10 


2 


7-11 


2 


9-11 


2 


8-7 


2 


7-8 


2 


9-2 


2 


8-0 


2 


7-2 


2 


Roof, ceiling and 

two center-bearing 

floors 


2-2x4 


2-7 


1 


2-3 


1 


2-0 


1 


2-6 


1 


2-2 


1 


1-11 


1 


2-4 


1 


2-0 


1 


1-9 


1 


2-2x6 


3-9 


2 


3-3 


2 


2-11 


2 


3-8 


2 


3-2 


2 


2-10 


2 


3-5 


2 


3-0 


2 


2-8 


2 


2-2x8 


4-9 


2 


4-2 


2 


3-9 


2 


4-7 


2 


4-0 


2 


3-8 


2 


4-4 


2 


3-9 


2 


3-5 


2 


2-2x10 


5-9 


2 


5-1 


2 


4-7 


3 


5-8 


2 


4-11 


2 


4-5 


3 


5-3 


2 


4-7 


3 


4-2 


3 


2-2x12 


6-8 


2 


5-10 


3 


5-3 


3 


6-6 


2 


5-9 


3 


5-2 


3 


6-1 


3 


5-4 


3 


4-10 


3 


3-2x8 


5-11 


2 


5-2 


2 


4-8 


2 


5-9 


2 


5-1 


2 


4-7 


2 


5-5 


2 


4-9 


2 


4-3 


2 


3-2x10 


7-3 


2 


6-4 


2 


5-8 


2 


7-1 


2 


6-2 


2 


5-7 


2 


6-7 


2 


5-9 


2 


5-3 


2 


3-2x12 


8-5 


2 


7-4 


2 


6-7 


2 


8-2 


2 


7-2 


2 


6-5 


3 


7-8 


2 


6-9 


2 


6-1 


3 


4-2x8 


6-10 


1 


6-0 


2 


5-5 


2 


6-8 


1 


5-10 


2 


5-3 


2 


6-3 


2 


5-6 


2 


4-11 


2 


4-2x10 


8-4 


2 


7-4 


2 


6-7 


2 


8-2 


2 


7-2 


2 


6-5 


2 


7-7 


2 


6-8 


2 


6-0 


2 


4-2x12 


9-8 


2 


8-6 


2 


7-8 


2 


9-5 


2 


8-3 


2 


7-5 


2 


8-10 


2 


7-9 


2 


7-0 


2 



(continued) 



118 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FLOORS 



TABLE R502.5(1)-continued 

GIRDER SPANS 3 AND HEADER SPANS 3 FOR EXTERIOR BEARING WALLS 

(Maximum spans for Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, southern pine and spruce-pine-fir b and required number of jack studs) 



GIRDERS AND 

HEADERS 
SUPPORTING 


SIZE 


GROUND SNOW LOAD (psf)e 


30 


50 


70 


Building width c (feet) 


20 


28 


36 


20 




28 


36 


20 


28 


36 


Span 


NJ d 


Span 


NJ d 


Span 


NJ d 


Span 


NJ d 


Span 


NJ d 


Span 


NJ d 


Span 


NJ d 


Span 


NJ d 


Span 


NJ d 


Roof, ceiling, and 

two clear span 

floors 


2-2x4 


2-1 


1 


1-8 


1 


1-6 


2 


2-0 


1 


1-8 


1 


1-5 


2 


2-0 


1 


1-8 


1 


1-5 


2 


2-2x6 


3-1 


2 


2-8 


2 


2-4 


2 


3-0 


2 


2-7 


2 


2-3 


2 


2-11 


2 


2-7 


2 


2-3 


2 


2-2x8 


3-10 


2 


3-4 


2 


3-0 


3 


3-10 


2 


3-4 


2 


2-11 


3 


3-9 


2 


3-3 


2 


2-11 


3 


2-2x10 


4-9 


2 


4-1 


3 


3-8 


3 


4-8 


2 


4-0 


3 


3-7 


3 


4-7 


3 


4-0 


3 


3-6 


3 


2-2x12 


5-6 


3 


4-9 


3 


4-3 


3 


5-5 


3 


4-8 


3 


4-2 


3 


5-4 


3 


4-7 


3 


4-1 


4 


3-2x8 


4-10 


2 


4-2 


2 


3-9 


2 


4-9 


2 


4-1 


2 


3-8 


2 


4-8 


2 


4-1 


2 


3-8 


2 


3-2x10 


5-11 


2 


5-1 


2 


4-7 


3 


5-10 


2 


5-0 


2 


4-6 


3 


5-9 


2 


4-11 


2 


4-5 


3 


3-2x12 


6-10 


2 


5-11 


3 


5-4 


3 


6-9 


2 


5-10 


3 


5-3 


3 


6-8 


2 


5-9 


3 


5-2 


3 


4-2x8 


5-7 


2 


4-10 


2 


4-4 


2 


5-6 


2 


4-9 


2 


4-3 


2 


5-5 


2 


4-8 


2 


4-2 


2 


4-2x10 


6-10 


2 


5-11 


2 


5-3 


2 


6-9 


2 


5-10 


2 


5-2 


2 


6-7 


2 


5-9 


2 


5-1 


2 


4-2x12 


7-11 


2 


6-10 


2 


6-2 


3 


7-9 


2 


6-9 


2 


6-0 


3 


7-8 


2 


6-8 


2 


5-11 


3 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 

a. Spans are given in feet and inches. 

b. Tabulated values assume #2 grade lumber. 

c. Building width is measured perpendicular to the ridge. For widths between those shown, spans are permitted to be interpolated. 

d. N] - Number ofj ack studs required to support each end. Where the number of requiredj ack studs equals one, the header is permitted to be supported by an approved 
framing anchor attached to the full-height wall stud and to the header. 

e. Use 30 psf ground snow load for cases in which ground snow load is less than 30 psf and the roof live load is equal to or less than 20 psf. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



119 



FLOORS 



TABLE R502.5(2) 

GIRDER SPANS a AND HEADER SPANS a FOR INTERIOR BEARING WALLS 

(Maximum spans for Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, southern pine and spruce-pine-fir b and required number of jack studs) 



HEADERS AND GIRDERS SUPPORTING 


SIZE 


BUILDING WIDTH (feet) 


20 


28 


36 


Span 


NJ d 


Span 


NJ d 


Span 


NJ d 


One floor only 


2-2x4 


3-1 


1 


2-8 


1 


2-5 


1 


2-2x6 


4-6 


1 


3-11 


1 


3-6 


1 


2-2x8 


5-9 


1 


5-0 


2 


4-5 


2 


2-2x10 


7-0 


2 


6-1 


2 


5-5 


2 


2-2x12 


8-1 


2 


7-0 


2 


6-3 


2 


3-2x8 


7-2 


1 


6-3 


1 


5-7 


2 


3-2x10 


8-9 


1 


7-7 


2 


6-9 


2 


3-2x12 


10-2 


2 


8-10 


2 


7-10 


2 


4-2x8 


9-0 


1 


7-8 


1 


6-9 


1 


4-2x10 


10-1 


1 


8-9 


1 


7-10 


2 


4-2x12 


11-9 


1 


10-2 


2 


9-1 


2 


Two floors 


2-2x4 


2-2 


1 


1-10 


1 


1-7 


1 


2-2x6 


3-2 


2 


2-9 


2 


2-5 


2 


2-2x8 


4-1 


2 


3-6 


2 


3-2 


2 


2-2x10 


4-11 


2 


4-3 


2 


3-10 


3 


2-2x12 


5-9 


2 


5-0 


3 


4-5 


3 


3-2x8 


5-1 


2 


4-5 


2 


3-11 


2 


3-2x10 


6-2 


2 


5-4 


2 


4-10 


2 


3-2x12 


7-2 


2 


6-3 


2 


5-7 


3 


4-2x8 


6-1 


1 


5-3 


2 


4-8 


2 


4-2x10 


7-2 


2 


6-2 


2 


5-6 


2 


4-2x12 


8-4 


2 


7-2 


2 


6-5 


2 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Spans are given in feet and inches. 

b. Tabulated values assume #2 grade lumber. 

c. Building width is measured perpendicular to the ridge. For widths between those shown, spans are permitted to be interpolated. 

d. N] - Number ofj ack studs required to support each end . Where the number of requiredj ack studs equals one, the header is permitted to be supported by an approved 
framing anchor attached to the full-height wall stud and to the header. 



120 



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1../3 ^ 

- D/3 MAX., 



1-1 ^ 



T 



0/6 MAX. 



L ^ 



NO NOTCHES I 

PERMITTED 



FLOOR JOIST-CENTER CUTS 



L/3 ■ 



]o 



i 



D/6 MAX. 



| D/4 MAX. 
J 



i 



i 



i 



r 



ISI 



i 



D/4 MAX. 



1 



FLOOR JOIST-END CUTS 



D/3MAX 



21 N. MIN. FROM TOP 
AND BOTTOM OF JOIST 




PIPE OR CONDUIT 



O (ACTUAL DEPTH) 



For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R502.8 
CUTTING, NOTCHING AND DRILLING 



R502.ll Wood trusses. 

R502. 1 1 . 1 Design. Wood trusses shall be designed in accor- 
dance with approve d engineering practice. The design and 
manufacture of metal plate connected wood trusses shall 
comply with ANSI/TPI 1. The truss design drawings shall 
be prepared by a registered professional where required by 
the statutes of the jurisdiction in which the project is to be 
constructed in accordance with Section RI06.1. 

R502.11.2 Bracing. Trusses shall be braced to prevent rotation 
and provide lateral stability in accordance with the requirements 
specified in the construction documents for the building and on 



the individual truss design drawings. In the absence of specific 
bracing requirements, trusses shall be braced in accordance with 
the Building Component Safety Information (BCSI 1-03) 
Guide to Good Practice for Handling, Installing & Bracing of 
Metal Plate Connected Wood Trusses. 

R502. 11.3 Alterations to trusses. Truss members and com- 
ponents shall not be cut, notched, spliced or otherwise altered 
in any way without the approval of a registered designprofes- 
sional Alterations resulting in the addition of load (e.g., 
HVAC equipment, water heater, etc.), that exceed the design 
load for the truss, shall not be permitted without verification 
that the truss is capable of supporting the additional loading. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



121 



FLOORS 



R502.11.4 Truss design drawings. Truss design drawings, 
prepared in compliance with Section R502.11.1 , shall be 
submitted to the building official and approved prior to 
installation. Truss design drawings shall be provided with 
the shipment of trusses delivered to thejob site. Truss design 
drawings shall include, at a minimum, the information spec- 
ified below : 

1. Slope or depth, span and spacing. 

2. Location of all joints. 

3. Required bearing widths. 

4. Design loads as applicable: 

4.1. Top chord live load; 

4.2. Top chord dead load; 

4.3. Bottom chord live load; 

4.4. Bottom chord dead load; 

4.5. Concentrated loads and their points of applica- 
tion ; and 

4.6. Controlling wind and earthquake loads. 

5. Adjustments to lumber and joint connector design 
values for conditions of use. 

6. Each reaction force and direction. 

7. Joint connector type and description, e.g., size, 
thickness or gauge, and the dimensioned location of 
each joint connector except where symmetrically 
located relative to the joint interface. 

8. Lumber size, species and grade for each member. 

9. Connection requirements for: 

9.1. Truss-to-girder-truss; 

9.2. Truss ply-to-ply; and 

9.3. Field splices. 

10. Calculated deflection ratio and/or maximum descrip- 
tion for live and total load. 

11. Maximum axial compression forces in the truss 
members to enable the building designer to design 
the size, connections and anchorage of the perma- 
nent continuous lateral bracing. Forces shall be 
shown on the truss drawing or on supplemental doc- 
uments . 

12 . Required permanent truss member bracing location. 

R502. 12 Draftstopping required. Draftstopping shall be provided 
in accordance with Section R302.12. 

R502.13 Fireblocking required. Fireblocking shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Section R302.ll . 



SECTION R503 
FLOOR SHEATHING 

R503.1 Lumber sheathing. Maximum allowable spans for 
lumber used as floor sheathing shall conform to Tables R503.1 , 
R503 .2.1.1 (1) and R503 .2.1.1 (2). 

R503.1.1 End joints. End joints in lumber used as 
subflooring shall occur over supports unless end-matched 
lumber is used, in which case each piece shall bear on at 
least two joists. Subflooring may be omitted when joist 
spacing does not exceed 16 inches (406 mm) and a I-inch 
(25.4 mm) nominal tongue-and-groove wood strip flooring 
is applied perpendicular to the joists. 



TABLE R503.1 
MINIMUM THICKNESS OF LUMBER FLOOR SHEATHING 



JOIST OR BEAM 
SPACING (inches) 


MINIMUM NET THICKNESS 


Perpendicular tojoist 


Diagonal tojoist 


24 


11/ 16 


3/ 4 


16 


5/, 


5/, 


48 a 


i'/ 2 T & G 


N/A 


54 b 


60 c 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. For this support spacing, lumber sheathing shall have a minimum ¥b of 675 
and minimum E of 1,100,000 (see AF&PA/NDS) . 

b. For this support spacing, lumber sheathing shall have a minimum ¥b of 765 
and minimum E of 1,400,000 (see AF&PA/NDS). 

c. For this support spacing, lumber sheathing shall have a minimum Fb of 855 
and minimum E of 1,700,000 (see AF&PA/NDS). 



R503.2 Wood structural panel sheathing. 

R503.2.1 Identification and grade. Wood structural panel 
sheathing used for structural purposes shall conform to 
DOC PS 1, DOC PS 2 or, when manufactured in Canada, 
CSA 0437 or CSA 0325. All panels shall be identified by a 
grade mark of certificate or inspection issued by an 
approved agency. 

R503.2.1.1 Subfloor and combined subfloor 
underlayment. Where used as subflooring or combina- 
tion subfloor underlayment, wood structural panels shall 
be of one of the grades specified in Table R503.2.1.1 (1). 
When sanded plywood is used as combination subfloor 
underlayment, the grade shall be as specified in Table 
R503.2.1.1 (2). 



122 



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TABLE R503.2.1.1 (1) 

ALLOWABLE SPANS AND LOADS FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANELS FOR ROOF 

AND SUBFLOOR SHEATHING AND COMBINATION SUBFLOOR UNDERLAYMENTa,b,c 



SPAN RATING 


MINIMUM 

NOMINAL PANEL 

THICKNESS 

(inch) 


ALLOWABLE LIVE LOAD 
(psf)h,1 


MAXIMUM SPAN 
(inches) 


LOAD (pounds per square foot, 
at maximum span) 


MAXIMUM 

SPAN 

(inches) 


SPAN 
@ 16" o.c. 


SPAN 
@ 24" o.c. 


With edge 
support 


Without edge 
support 


Total load 


Live load 


Sheathing 6 






Roof* 


Subflooi 1 


16/0 


3/ 8 


30 




16 


16 


40 


30 





20/0 


3/ 8 


50 


- 


20 


20 


40 


30 





24/0 


3/ 8 


100 


30 


24 


20g 


40 


30 





24/16 


7/ 16 


100 


40 


24 


24 


50 


40 


16 


32/16 


15/ 32, 17 2 


180 


70 


32 


28 


40 


30 


16 h 


40/20 


19/ 32, 5/ 8 


305 


130 


40 


32 


40 


30 


20m 


48/24 


23/ 32 ,3/ 48 


- 


175 


48 


36 


45 


35 


24 


60/32 


7/ 8 


- 


305 


60 


48 


45 


35 


32 


Underlayment, C-C plugged, 
single floor e 






Roof* 


Combination 

subfloor 
underlayment k 


16 D.C. 


19/ 32, 5/ 8 


100 


40 


24 


24 


50 


40 


16 1 


20 d.c. 


19/ 32, 5/ 8 


150 


60 


32 


32 


40 


30 


20ij 


24 d.c. 


23/ 32, 3/ 4 


240 


100 


48 


36 


35 


25 


24 


32 d.c. 


7/ 8 


- 


185 


48 


40 


50 


40 


32 


48 d.c. 


l 3 /32, 1V 8 


- 


290 


60 


48 


50 


40 


48 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa. 

a. The allowable total loads were determined using a dead load of 10 psf. If the dead load exceeds 10 psf, then the live load shall be reduced accordingly. 

b. Panels continuous over two or more spans with long dimension (strength axis) perpendicular to supports. Spans shall be limited to values shown because of possi- 
ble effect of concentrated loads. 

c. Applies to panels 24 inches or wider. 

d. Lumber blocking, panel edge clips (one midway between each support, except two equally spaced between supports when span is 48 inches), tongue-and-groove 
panel edges, or other approved type of edge support. 

e. Includes Structural 1 panels in these grades. 

f. Uniform load deflection limitation: i/ 180 of span under live load plus dead load, i/ z40 of span under live load only. 

g. Maximum span 24 inches for 153Z-and liz-inch panels. 

h. Maximum span 24 inches where 3/ 4 -inch wood finish flooring is installed at right angles to joists. 

i. Maximum span 24 inches where 1.5 inches of lightweight concrete or approved cellular concrete is placed over the subfloor. 

j . Unsupported edges shall have tongue-and-groovejoints or shall be supported with blocking unless minimum nominal 7 4 -inch thick underlayment with end and 
edgejoints offset at least 2 inches or 1.5 inches of lightweight concrete or approved cellular concrete is placed over the subfloor, or 3/ 4 -inch wood finish flooring is 
installed at right angles to the supports. Allowable uniform live load at maximum span, based on deflection ofi/ 360 of span, is 100 psf. 

k. Unsupported edges shall have tongue-and-groovejoints or shall be supported by blocking unless nominal l 4 -inch-thick underlayment with end and edgejoints off- 
set at least 2 inches or 31 4 inch wood finish flooring is installed at right angles to the supports. Allowable uniform live load at maximum span, based on deflection of 
\1 360 of span, is 100 psf, except panels with a span rating of 48 on center are limited to 65 psf total uniform load at maximum span. 

1. Allowable live load values at spans of 16" o.c. and 24" o .c taken from reference standard APA E30, APA Engineered Wood Construction Guide . Refer to reference 
standard for allowable spans not listed in the table. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



123 



FLOORS 



TABLE R503.2.1.1 (2) 
ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR SANDED PLYWOOD 
COMBINATION SUBFLOOR UNDERLAYMENT a 



IDENTIFICATION 


SPACING OF JOISTS (inches) 


16 


20 


24 


Species groupb 








1 


l/ 2 


5/ 8 


3/ 4 


2,3 


5/ 8 


3/ 4 


7/ 8 


4 


3/ 4 


7/ 8 


1 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 

a. Plywood continuous over two or more spans and face grain perpendicular to 
supports. Unsupported edges shall be tongue-and-groove or blocked except 
where nominal ^-inch-thick underlayment or 3/ 4 -inch wood finish floor is 
used. Allowable uniform live load at maximum span based on deflection of 
\1 360 of span is 100 psf. 

b. Applicable to all grades of sanded exterior-type plywood. 

R503.2.2 Allowable spans. The maximum allowable span 
for wood structural panels used as subfloor or combination 
subfloor underlayment shall be as set forth in Table 
R503.2.1.1 (1), or APA E30. The maximum span for sanded 
plywood combination subfloor underlayment shall be as set 
forth in Table R503 .2. 1. 1(2) . 

R503.2.3 Installation. Wood structural panels used as 
subfloor or combination subfloor underlayment shall be 
attached to wood framing in accordance with Table 
R602.3(l) and shall be attached to cold-formed steel fram- 
ing in accordance with Table R505.3.1 (2). 

R503.3 Particleboard. 

R503.3.1 Identification and grade. Particleboard shall con- 
form to ANSI A208.1 and shall be so identified by a grade 
mark or certificate of inspection issued by an approved 
agency. 

R503.3.2 Floor underlayment. Particleboard floor 
underlayment shall conform to Type PBU and shall not be 
less than i/ 4 inch (6.4 mm) in thickness. 

R503.3.3 Installation. Particleboard underlayment shall be 
installed in accordance with the recommendations of the 
manufacturer and attached to framing in accordance with 
Table R602 .3(1). 



SECTION R504 

PRESSURE PRESERVATIVELY TREATED-WOOD 

FLOORS (ON GROUND) 

R504.1 General. Pressure preservatively treated- wood base- 
mentfloors and floors on ground shall be designed to withstand 
axial forces and bending moments resulting from lateral soil 
pressures at the base of the exterior walls and floor live and 
dead loads. Floor framing shall be designed to meet joist 
deflection requirements in accordance with Section R301 . 

R504.1.1 Unbalanced soil loads. Unless special provision 
is made to resist sliding caused by unbalanced lateral soil 
loads, wood basementfioors shall be limited to applications 
where the differential depth of fill on opposite exterior foun- 
dation walls is 2 feet (610 mm) or less. 



R504.1.2 Construction. Joists in wood basement floors 
shall bear tightly against the narrow face of studs in the 
foundation wall or directly against a bandjoist that bears on 
the studs. Plywood subfloor shall be continuous over lapped 
joists or over butt joints between in-line joists. Sufficient 
blocking shall be provided betweenjoists to transfer lateral 
forces at the base of the end walls into the floor system. 

R504.1.3 Uplift and buckling. Where required, resistance 
to uplift or restraint against buckling shall be provided by 
interior bearing walls or properly designed stub walls 
anchored in the supporting soil below. 

R504.2 Site preparation. The area within the foundation 
walls shall have all vegetation, topsoil and foreign material 
removed, and any fill material that is added shall be free of veg- 
etation and foreign material. The fill shall be compacted to 
assure uniform support of the pressure preservatively treated- 
wood floor sleepers. 

R504.2.1 Base. A minimum 4-inch-thick (102 mm) granu- 
lar base of gravel having a maximum size of 3/ 4 inch (19.1 
mm) or crushed stone having a maximum size of i/ 2 inch 
(12.7 mm) shall be placed over the compacted earth. 

R504.2.2 Moisture barrier. Polyethylene sheeting of minimum 
6-mil (0.15 mm) thickness shall be placed over the granular base. 
Joints shall be lapped 6 inches (152 mm) and left unsealed. The 
polyethylene membrane shall be placed over the pressure 
preservatively treated- wood sleepers and shall not extend beneath 
the footing plates of the exterior walls. 

R504.3 Materials. All framing materials, including sleepers, 
joists, blocking and plywood subflooring, shall be pressure- 
preservative treated and dried after treatment in accordance 
with AWPA Ul (Commodity Specification A, Use Category 
4B and section 5.2), and shall bear the label of an accredited 
agency. 



SECTION R505 
STEEL FLOOR FRAMING 

R505.1 Cold-formed steel floor framing. Elements shall be 
straight and free of any defects that would significantly affect 
structural performance. Cold-formed steel floor framing mem- 
bers shall comply with the requirements of this section. 

R505.1.1 Applicability limits. The provisions of this section 
shall control the construction of cold-formed steel floor fram- 
ing for buildings not greater than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in 
length perpendicular to thejoist span, not greater than 40 feet 
(12 192 mm) in width parallel to thejoist span, and less than 
or equal to three stories above grade plane. Cold- formed steel 
floor framing constructed in accordance with the provisions 
of this section shall be limited to sites subjected to a maxi- 
mum design wind speed of 110 miles per hour (49 m/s) , 
Exposure B or C, and a maximum ground snow load of 70 
pounds per square foot (3 .35 kPa) . 

R505.1.2 In-line framing. When supported by cold-formed 
steel framed walls in accordance with Section R603, 
cold-formed steel floor framing shall be constructed with 
floor joists located in-line with load-bearing studs located 



124 



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below the joists in accordance with Figure R505.1.2 and the 
tolerances specified as follows: 

1. The maximum tolerance shall be 3/ 4 inch (19.1 mm) 
between the centerline of the horizontal framing 
member and the centerline of the vertical framing 
member. 

2. Where the centerline of the horizontal framing mem- 
ber and bearing stiffener are located to one side of the 
centerline of the vertical framing member, the maxi- 
mum tolerance shall be i/ s inch (3 mm) between the 
web of the horizontal framing member and the edge 
of the vertical framing member. 

R505.1.3 Floor trusses. Cold-formed steel trusses shall be 
designed, braced and installed in accordance with AISI 
S100, Section D4. Truss members shall not be notched, cut 
or altered in any manner without an approved design. 

R505.2 Structural framing. Load-bearing cold-formed steel 
floor framing members shall comply with Figure R505.2(l) 
and with the dimensional and minimum thickness require- 
ments specified in Tables R505.2(l) and R505.2(2). Tracks 
shall comply with Figure R505.2(2) and shall have a minimum 
flange width of 1V 4 inches (32 mm). The maximum inside bend 
radius for members shall be the greater of 3/32 inch (2.4 mm) 
minus half the base steel thickness or 1.5 times the base steel 
thickness. 

R505.2.1 Material. Load-bearing cold-formed steel fram- 
ing members shall be cold-formed to shape from structural 



quality sheet steel complying with the requirements of one 
of the following: 

1. ASTM A 653: Grades 33 and 50 (Class 1 and 3). 

2. ASTM A 792: Grades 33 and 50A. 

3. ASTM A 1003: Structural Grades 33 Type Hand 50 
Type H. 

R505.2.2 Identification. Load-bearing cold-formed steel 
framing members shall have a legible label, stencil, stamp 
or embossment with the following information as a mini- 
mum: 

1. Manufacturer's identification. 

2. Minimum base steel thickness in inches (mm). 

3. Minimum coating designation. 

4. Minimum yield strength, in kips per square inch (ksi) 
(MPa). 

R505.2.3 Corrosion protection. Load-bearing cold-formed 
steel framing shall have a metallic coating complying with 
ASTM A 1003 and one of the following: 

1. A minimum of G 60 in accordance with ASTM A 
653. 

2. A minimum of AZ 50 in accordance with ASTM A 

792. 




HORIZONTAL 
FRAMING 
Jl MEMBER 

BEARING STIFFENER 
TRACK 

--STUD 



<£STUD 



HORIZONTAL HORIZONTAL 
£ FRAMING C FRAMING 

MEMBER 1 MEMBER 

11 



3 / 4 " (19 mm) 
MAX.H 



ifc 



1 L 



W 



-%"(19mm) 
MAX. 



VERTICAL 
<t FRAMING 
MEMBER 



VERTICAL 
<t FRAMING 
MEMBER 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 




HORIZONTAL 

FRAMING 

MEMBER 

BEARING STIFFENER 
TRACK 



-STUD 



C BEARING 
STIFFENER 



HORIZONTAL 
C FRAMING 
, MEMBER 



r 



3 [ 



1 

H 



-7b" (3mm) MAX. 
FROM WEB OF 
HORIZONTAL 
FRAMING 
MEMBER TO 
EDGE OF 
VERTICAL 
FRAMING 
MEMBER 



- 3/4" (19 mm) 
MAX. 



VERTICAL 
FRAMING 
MEMBER 



FIGURE R505.1.2 
IN-LINE FRAMING 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



125 



FLOORS 



FLANGE 



WEB 



DEPTH OFWEB 
(OUTSIDE TO 
OUTSIDE) 




FLANGE 



WEB 




SIZE OF TRACK 
(INSIDE TO INSIDE) 



FIGURE R505.2(1) 
C-SHAPED SECTION 



FIGURE R505.2(2) 
TRACK SECTION 



TABLE R505.2(1) 
COLD-FORMED STEEL JOIST SIZES 



MEMBER DESIGNATION 


WEB DEPTH 

(inches) 


MINIMUM FLANGE WIDTH 

(inches) 


MAXIMUM FLANGE WIDTH 

(inches) 


MINIMUM LIP SIZE 
(inches) 


5505162-t 


5.5 


1.625 


2 


0.5 


8005162-t 


8 


1.625 


2 


0.5 


10005 162-t 


10 


1.625 


2 


0.5 


12005 162-t 


12 


1.625 


2 


0.5 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 

a. The member designation is defined by the first number representing the member depth in 0.01 inch, the letter" S" representing a stud orjoist member, the second 

number representing the flange width in 0.01 inch, and the letter "t" shall be a number representing the minimum base metal thickness in mils [See Table 

R505.2(2)]. 



TABLE R505.2(2) 
MINIMUM THICKNESS OF COLD-FORMED STEEL MEMBERS 



DESIGNATION THICKNESS 

(mils) 


MINIMUM BASE STEEL THICKNESS 

(inches) 


33 


0.0329 


43 


0.0428 


54 


0.0538 


68 


0.0677 


97 


0.0966 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 



126 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



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R505.2.4 Fastening requirements. Screws for steel-to- 
steel connections shall be installed with a minimum edge 
distance and center-to-center spacing of i/ 2 inch (12.7 mm), 
shall be self-drilling tapping, and shall conform to ASTM C 
1513. Floor sheathing shall be attached to cold-formed steel 
joists with minimum No. 8 self-drilling tapping screws that 
conform to ASTM C 1513. Screws attaching floor-sheath- 
ing to cold-formed steel joists shall have a minimum head 
diameter of 0.292 inch (7.4 mm) with countersunk heads 
and shall be installed with a minimum edge distance of 3/ 8 
inch (9.5 mm). Gypsum board ceilings shall be attached to 
cold-formed steel joists with minimum No. 6 screws con- 
forming to ASTM C 954 or ASTM C 1513 with a bugle head 
style and shall be installed in accordance with Section R702. 
For all connections, screws shall extend through the steel a 
minimum of three exposed threads. All fasteners shall have 
rust inhibitive coating suitable for the installation in which 
they are being used, or be manufactured from material not 
susceptible to corrosion. 

Where No. 8 screws are specified in a steel-to-steel con- 
nection, the required number of screws in the connection is 
permitted to be reduced in accordance with the reduction 
factors in Table R505.2.4 when larger screws are used or 
when one of the sheets of steel being connected is thicker 
than 33 mils (0.84 mm) . When applying the reduction fac- 
tor, the resulting number of screws shall be rounded up. 

TABLE R505.2.4 
SCREW SUBSTITUTION FACTOR 



SCREW SIZE 


THINNEST CONNECTED STEEL SHEET (mils) 


33 


43 


#8 


1.0 


0.67 


#10 


0.93 


0.62 


#12 


0.86 


0.56 



For 51: 1 mil =0.0254 mm. 



R505.2.5 Web holes, web hole reinforcing and web hole 
patching. Web holes, web hole reinforcing, and web hole 
patching shall be in accordance with this section. 



R505. 2.5.1 Web holes. Web holes in floor joists shall 
comply with all of the following conditions: 

1. Holes shall conform to Figure R505.2.5.1; 

2. Holes shall be permitted only along the centerline 
of the web of the framing member; 

3. Holes shall have a center-to-center spacing of not 
less than 24 inches (610 mm); 

4. Holes shall have a web hole width not greater than 
0.5 times the member depth, or 2/ 2 inches (64.5 
mm); 

5. Holes shall have a web hole length not exceeding 
4 1 / 2 inches (114 mm); and 

6. Holes shall have a minimum distance between the 
edge of the bearing surface and the edge of the web 
hole of not less than 10 inches (254 mm) . 

Framing members with web holes not conforming to 
the above requirements shall be reinforced in accordance 
with Section R505.2.5.2, patched in accordance with 
Section R505.2.5.3 or designed in accordance with 
accepted engineering practices. 

R505.2.5.2 Web hole reinforcing. Reinforcement of 
web holes in floor joists not conforming to the require- 
ments of Section R505.2.5.1 shall be permitted if the 
hole is located fully within the center 40 percent of the 
span and the depth and length of the hole does not exceed 
65 percent of the flat width of the web. The reinforcing 
shall be a steel plate or C-shape section with a hole that 
does not exceed the web hole size limitations of Section 
R505.2.5.1 for the member being reinforced. The steel 
reinforcing shall be the same thickness as the receiving 
member and shall extend at least 1 inch (25.4 mm) 
beyond all edges of the hole. The steel reinforcing shall 
be fastened to the web of the receiving member with 
No. 8 screws spaced no more than 1 inch (25.4 mm) cen- 
ter-to-center along the edges of the patch with minimum 
edge distance of i/ 2 inch (12.7 mm). 



C.L 



C.L 



27, IN. MAX. 



MAX. 



•i. 


MIN. 


»■ 




^m 10 IN. MIN. ► 


























<r 




> 




> 


V 


J 


z 

z CENTERLINE OF WEB 






4VzlN. 




- MAX. - 












BEAF 


1ING CONDITION — -^ 


iff! 



For 51 : 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R505.2.5.1 
FLOOR JOIST WEB HOLES 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



127 



FLOORS 



R505.2.5.3 Hole patching. Patching of web holes in 
floor joists not conforming to the requirements in Sec- 
tion R505.2.5.1 shall be permitted in accordance with 
either of the following methods: 

1. Framing members shall be replaced or designed in 
accordance with accepted engineering practices 
where web holes exceed the following size limits: 

1.1. The depth of the hole, measured across the 
web, exceeds 70 percent of the flat width of 
the web; or 

1.2. The length of the hole measured along the 
web, exceeds 10 inches (254 mm) or the 
depth of the web, whichever is greater. 

2. Web holes not exceeding the dimensional 
requirements in Section R505.2.5.3, Item 1, shall 
be patched with a solid steel plate, stud section, or 
track section in accordance with Figure 
R505.2.5.3. The steel patch shall, as a minimum, 
be of the same thickness as the receiving member 
and shall extend at least 1 inch (25 mm) beyond all 
edges of the hole. The steel patch shall be fastened 
to the web of the receiving member with No. 8 
screws spaced no more than 1 inch (25 mm) cen- 
ter-to-center along the edges of the patch with min- 
imum edge distance of i/ 2 inch (13 mm). 

R505.3 Floor construction. Cold-formed steel floors shall be 
constructed in accordance with this section. 

R505.3.1 Floor to foundation or load-bearing wall con- 
nections. Cold-formed steel framed floors shall be anchored 
to foundations, wood sills or load-bearing walls in accor- 
dance with Table R505.3.1 (1) and Figure R505.3.1 (1), 
R505.3.1(2), R505.3.1(3), R505.3.1 (4), R505.3.1 (5) or 
R505.3.1 (6). Anchor bolts shall be located not more than 12 
inches (305 mm) from corners or the termination of bottom 



JOIST 



SOLID STEEL PLATE, 
C-SHAPE OR TRACK 
MIN. THICKNESS AS 
JOIST 




NO. 8 SCREWS 
SPACED AT 1 IN. O.C 
(TYP.) 




FIGURE R505.2.5.3 
WEB HOLE PATCH 



tracks. Continuous cold-formed steel joists supported by 
interior load-bearing walls shall be constructed in accordance 
with Figure R505.3.1 (7). Lapped cold-formed steel joists 
shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R505.3.1 (8). 
End floor joists constructed on foundation walls parallel to 
the joist span shall be doubled unless a C-shaped bearing 
stiffener, sized in accordance with Section R505.3.4, is 
installed web-to- web with the floor joist beneath each sup- 
ported wall stud, as shown in Figure R505.3.1 (9). Fastening 
of cold-formed steeljoists to other framing members shall be 
in accordance with Section R505.2.4 and Table R505.3.1 (2). 

R505.3.2 Minimum floor joist sizes. Floor joist size and 
thickness shall be determined in accordance with the limits 
set forth in Table R505.3.2(l) for single spans, and Tables 
R505.3.2 (2) and R505.3.2 (3) for multiple spans. When con- 
tinuous joist members are used, the interior bearing sup- 
ports shall be located within 2 feet (610 mm) of mid-span of 
the cold-formed steeljoists, and the individual spans shall 
not exceed the spans in Table R505. 3.2(2) or R505. 3.2(3), 
as applicable. Floor joists shall have a bearing support 
length of not less than 1V 2 inches (38 mm) for exterior wall 
supports and 3 V 2 inches (89 mm) for interior wall supports. 
Tracks shall be a minimum of 33 mils (0.84 mm) thick 
except when used as part of a floor header or trimmer in 
accordance with Section R505.3.8. Bearing stiffeners shall 
be installed in accordance with Section R505.3.4. 

R505.3.3 joist bracing and blocking. Joist bracing and 
blocking shall be in accordance with this section. 

R505.3.3.1 joist top flange bracing. The top flanges of 
cold-formed steeljoists shall be laterally braced by the 
application of floor sheathing fastened to the joists in 
accordance with Section R505.2.4 and Table 
R505.3.1 (2). 

R505.3.3.2 joist bottom flange bracing/blocking. 
Floor joists with spans that exceed 12 feet (3658 mm) 
shall have the bottom flanges laterally braced in accor- 
dance with one of the following: 

1. Gypsum board installed with minimum No. 6 
screws in accordance with Section R702. 

2. Continuous steel straps installed in accordance 
with Figure R505.3.3.2(l). Steel straps shall be 
spaced at a maximum of 12 feet (3658 mm) on cen- 
ter and shall be at least 1V 2 inches (38 mm) in width 
and 33 mils (0.84 mm) in thickness. Straps shall be 
fastened to the bottom flange of eachjoist with one 
No. 8 screw, fastened to blocking with two No. 8 
screws, and fastened at each end (of strap) with 
two No. 8 screws. Blocking in accordance with 
Figure R505.3.3.2(l) or Figure R505.3.3.2(2) 
shall be installed betweenjoists at each end of the 
continuous strapping and at a maximum spacing of 
12 feet (3658 mm) measured along the continuous 
strapping (perpendicular to thejoist run). Blocking 
shall also be located at the termination of all straps. 
As an alternative to blocking at the ends, anchor- 
ing the strap to a stable building component with 
two No. 8 screws shall be permitted. 



128 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FLOORS 



TABLE R505.3.1 (1) 
FLOOR TO FOUNDATION OR BEARING WALL CONNECTION REQUIREMENTS 3 , b 



FRAMING CONDITION 


BASIC WIND SPEED (mph) AND EXPOSURE 


85 mph Exposure C or 
less than 110 mph Exposure B 


Less than 110 mph Exposure C 


Floor joist to wall track of exterior wall 
per Figure R505.3. 1(1) 


2-No. 8 screws 


3-No. 8 screws 


Rim track or end joist to load-bearing 
wall top track per Figure R505.3.1 (1) 


I-No.8 screw at 24 inches o.c. 


I-No.8 screw at 24 inches o.c. 


Rim track or endjoist to wood sill per 
Figure R505.3. 1(2) 


Steel plate spaced at 4 feet o.c. with 4-No. 8 
screws and 4-10d or 6-8d common nails 


Steel plate spaced at 2 feet o.c. with 4-No. 8 
screws and 4-10d or 6-8d common nails 


Rim track or endjoist to foundation per 
Figure R505. 3. 1(3) 


i/ 2 inch minimum diameter anchor bolt and clip 
angle spaced at 6 feet o.c. with 8-No. 8 screws 


i/ 2 inch minimum diameter anchor bolt and clip 
angle spaced at 4 feet o.c. with 8-No. 8 screws 


Cantilevered joist to foundation per 
Figure R505.3. 1(4) 


i/ 2 inch minimum diameter anchor bolt and clip 
angle spaced at 6 feet o.c. with 8-No. 8 screws 


i/ 2 inch minimum diameter anchor bolt and clip 
angle spaced at 4 feet o.c. with 8-No. 8 screws 


Cantilevered joist to wood sill per 
Figure R505.3. 1(5) 


Steel plate spaced at 4 feet o.c. with 4-No. 8 
screws and 4-10d or 6-8d common nails 


Steel plate spaced at 2 feet o.c. with 4-No. 8 
screws and 4-10d or 6-8d common nails 


Cantileveredjoist to exterior load- 
bearing wall track per Figure R505.3.1 (6) 


2-No. 8 screws 


3-No. 8 screws 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Anchor bolts are to be located not more than 12 inches from corners or the termination of bottom tracks (e.g., at door openings or corners) .Bolts extend a minimum 
of 15 inches into masonry or 7 inches into concrete. Anchor bolts connecting cold- formed steel framing to the foundation structure are to be installed so that the dis- 
tance from the center of the bolt hole to the edge of the connected member is not less than one and one-half bolt diameters. 

b. All screw sizes shown are minimum. 



RIM TRACK 

(MIN. 33 MILTHICK) 



WEB STIFFENER 



NO. 8 SCREWS THROUGH 
JOIST FLANGE, CLIP ANGLE 
OR BENT STIFFENER 



TRACK 



FASTEN RIM TRACK TO 
WALL TRACK WITH NO. 
SCREWS AT 24 IN. O.C 




SHEATHING 



JOIST 



NO. 8 SCREW THROUGH 
EACH FLANGE 



LOAD BEARING STUD 



For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE 505.3.1 (1) 
FLOOR TO EXTERIOR LOAD-BEARING WALL STUD CONNECTION 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



129 



FLOORS 



TABLE R505.3.1 (2) 
FLOOR FASTENING SCHEDULE 21 



DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING ELEMENTS 


NUMBER AND SIZE OF FASTENERS 


SPACING OF FASTENERS 


Floor joist to track of an interior load-bearing wall 
per Figures R505.3.1(7) and R505.3.1 (8) 


2 No. 8 screws 


Eachjoist 


Floorjoist to track at end of joist 


2 No. 8 screws 


One per flange or two per bearing stiffener 


Subfloor to floor joists 


No. 8 screws 


6 in. o.c. on edges and 12 in. o.c. at intermediate 
supports 



For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. All screw sizes shown are minimum. 



SHEATHING 



4-NO. 8 SCREWS 




RIM TRACK 

MIN. 33 MILTHICK 



MIN. 4-1 Od OR6-8d 
COMMON NAILS 



ANCHOR BOLT OR OTHER 
CONNECTION AS REQUIRED 



WOOD SILLAS REQUIRED 
FOUNDATION 
SILL SEALER AS REQUIRED 



For 51 : 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R505.3.1 (2) 
FLOOR TO WOOD SILL CONNECTION 



130 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WEB STIFFENER 



FLOORS 



RIM TRACK 

(MIN. 33 MILTHICK) 



SILL SEALER 
AS REQUIRED 



SHEATHING 




ANCHORBOLT OR OTHER 
CONNECTION AS REQUIRED 



6 IN x 54 MIL CLIP ANGLE FASTENED TO TRACK 
NO. 8 SCREWS 



FOUNDATION 



For 51: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R505.3.1 (3) 
FLOOR TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION 




BLOCKING EVERY OTHER JOIST 
(MIN. 33 MILTRACK OR C-SHAPE 
SAME DEPTHAS JOIST) 

NO. 8 SCREW 
AT EACH FLANGE 

WEB STIFFENERCAN BE INSTALLED 
EITHER SIDE OF WEB 



SILL SEALER 
AS REQUIRED 




FLOOR JOIST 



■ FOUNDATION 



For 51: 1 mil =0.0254 mm. 



FIGURE R505.3.1 (4) 
CANTILEVERED FLOOR TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



131 



FLOORS 



BLOCKING EVERY OTHER JOIST 
MIN. 33 MIL TRACK OR C-SHAPE 
MIN. DEPTH = DEPTH OF JOIST -- 72 IN 



WEB STIFFENER 



ANCHOR 
BOLT 



CONNECTION OF BLOCKING 

TO JOIST THROUGH FLANGE 

OF WEB STIFFENER, CLIP ANGLE 

OR BENT WEB OF BLOCKING 

WITH 2 NO. 8 SCREWS (MIN. 

DEPTH OF ANGLE = JOIST DEPTH - 2 IN. 




RIM TRACK 

NO. 8 SCREW AT EACH 
FLANGE (TOP AND BOTTOM) 



■ 4 NO. 8 SCREWS 
3 IN. x 3 IN. x 33 MIL STEEL PLATE 
4-1 Od OR 6-8d COMMON NAILS 
WOOD SILL AS REQUIRED 
FOUNDATION 
SILL SEALER AS REQUIRED 



For 51 : 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R505.3.1 (5) 
CANTILEVERED FLOOR TO WOOD SILL CONNECTION 



BLOCKING EVERY OTHER JOIST 
(MIN. 33 MILTRACK OR C-SHAPE 

WEB STIFFENER 



RIM TRACK 

(MIN. 33 MILTHICK) 



NO. 8 SCREWS THROUGH 
FLANGE, CLIP ANGLE OR 
BENT STIFFENER 



TOP TRACK 



LOAD BEARING STUD 




CONNECTION OF BLOCKING 
TO JOISTTHROUGH EACH 
LEG OF WEB STEFFENER OR 
CLIP ANGLE WITH 2 NO. 8 
SCREWS 



SHEATHING 



JOIST 



NO. 8 SCREW THROUGH 
EACH FLANGE 



For 51: 1 mil =0.0254 mm. 



FIGURE R505.3.1 (6) 
CANTILEVERED FLOOR TO EXTERIOR LOAD-BEARING WALL CONNECTION 



132 



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FLOORS 



CONNECTION OF BLOCKING 

TO JOIST THROUGH FLANGE 

OF WEB STEFFENER, CLIP ANGLE 

OR BENT WEB OF BLOCKING 

WITH 2 NO. 8 SCREWS (MIN. DEPTH 

OF ANGLE = JOIST DEPTH - 2 IN.) 

(SEE FIGURE R505.3.1 (4) FOR BLOCKING 



BLOCKING EVERY OTHER JOIST 
MIN. 33 MIL TRACK OR C-SHAPE 
MIN. DEPTH =JOIST DEPTH - 2 IN 



WEB STIFFENER 
(EITHER SIDE OF WEB) 




JOIST 



NO. 8 SCREWS THROUGH 
FLANGE. CLIP ANGLE OR 
BENT STEFFENER 



TOP TRACK 



LOAD BEARING STUD 



SHEATHING 



NO. 8 SCREW THROUGH 
EACH FLANGE 



For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R505.3.1 (7) 
CONTINUOUS SPAN JOIST SUPPORTED ON INTERIOR LOAD-BEARING WALL 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



133 



FLOORS 



JOIST 



4 NO. 8 SCREWS 

THROUGH BOTH WEBS 
(WEB STIFFENER IS REQUIRED 
ONLY WHEN LOAD BEARING 
WALL IS LOCATED ABOVE) 



2 NO. 8 SCREWS 
THROUGH FLANGE 
(EACH SIDE) 



TRACK 



LOAD BEARING STUD 




For 51: 



i inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R505.3.1 (8) 
LAPPED JOISTS SUPPORTED ON INTERIOR LOAD-BEARING WALL 




BEARING STIFFENERSTO MATCH 
SPACING OF WALL STUDS ABOVE 



' END JOIST 



FIGURE R505.3.1 (9) 
BEARING STIFFENERS FOR END JOISTS 



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FLOORS 





TABLE R505.3.2(1) 
ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR COLD-FORMED STEEL JOISTS-SINGLE SPANSa,b,c,d 33 ksi STEEL 




JOIST 
DESIGNATION 


30 PSF LIVE LOAD 


40 PSF LIVE LOAD 


Spacing (inches) 


Spacing (inches) 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


5505162-33 


ir-7" 


10'-7" 


9'-6" 


8'-6" 


10'-7" 


9'-3 M 


8'-6" 


7'-6" 


5505162-43 


12*-8" 


ir-6" 


lO'-lO" 


10'-2" 


ll'-6" 


10'-5 M 


9'-10 M 


9'-l" 


5505162-54 


13'-7" 


12'-4" 


11-7" 


10'-9" 


12'-4" 


ll'-2" 


10'-6" 


9'-9" 


5505162-68 


14'_7- 


13'-3" 


12'-6" 


ir-7" 


13'-3" 


12'-0" 


ir-4" 


10'-6" 


5505162-97 


16'-2" 


14'_9» 


13'-10" 


12'-10" 


14'-9" 


13 , -4" 


12'-7" 


ir-8" 


8005162-33 


15*-8" 


13-11" 


12'-9" 


ll'-5" 


14'-3" 


12'-5 M 


ir-3" 


9'-0" 


8005162-43 


17-1" 


15'-6 M 


14'-7" 


13'-7 M 


15'-6" 


14'-1" 


13'-3" 


12'-4" 


8005162-54 


18'-4" 


16'-8" 


15'-8" 


14'_7» 


16'-8" 


15*-2 M 


14'-3 M 


13'-3" 


8005162-68 


19'-9" 


17'-11" 


16'-10" 


15'-8" 


17'-11" 


16'-3" 


15'-4" 


14'-2 M 


8005162-97 


22'-0" 


20'-0" 


16'-10" 


17'-5" 


20'-0" 


18'-2" 


17'-1" 


15*-10 M 


10005162-43 


20'-6" 


18'-8" 


17'-6" 


15*-8 M 


18'-8" 


16-11" 


15'-6 M 


13-11" 


10005162-54 


22'-r 


20'-0" 


18'-10" 


17'-6" 


20'-0" 


18'-2" 


17*-2 M 


15'-11" 


10005162-68 


23'- 9" 


21'-7" 


20'-3" 


18'-10" 


21'-7" 


19«_7» 


18'-5" 


17-1" 


10005162-97 


26'-6" 


24'- 1" 


22'-8" 


21'-0" 


24*- 1" 


21'-10" 


20'-7 M 


19-1" 


12005162-43 


23'-9" 


20'-10" 


19'-0" 


16'-8 M 


21'-5" 


18'-6 M 


16*-6 M 


13'-2 M 


12005162-54 


25'-9" 


23'-4" 


22'-0" 


20'- 1" 


23'-4" 


21'-3" 


20'-0" 


17*-10 M 


12005162-68 


27-8" 


25'-l" 


23'-8" 


21-11" 


25'-l" 


22'-10" 


21'-6" 


21-1" 


12005162-97 


30'-ll" 


28'-l" 


26'-5" 


24'-6" 


28'-l M 


25'-6 M 


24'-0 M 


22'-3 M 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa. 

a. Deflection criteria: LI480 for live loads, 11240 for total loads. 

b. Floor dead load = 10 psf. 

c. Table provides the maximum clear span in feet and inches. 

d. Bearing stiffeners are to be installed at all support points and concentrated loads. 



SUBFLOOR 
SHEATHING 




MIN. 33 MIL SOLID BLOCKING 
AT EACH END AND AT 12 IN. O.C. 
(DEPTH OF BLOCKING =JOIST 
DEPTH MINUS 2 IN. 



JOIST 



MIN. 2 IN.X2 IN.X33 MIL CLIP ANGLE 
FASTENED WITH 2 NO. 8 SCREWS 
THROUGH EACH LEG (DEPTH OF ANGLE 
= JOIST DEPTH MINUS 2 IN.) 



CONTINUOUS 17 2 IN. X 33 
MIL STEEL STRAP 



2 NO. 8 SCREWS THROUGH 
STRAP TO BLOCKING 



NO. 8 SCREW THROUGH 
STRAP TO JOIST (TYP.) 



For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R505.3.3.2(1) 
JOIST BLOCKING (SOLID) 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



135 



FLOORS 



TABLE R505.3.2(2) 
ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR COLD-FORMED STEEL JOISTS-MULTIPLE SPANsa,b,c,d,e,f 33 ksi STEEL 



JOIST 
DESIGNATION 


30 PSF LIVE LOAD 


40 PSF LIVE LOAD 


Spacing (inches) 


Spacing (inches) 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


5505162-33 


i2*-r 


10'-5" 


9'-6" 


8'-6" 


10'-9" 


9'-3" 


8'-6" 


7'-6" 


5505162-43 


14'-5" 


12'-5" 


11-4" 


10'-2" 


12'-9" 


ll'-ll" 


10-1" 


9'-0" 


5505162-54 


16'-3" 


14'-1" 


12'-10" 


ll'-6" 


14'-5" 


12'-6" 


ir-5" 


10'-2" 


5505162-68 


19'-7" 


17-9" 


16'-9" 


15'-6" 


17'-9" 


16'-2" 


15'-2" 


14'-1" 


5505162-97 


21'-9" 


19'-9" 


18'-7" 


17-3" 


19'-9" 


17-11" 


16'-10" 


15'-4" 


8005162-33 


14'-8" 


ll'-lO" 


10'-4" 


8'-8" 


12'-4" 


9-11" 


8'-7" 


7'-2" 


8005162-43 


20'-0" 


17-4" 


15'-9" 


14'-1" 


17'-9" 


15'-4" 


14'-0" 


12'-0" 


8005162-54 


23'-7" 


20'-5" 


18'-8" 


16'-8" 


21'-0" 


18'-2" 


16*-7" 


14'-10" 


8005162-68 


26'-5" 


23'-l M 


21'-0" 


18'-10" 


23'-8" 


20'-6" 


18'-8" 


16'-9" 


8005162-97 


29'-6" 


26'-10" 


25'-3" 


22'-8" 


26'-10" 


24'-4" 


22'-6" 


20'-2" 


10005162-43 


22'-2" 


18'-3" 


16'-0" 


13'-7" 


18-11" 


15'-5" 


13'-6" 


ir-5" 


10005162-54 


26'-2" 


22'-8" 


20'-8" 


18'-6" 


23'-3" 


20'-2" 


18'-5" 


16*-5" 


10005162-68 


31'- 5" 


27'-2" 


24'-10" 


22'-2" 


27'-ll" 


24'-2" 


22'-l" 


19-9" 


10005162-97 


35'-6" 


32'-3" 


29-11" 


26'-9" 


32'-3" 


29'-2" 


26'-7" 


23'-9" 


12005162-43 


21'-8" 


17'-6" 


15-3" 


12'-10" 


18'-3" 


14'-8" 


12'-8" 


10'-6 2 


12005162-54 


28'-5" 


24'-8" 


22'-6" 


19'-6" 


25'-3" 


21-11" 


19'-4" 


16'-6" 


12005162-68 


33'-7" 


29'-l" 


26'-6" 


23'-9" 


29'-10" 


25'-10" 


23'-7" 


21'-1" 


12005162-97 


41'-5" 


3T-8" 


34'-6" 


30'-10" 


37'-8" 


33'-6" 


30'-7" 


27'-5" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa. 

a. Deflection criteria: LI480 for live loads, LI240 for total loads. 

b. Floor dead load = 10 psf. 

Ie. Table provides the maximum clear span in feet and inches to either side of the interior support, 
d. Interior bearing supports for multiple span joists consist of structural (bearing) v\alls or beams, 
e. Bearing stiffeners are to be installed at all support points and concentrated loads, 
f. Interior supports shall be located within 2 feet of mid-span provided that each of the resulting spans does not exceed the appropriate maximum span shown in the 
table above. 



NO. 8 SCREW THROUGH 
BRACE AT EACH FLANGE 




MIN. 1V2IN.X 33 
MIL FLAT STRAP 



For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R505.3.3.2(2) 
JOIST BLOCKING (STRAP) 



136 



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FLOORS 



TABLE R505.3.2(3) 
ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR COLD-FORMED STEEL JOISTS-MULTIPLE SPANS a ,b,c,d,e,f 50 ksi STEEL 



JOIST 
DESIGNATION 


30 PSF LIVE LOAD 


40 PSF LIVE LOAD 


Spacing (inches) 


Spacing (inches) 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


5505162-33 


13-11" 


12*-0" 


ir-o" 


9'-3" 


12'-3" 


10'-8" 


9'-7" 


8'-4" 


5505162-43 


16'-3" 


14-1" 


12'-10" 


ll*-6" 


14'-6" 


12*-6" 


ll'-5" 


10'-3" 


5505162-54 


18'-2" 


16'-6" 


15'-4" 


13'-8" 


16'-6" 


14'-11" 


13'-7" 


12*-2" 


5505162-68 


19'-6" 


17*-9" 


16'-8" 


15'-6" 


17*-9" 


16*-1" 


15'-2" 


14'-0" 


5505162-97 


21'-9" 


19'_9" 


18'-6" 


17'-2" 


19'-8" 


1V-10" 


16'-8" 


15'-8" 


8005162-33 


15'-6" 


12*-6" 


lO'-lO" 


9'-l" 


13'-0" 


10'-5" 


8-11" 


6'-9" 


8005162-43 


22'-0" 


19'-1" 


17'-5" 


15'-0" 


19'-7" 


16-11" 


14'-10" 


12'-8" 


8005162-54 


24'-6" 


22'-4" 


20'-6" 


17-11" 


22'-5" 


19'-9" 


17-11" 


15*-10" 


8005162-68 


26'-6" 


24'-l M 


22'-8" 


21'-0" 


24'-l" 


21'-10" 


20'-7" 


19'-2" 


8005162-97 


29'-9" 


26'-8" 


25'-2" 


23'-5" 


26'-8" 


24'-3" 


22*- 11" 


21'-4" 


10005162-43 


23'-6" 


19*-2" 


16'-9" 


14*-2" 


19-11" 


16*-2" 


14*-0" 


ll'-9" 


10005162-54 


28'-2" 


23'-10" 


21'-7" 


18-11" 


24'-8" 


20'-ll" 


18'-9" 


18'-4" 


10005162-68 


31'- 10" 


28-11" 


27'-2" 


25'-3" 


28-11" 


26'-3" 


24'-9" 


22'-9" 


10005162-97 


35'-4" 


32'-l" 


30'-3" 


28'-l" 


32'-l" 


29'-2" 


27'-6" 


25'-6" 


12005162-43 


22'-ll" 


18'-5" 


16'-0" 


13*-4" 


19'-2" 


15'-4" 


13'-2" 


10'-6" 


12005162-54 


32'-8" 


28'-l" 


24'-9" 


21'-2" 


29'-0" 


23*-10" 


20'-ll" 


17'-9" 


12005162-68 


37'-l" 


32'-5" 


29'-4" 


25'-10" 


33'-4" 


28'-6" 


25'-9" 


22'-7" 


12005162-97 


41'-2" 


37'-6" 


35'-3" 


32'-9" 


37'-6" 


34'-l" 


32'-l" 


29'-9" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa. 

a. Deflection criteria: LI480 for live loads, LI240 for total loads. 

b. Floor dead load = 10 psf. 

c. Table provides the maximum clear span in feet and inches to either side of the interior support. 

d. Interior bearing supports for multiple span joists consist of structural (bearing) walls or beams. 

e. Bearing stiffeners are to be installed at all support points and concentrated loads. 

f. Interior supports shall be located within 2 feet of mid-span provided that each of the resulting spans does not exceed the appropriate maximum span shown in the 
table above. 



R505.3.3.3 Blocking at interior bearing supports. 
Blocking is not required for continuous back- to-back 
floorjoists at bearing supports. Blocking shall be installed 
between every otherjoist for single continuous floorjoists 
across bearing supports in accordance with Figure 
R505.3.1 (7). Blocking shall consist of C-shape or track 
section with a minimum thickness of 33 mils (0.84 mm) . 
Blocking shall be fastened to each adjacentjoist through a 
33-mil (0.84 mm) clip angle, bent web of blocking or 
flanges of web stiffeners with two No. 8 screws on each 
side. The minimum depth of the blocking shall be equal to 
the depth of thejoist minus 2 inches (51 mm). The mini- 
mum length of the angle shall be equal to the depth of the 
joist minus 2 inches (51 mm). 

R505.3.3.4 Blocking at cantilevers. Blocking shall be 
installed between every otherjoist over cantilever bear- 
ing supports in accordance with Figure R505.3.1 (4), 
R505.3.1 (5) or R505.3.1 (6). Blocking shall consist of 
C-shape or track section with minimum thickness of 33 
mils (0.84 mm). Blocking shall be fastened to each adja- 
centjoist through bent web of blocking, 33 mil clip angle 



or flange of web stiff ener with two No. 8 screws at each 
end. The depth of the blocking shall be equal to the depth 
of thejoist. The minimum length of the angle shall be 
equal to the depth of thejoist minus 2 inches (51 mm). 
Blocking shall be fastened through the floor sheathing 
and to the support with three No. 8 screws (top and bot- 
tom) . 

R505.3.4 Bearing stiffeners. Bearing stiffeners shall be 
installed at each joist bearing location in accordance with 
this section, except forjoists lapped over an interior support 
not carrying a load-bearing wall above. Floorjoists support- 
ingjamb studs with multiple members shall have two bear- 
ing stiffeners in accordance with Figure R505 .3.4(1). 
Bearing stiffeners shall be fabricated from a C- shaped, track 
or clip angle member in accordance with the one of follow- 
ing: 

1. C-shaped bearing stiffeners: 

1.1. Where thejoist is not carrying a load-bearing 
wall above, the bearing stiffener shall be a 
minimum 33 mil (0.84 mm) thickness. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



137 



FLOORS 



1.2. Where thejoist is carrying a load-bearing wall 
above, the bearing stiffener shall be at least 
the same designation thickness as the wall 
stud above. 

2. Track bearing stiff eners: 

2.1. Where thejoist is not carrying a load-bearing 
wall above, the bearing stiffener shall be a 
minimum 43 mil (1.09 mm) thickness. 

2.2. Where thejoist is carrying a load-bearing wall 
above, the bearing stiffener shall be at least 
one designation thickness greater than the 
wall stud above. 

3. Clip angle bearing stiff eners: Where the clip angle 
bearing stiffener is fastened to both the web of the 
member it is stiffening and an adjacent rim track using 
the fastener pattern shown in Figure R505.3.4(2), the 
bearing stiffener shall be a minimum 2-inch by 2-inch 
(51 mm by 51 mm) angle sized in accordance with 
Tables R505.3.4(1),R505.3.4(2),R505.3.4(3), and 
R505.3.4(4). 

The minimum length of a bearing stiffener shall be the 
depth of member being stiffened minus 3/8 inch (9.5 mm). 
Each bearing stiffener shall be fastened to the web of the 
member it is stiffening as shown in Figure R505 .3.4(2). 
Each clip angle bearing stiffener shall also be fastened to the 
web of the adjacent rim track using the fastener pattern 
shown in Figure R505.3.4(2). No. 8 screws shall be used for 
C-shaped and track members of any thickness and for clip 



angle members with a designation thickness less than or 
equal to 54. No. 1 screws shall be used for clip angle mem- 
bers with a designation thickness greater than 54. 



SUBFLOOR \ 



JAMB STUDS 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



BEARING STIFFENER - 
INSIDE JOIST 



BEARING STIFFENER 
ATTACHED TO BACK 
OF JOIST 



Ua D ^~^ ^ D ^~^ ^ D ^~^ ^ D ^~^ ^ D ^~^ j *J* 



FIGURE R505.3.4(1) 
BEARING STIFFENERS UNDER JAMB STUDS 



TABLE R505.3.4(1) 

CLIP ANGLE BEARING STIFFENERS 

(20 psf equivalent snow load) 



JOIST DESIGNATION 


MINIMUM THICKNESS (mils) OF 2-INCH x 2-INCH (51 mm x 51 mm) CLIP ANGLE 


Top floor 


Bottom floor in 2 story 
Middle floor in 3 story 


Bottom floor in 3 story 


Joist spacing (inches) 


Joist spacing (inches) 


Joist spacing (inches) 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


8005162-33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


- 


8005162-43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 


8005162-54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 




8005162-68 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


68 


54 


97 


97 




8005162-97 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


97 


10005162-43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


68 


97 


97 


97 


- 


- 


- 


10005162-54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


. 


- 


10005162-68 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


68 


97 


97 


97 


- 


- 


- 


10005162-97 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


68 


97 




12005162-43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


97 


97 


97 


97 










12005162-54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


97 


97 


97 


97 










12005162-68 


43 


43 


54 


54 


68 


97 


97 


97 


- 


- 


- 


- 


12005162-97 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


68 


97 


97 


- 


- 


- 



For SI: 1 mil = 0.254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa.. 



138 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FLOORS 



TABLE R505.3.4(2) 

CLIP ANGLE BEARING STIFFENERS 

(30 psf equivalent snow load) 



JOIST DESIGNATION 


MINIMUM THICKNESS (mils) OF 2-INCH x 2 INCH (51 mm x 51 mm) CLIP ANGLE 


Top floor 


Bottom floor in 2 story 
Middle floor in 3 story 


Bottom floor in 3 story 


Joist spacing (inches) 


Joist spacing (inches) 


Joist spacing (inches) 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


8005162-33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 




8005162-43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 


- 


8005162-54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


- 


- 


8005162-68 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


68 


97 


68 


97 


97 


- 


8005162-97 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


68 


97 


10005162-43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 








10005162-54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 








10005162-68 


43 


43 


54 


68 


68 


97 


97 


- 


97 


- 


- 


- 


10005162-97 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


68 


54 


97 


- 


- 


12005162-43 


54 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


- 


. 


- 


. 


- 


12005162-54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


12005162-68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 












12005162-97 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


68 


97 




97 









For 51: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm, Ipound per square foot = 0.0479kPa. 



C-SECTION/TRACK 



CLIP ANGLE 



\ 



V 



/ 



\ 




MIN. LENGTH = \ 
DEPTHOFWEB 
MINUS 3/glN. 



(3)-NO. 8 SCREWS/ 
EQUALLY SPACED 



N 



\ 



\ 



f MAX. SPACING 
I FROM, JOIST 
TOP = a IN. 



MIN. LENGTH \ 
= DEPTHOF 
WEB 3/8 IN. 




(3)-NO. 8 OR NO. 10 
SCREWS EQUALLY 
SPACED (IN BOTH LEGS / 
\OF ANGLE) y 



BEARING STIFFENER 



~r \ 

MIN. LENGTH =i 
DEPTH OF WEBl 
MINUS 3/glN. / 



\ (4)-NO. 8 SCREWS / 

\. EQUALLY SPACED / 



V 



/ 



For 51 : 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R505.3.4(2) 
BEARING STIFFENER 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



139 



FLOORS 



TABLE R505.3.4(3) 

CLIP ANGLE BEARING STIFFENERS 

(50 pst equivalent snow load) 



JOIST 
DESIGNATION 


MINIMUM THICKNESS (mils) OF 2-INCH x 2-INCH (51 mm x 51 mm) CLIP ANGLE 


Top floor 


Bottom floor in 2 story 
Middle floor in 3 story 


Bottom floor in 3 story 


Joist spacing (inches) 


Joist spacing (inches) 


Joist spacing (inches) 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


8005162-33 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 








8005162-43 


68 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 


- 


- 


- 


- 


8005162-54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 


- 


- 


- 


- 


8005162-68 


43 


43 


54 


54 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 


- 


- 


- 


8005162-97 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


68 


97 




10005162-43 


97 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 










10005162-54 


97 


97 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 












10005162-68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


10005162-97 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


68 


97 


97 


- 


- 


- 


- 


12005162-43 


97 


97 


97 


97 


. 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


12005162-54 


- 


97 


97 


97 


- 


- 


- 


- 


. 


- 


- 


- 


12005162-68 


97 


97 


97 


97 


















12005162-97 


54 


68 


68 


97 


97 

















For 51 : 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa. 



TABLE R505.3.4(4) 

CLIP ANGLE BEARING STIFFENERS 

(70 pst equivalent snow load) 



JOIST 
DESIGNATION 


MINIMUM THICKNESS (mils) OF 2-INCH x 2-INCH (51 mm x 51 mm) CLIP ANGLE 


Top floor 


Bottom floor in 2 story 
Middle floor in 3 story 


Bottom floor in 3 story 


Joist spacing (inches) 


Joist spacing (inches) 


Joist spacing (inches) 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


8005162-33 


68 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 


- 


- 


- 


- 


8005162-43 


97 


97 


97 


97 


97 


97 


97 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


8005162-54 


97 


97 


97 


97 


97 
















8005162-68 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 












8005162-97 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


68 


97 


97 


97 






10005162-43 


97 


97 


97 


97 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


10005162-54 


- 


97 


97 


97 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


10005162-68 


97 


97 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


10005162-97 


68 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


12005162-43 


97 


97 


97 


97 


















12005162-54 


























12005162-68 


























12005162-97 


97 


97 


97 


- 


. 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 



For 51 : 1 mil 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa. 



140 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FLOORS 



R505.3.5 Cutting and notching. Flanges and lips of 
load-bearing cold-formed steel floor framing members 
shall not be cut or notched. 

R505.3.6 Floor cantilevers. Floor cantilevers for the top 
floor of a two- or three-story building or the first floor of a 
one-story building shall not exceed 24 inches (610 mm). 
Cantilevers, not exceeding 24 inches (610 mm) and support- 
ing two stories and roof (Le., first floor of a two-story build- 
ing), shall also be permitted provided that all cantilevered 
joists are doubled (nested or back- to-back). The doubled 
cantilevered joists shall extend a minimum of 6 feet (1829 
mm) toward the inside and shall be fastened with a mini- 
mum of two No.8 screws spaced at 24 inches (610 mm) on 
center through the webs (for back-to-back) or flanges (for 
nested joists). 

R505.3.7 Splicing. Joists and other structural members 
shall not be spliced. Splicing of tracks shall conform to Fig- 
ure R505.3.7. 



R505.3.8 Framing of floor openings. Openings in floors 
shall be framed with header and trimmerjoists. Headerjoist 
spans shall not exceed 6 feet (1829 mm) or 8 feet (2438 mm) 
in length in accordance with Figure R505.3.8(l) or 
R505.3.8(2), respectively. Header and trimmerjoists shall 
be fabricated fromjoist and track members, having a mini- 
mum size and thickness at least equivalent to the adjacent 
floor joists and shall be installed in accordance with Figures 
R505.3.8(l), R505.3.8(2), R505.3.8(3), and R505.3.8(4). 
Each headerjoist shall be connected to trimmerjoists with 
four 2-inch-by-2-inch (51mm by 51 mm) clip angles. Each 
clip angle shall be fastened to both the header and trimmer 
joists with four No.8 screws, evenly spaced, through each 
leg of the clip angle. The clip angles shall have a thickness 
not less than that of the floor joist. Each track section for a 
built-up header or trimmerjoist shall extend the full length 
of the joist (continuous). 



C-SHAPE 
INSIDE TRACK 




4 NO.8 SCREWS 
THROUGH WEB OR 
FLANGES AT EACH 
SIDE OF SPLICE 



TRACK 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R505.3.7 
TRACK SPLICE 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



141 



FLOORS 



JOIST 



CLIP ANGLE 



JOIST 




TRIMMER JOIST (TYP 



For 51: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



FIGURE R505.3.8(1) 
COLD-FORMED STEEL FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: 6-FOOT FLOOR OPENING 



JOIST 




CLIP ANGLE 

JOIST 

TRIMMER JOIST (TYP) 



For 51: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



^ ,' 



FIGURE R505.3.8(2) 
COLD-FORMED STEEL FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: 8-FOOT FLOOR OPENING 



142 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FLOORS 



NO. 8 SCREWS AT 24 IN. O.C. 
TOP AND BOTTOM (TYP.) 



MINIMUM 2 IN. x 2 IN. CLIPANGLE 
WITH 4 NO. 8 SCREWS 
THROUGH EACH LEG, BOTH 
SIDES OF CONNECTION 



HEADER JOIST_ 
C-SHAPE INSIDE ATRACK 




4 NO. 8 SCREWS THROUGH EACH LEG 
OF CLIPANGLE (ONE SIDE OF 
CONNECTION) MINIMUM LENGTH EQUALS 
JOIST WEB DEPTH MINUS I/2IN. 



TRIMMER JOIST 

C-SHAPE INSIDE 
ATRACK (TYP.) 



For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R505.3.8(3) 

COLD-FORMED STEEL FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: 

FLOOR HEADER TO TRIMMER CONNECTION-6-FOOT OPENING 



NO. 8 SCREWS AT 24 IN . O.C 
TOP AND BOTTOM (TYP.) 



MINIMUM 2 IN. x 2 IN. CLIPANGLE 
WITH 4 NO. 8 SCREWS 
THROUGH EACH LEG, BOTH 
SIDES OF CONNECTION 




4 NO. 8 SCREWS THROUGH EACH LEG 
OF CLIPANGLE (ONE SIDE OF 
CONNECTION) MINIMUM LENGTH EQUALS 
JOIST WEB DEPTH MINUS % IN. 



-TRIMMER JOIST, - 
2-C-SHAPES AND A TRACK 
2-NO 8 SCREWS THROUGH 
WEBS AT 24 IN. ON CENTER 
(TYP.) 



For 51 : 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R505.3.8(4) 

COLD-FORMED STEEL FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: 

FLOOR HEADER TO TRIMMER CONNECTION-8-FOOT OPENING 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



143 



FLOORS 



SECTION R506 
CONCRETE FLOORS (ON GROUND) 

R506.1 General. Concrete slab-on-ground floors shall be a 
minimum 3.5 inches (89 mm) thick (for expansive soils, see 
Section R403.1.8). The specified compressive strength of con- 
crete shall be as set forth in Section R402.2. 

R506.2 Site preparation. The area within the foundation 
walls shall have all vegetation, top soil and foreign material 
removed. 

R506.2.1 Fill. Fill material shall be free of vegetation and 
foreign material. The fill shall be compacted to assure uni- 
form support of the slab, and except where approved, the fill 
depths shall not exceed 24 inches (610 mm) for clean sand 
or gravel and 8 inches (203 mm) for earth. 

R506.2.2 Base. A 4-inch-thick (102 mm) base course con- 
sisting of clean graded sand, gravel, crushed stone or 
crushed blast-furnace slag passing a 2-inch (51 mm) sieve 
shall be placed on the prepared subgrade when the slab is 
below grade. 

Exception: A base course is not required when the 
concrete slab is installed on well-drained or 
sand-gravel mixture soils classified as Group I 
according to the United Soil Classification System in 
accordance with Table R405.1. 

R506.2.3 Vapor retarder. A 6 mil (0.006 inch; 152 Jim) 
polyethylene or approvedvapor retarder with joints lapped 
not less than 6 inches (152 mm) shall be placed between the 
concrete floor slab and the base course or the prepared 
subgrade where no base course exists. 

Exception: The vapor retarder may be omitted: 

1. From detached garages, utility buildings and other 
unheated accessory structures. 

2. For unheated storage rooms having an area of less 
than 70 square feet (6.5 m 2 ) and carports. 

3. From driveways, walks, patios and other flatwork 
not likely to be enclosed and heated at a later date. 

4. Where approvedby the building official, based on 
local site conditions. 

R506.2.4 Reinforcement support. Where provided in 
slabs on ground, reinforcement shall be supported to remain 
in place from the center to upper one third of the slab for the 
duration of the concrete placement. 



144 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



CHAPTER 6 

WALL CONSTRUCTION 



SECTION R601 
GENERAL 

R601.1 Application. The provisions of this chapter shall con- 
trol the design and construction of all walls and partitions for 
all buildings. 

R601.2 Requirements. Wall construction shall be capable of 
accommodating all loads imposed according to Section R301 
and of transmitting the resulting loads to the supporting struc- 
tural elements. 

R601.2.1 Compressible floor-covering materials. Com- 
pressible floor-covering materials that compress more than 
i/ 32 inch (0.8 mm) when subjected to 50 pounds (23 kg) 
applied over 1 inch square (645 mm) of material and are 
greater than i/ 8 inch (3 mm) in thickness in the uncom- 
pressed state shall not extend beneath walls, partitions or 
columns, which are fastened to the floor. 

R601.3 Vapor retarders. Class I or II vapor retarders are 
required on the interior side of frame walls in Zones 5,6, 7, 8 
and Marine 4. 

Exceptions: 

1. Basement walls. 

2. Below grade portion of any wall. 

3. Construction where moisture or its freezing will not 
damage the materials. 



R601.3.1 Class III vapor retarders. Class III vapor retard- 
ers shall be permitted where anyone of the conditions in 
Table R601.3.1 is met. 

R601.3.2 Material vapor retarder class. The vapor 
retarder class shall be based on the manufacturer's certified 
testing or a tested assembly. 

The following shall be deemed to meet the class speci- 
fied: 

Class I: Sheet polyethylene, unperforated aluminum foil. 

Class II: Kraft-faced fiberglass batts. 

Class III: Latex or enamel paint. 

R601 .3.3 Minimum clear air spaces and vented openings 
for vented cladding. For the purposes of this section, 
vented cladding shall include the following minimum clear 
air spaces. Other openings with the equivalent vent area 
shall be permitted. 

1. Vinyl lap or horizontal aluminum siding applied over 
a weather resistive barrier as specified in Table 
R703.4. 

2. Brick veneer with a clear airspace as specified in Sec- 
tion R703.7.4.2. 

3. Other app roved vented claddings. 



TABLE R601.3.1 
CLASS III VAPOR RETARDERS 



ZONE 


CLASS III VAPOR RETARDERS PERMITTED FOR: 3 


Marine 4 


Vented cladding over OSB 

Vented cladding over plywood 

Vented cladding over fiberboard 

Vented cladding over gypsum 

Insulated sheathing with R-value > 2.5 over 2x4 wall 

Insulated sheathing with R-value > 3.75 over 2x6 wall 


5 


Vented cladding over OSB 

Vented cladding over plywood 

Vented cladding over fiberboard 

Vented cladding over gypsum 

Insulated sheathing with R-value > 5 over 2x4 wall 

Insulated sheathing with R-value > 7.5 over 2x6 wall 


6 


Vented cladding over fiberboard 

Vented cladding over gypsum 

Insulated sheathing with R-value > 7.5 over 2x4 wall 

Insulated sheathing with R-value > 11.25 over 2x6 wall 


7 and 8 


Insulated sheathing with R-value > 10 over 2x4 wall 
Insulated sheathing with R-value > 15 over 2x6 wall 



For SI: 1 pound per cubic foot = 16.02 kg/m 3 « 

a. Spray foam with a minimum density of 2 lb/ft 3 applied to the interior cavity side of OSB, plywood, fiberboard, insulating sheathing or gypsum is deemed to meet 
the insulating sheathing requirement where the spray foam R-value meets or exceeds the specified insulating sheathing R-value. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



145 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



SECTION R602 
WOOD WALL FRAMING 

R602.1 Identification. Load-bearing dimension lumber for 
studs, plates and headers shall be identified by a grade mark of 
a lumber grading or inspection agency that has been approved 
by an accreditation body that complies with DOC PS 20. In lieu 
of a grade mark, a certification of inspection issued by a lumber 
grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements of this 
section shall be accepted. 

R602.1.1 End-jointed lumber. Approvedend- jointed lum- 
ber identified by a grade mark conforming to Section 
R602.1 may be used interchangeably with solid-sawn mem- 
bers of the same species and grade. 

R602.1.2 Structural glued laminated timbers. Glued 
laminated timbers shall be manufactured and identified as 
required in ANSI/AITC A190.1 and ASTM D 3737. 

R602.1.3 Structural log members. Stress grading of struc- 
tural log members of nonrectangular shape, as typically 
used in log buildings, shall be in accordance with ASTM D 
3957. Such structural log members shall be identified by the 
grade mark of an approved lumber grading or inspection 
agency. In lieu of a grade mark on the material, a certificate 
of inspection as to species and grade, issued by a lum- 
ber-grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements 
of this section, shall be permitted to be accepted. 

R602.2 Grade. Studs shall be a minimum No. 3, standard or 
stud grade lumber. 

Exception: Bearing studs not supporting floors and 
nonbearing studs may be utility grade lumber, provided the 
studs are spaced in accordance with Table R602.3(5). 

R602.3 Design and construction. Exterior walls of 
wood-frame construction shall be designed and constructed in 
accordance with the provisions of this chapter and Figures 
R602.3(l) and R602.3.(2) or in accordance with AF&PA's 
NDS. Components of exterior walls shall be fastened in accor- 
dance with Tables R602.3(l) through R602.3(4). Structural 
wall sheathing shall be fastened directly to structural framing 
members. Exterior wall coverings shall be capable of resisting 
the wind pressures listed in Table R30 1.2 (2) adjusted for height 
and exposure using Table R30 1.2(3). Wood structural panel 
sheathing used for exterior walls shall conform to the require- 
ments of Table R602.3(3). 

Studs shall be continuous from support at the sole plate to a 
support at the top plate to resist loads perpendicular to the wall. 
The support shall be a foundation or floor, ceiling or roof dia- 
phragm or shall be designed in accordance with accepted engi- 
neering practice. 

Exception: Jack studs, trimmer studs and cripple studs at 
openings in walls that comply with Tables R502.5(l) and 
R502.5(2). 

R602.3.1 Stud size, height and spacing. The size, height and 
spacing of studs shall be in accordance with Table R602.3. (5). 



Exceptions: 

1. Utility grade studs shall not be spaced more than 
16 inches (406 mm) on center, shall not support 
more than a roof and ceiling, and shall not exceed 8 
feet (2438 mm) in height for exterior walls and 
load-bearing walls or 10 feet (3048 mm) for inte- 
rior nonload-bearing walls. 

2. Studs more than 10 feet (3048 mm) in height 
which are in accordance with Table R602.3.1. 

R602.3.2 Top plate. Wood stud walls shall be capped with a 
double top plate installed to provide overlapping at corners 
and intersections with bearing partitions. End joints in top 
plates shall be offset at least 24 inches (610 mm). Joints in 
plates need not occur over studs. Plates shall be not less than 
2-inches (51 mm) nominal thickness and have a width at 
least equal to the width of the studs. 

Exception: A single top plate may be installed in stud 
walls, provided the plate is adequately tied atjoints, cor- 
ners and intersecting walls by a minimum 3-inch-by- 
6-inch by a 0.036-inch-thick (76 mm by 152 mm by 
0.914 mm) galvanized steel plate that is nailed to each 
wall or segment of wall by six 8d nails on each side, pro- 
vided the rafters or joists are centered over the studs with 
a tolerance of no more than 1 inch (25 mm). The top plate 
may be omitted over lintels that are adequately tied to 
adjacent wall sections with steel plates or equivalent as 
previously described. 

R602.3.3 Bearing studs. Wherejoists, trusses or rafters are 
spaced more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center and the 
bearing studs below are spaced 24 inches (610 mm) on cen- 
ter, such members shall bear within 5 inches (127 mm) of 
the studs beneath. 

Exceptions: 

1. The top plates are two 2- inch by 6- inch (38 mm by 
140 mm) or two 3- inch by 4- inch (64 mm by 89 mm) 
members. 

2. A third top plate is installed. 

3. Solid blocking equal in size to the studs is installed 
to reinforce the double top plate. 

R602.3.4 Bottom (sole) plate. Studs shall have full bearing 
on a nominal 2-by (51 mm) or larger plate or sill having a 
width at least equal to the width of the studs. 

R602.4 Interior load-bearing walls. Interior load-bearing 
walls shall be constructed, framed and fireblocked as specified 
for exterior walls. 

R602.5 Interior nonbearing walls. Interior nonbearing walls 
shall be permitted to be constructed with 2-inch-by-3-inch (51 
mm by 76 mm) studs spaced 24 inches (610 mm) on center or, 
when not part of a braced wa]]]ine, 2-inch-by-4-inch (51 mm 
by 102 mm) flat studs spaced at 16 inches (406 mm) on center. 
Interior nonbearing walls shall be capped with at least a single 
top plate. Interior nonbearing walls shall be fireblocked in 
accordance with Section R602.8. 



146 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602.3(1) 
FASTENER SCHEDULE FOR STRUCTURAL MEMBERS 



ITEM 


DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING ELEMENTS 


NUMBER AND TYPE OF 
FASTENERa, b, c 


SPACING OF FASTENERS 


Roof 


1 


Blocking between joists or rafters to top plate, toe nail 


3-8d (2 1 // x 0.113") 


- 


2 


Ceiling joists to plate, toe nail 


3-8d (2 1 / 2 " x 0.113") 




3 


Ceilingjoists not attached to parallel rafter, laps over partitions, 
face nail 


3-10d 




4 


Collar tie rafter, face nail or l 1 / 4 " x 20 gage ridge strap 


3-10d(3" x 0.128") 


- 


5 


Rafter to plate, toe nail 


2-16d (3 1 / 2 " x 0.135") 


- 


6 


Roof rafters to ridge, valley or hip rafters: 
toe nail 
face nail 


4-16d (3 V x 0.135") 
3-16d (3 V x 0.135") 


- 


Wall 


7 


Built-up corner studs 


10d(3" x 0.128") 


24" o.c. 


8 


Built-up header, two pieces with i/ 2 " spacer 


16d (3 V x 0.135") 


16" o.c. along each edge 


9 


Continued header, two pieces 


16d (3 V x 0.135") 


16" o.c. along each edge 


10 


Continuous header to stud, toe nail 


4-8d (2 V x 0.113") 


- 


11 


Double studs, face nail 


lOd (3" x 0.128") 


24" o.c. 


12 


Double top plates, face nail 


lOd (3" x 0.128") 


24" o.c. 


13 


Double top plates, minimum 48-inch offset of end joints, 
face nail in lapped area 


8-16d (3 V x 0.135") 




14 


Sole plate to joist or blocking, face nail 


16d (3 V x 0.135") 


16" o.c. 


15 


Sole plate to joist or blocking at braced wall panels 


3-16d (3 V x 0.135") 


16" o.c. 


16 


Stud to sole plate, toe nail 


3-8d (2 V x 0.113") 

or 
2-16d3V x 0.135") 


- 


17 


Top or sole plate to stud, end nail 


2-16d (3 V x 0.135") 




18 


Top plates, laps at corners and intersections, face nail 


2-10d (3" x 0.128") 




19 


1" brace to each stud and plate, face nail 


2-8d (2 1 / 2 " x 0.113") 
2 staples l 3 / 4 " 




20 


1" x 6" sheathing to each bearing, face nail 


2-8d (2 V x 0.113") 
2 staples l 3 / 4 " 


- 


21 


1" x 8" sheathing to each bearing, face nail 


2-8d (2 V x 0.113") 
3 staples l 3 / 4 " 


- 


22 


Wider than 1" x 8" sheathing to each bearing, face nail 


3-8d (2 V x 0.113") 
4 staples l 3 / 4 " 




Floor 


23 


] oist to sill or girder, toe nail 


3-8d(2V x 0.113") 




24 


1" x 6" subfloor or less to each joist, face nail 


2-8d (2 V x 0.113") 
2 staples l 3 / 4 " 


- 


25 


2" subfloor to joist or girder, blind and face nail 


2-16d (3 V x 0.135") 


- 


26 


Rim joist to top plate, toe nail (roof applications also) 


8d (2 V x 0.113") 


6" o.c. 


27 


2" planks (plank & beam - floor & roof) 


2-16d (3 1 / 2 " x 0.135") 


at each bearing 


28 


Built-up girders and beams, 2-inch lumber layers 


lOd (3" x 0.128") 


Nail each layer as follows: 

32" o.c. at top and bottom and 

staggered. Two nails at ends 

and at each splice. 


29 


Ledger strip supporting joists or rafters 


3-16d (3V 2 " x 0.135") 


At each joist or rafter 



(continued) 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



147 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602.3(1)-continued 
FASTENER SCHEDULE FOR STRUCTURAL MEMBERS 



ITEM 


DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING 
MATERIALS 


DESCRIPTION OF FASTENER b ,c, e 


SPACING OF FASTENERS 


Edges, 
(inches)' 


Intermediate 

supportsC, e 

(inches) 


Wood structural panels, subfloor, roof and interior wall sheathing to framing and particleboard wall sheathing to framing 


30 


3/ 8 " - l/ 2 " 


6d common (2" x 0.113") nail (subfloor wall)j 
8d common (2 1 / 2 " x 0.131") nail (roof) 


6 


I2g 


31 


5/ 16" " l/ 2 


6d common (2" x 0.113") nail (subfloor, wall) 
8d common (2 1 / 2 " x 0.131") nail (roof)f 


6 


I2g 


32 


19/32" - 1" 


8d common nail (2 1 / 2 " x 0.131") 


6 


I2g 


33 


iV - iV 


lOd common (3" x 0.148") nail or 
8d (2 1 / 2 " x 0.131") deformed nail 


6 


12 


Other wall sheathing h 


34 


i/ 2 " structural cellulosic 
fiberboard sheathing 


i/ 2 " galvanized roofing nail, 7/ 16 " crown or 1" 
crown staple 16 ga., l 1 / 4 " long 


3 


6 


35 


25/ 32 " structural cellulosic 
fiberboard sheathing 


l 3 / 4 " galvanized roofing nail, 7/ 16 " crown or 1" 
crown staple 16 ga., l 1 / 2 " long 


3 


6 


36 


i/ 2 " gypsum sheathing d 


1 V 2 " galvanized roofing nail; staple galvanized, 
lV 2 " long; lV 4 screws, Type W or S 


7 


7 


37 


5/ 8 " gypsum sheathing d 


l 3 / 4 " glavanized roofing nail; staple galvanized, 
l 5 / 8 " long; l 5 / 8 " screws, Type W or S 


7 


7 


Wood structural panels, combination subfloor underlayment to framing 


38 


3/4" and less 


6d deformed (2" x 0.120") nail or 
8d common (2 1 / 2 " x 0.131") nail 


6 


12 


39 


7/ 8 " - 1" 


8d common (2 1 / 2 " x 0.131") nail or 
8d deformed (2 1 / 2 " x 0.120") nail 


6 


12 


40 


lVg- - IV4" 


lOd common (3" x 0.148") nail or 
8d deformed (2 1 / 2 " x 0.120") nail 


6 


12 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mfs; lksi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. All nails are smooth-common, box or deformed shanks except where otherwise stated. Nails used for framing and sheathing connections shall have minimum 
average bending yield strengths as shown: 80 ksi for shank diameter of 0. 192 inch (20d common nail), 90 ksi for shank diameters larger than 0.142 inch but not 
larger than 0.177 inch, and 100 ksi for shank diameters of 0.142 inch or less. 

b. Staples are 16 gage wire and have a minimum 7fi6-inch on diameter crown width. 

c. Nails shall be spaced at not more than 6 inches on center at all supports where spans are 48 inches or greater. 

d. Four-foot-by-8-foot or 4-foot-by-9-foot panels shall be applied wrtically. 

e. Spacing of fasteners not included in this table shall be based on Table R602.3(2). 

f. For regions having basic wind speed of 1 10 mph or greater, 8d deformed (2V 2 " x 0.120) nails shall be used for attaching plywood and wood structural panel roof 
sheathing to framing within minimum 48-inch distance from gable end walls, if mean roof height is more than 25 feet, up to 35 feet maximum. 

g. For regions having basic wind speed of 100 mph or less, nails for attaching wood structural panel roof sheathing to gable end wall framing shall be spaced 6 inches 
on center. When basic wind speed is greater than 100 mph, nails for attaching panel roof sheathing to intermediate supports shall be spaced 6 inches on center for 
minimum 48-inch distance from ridges, eaves and gable end walls; and 4 inches on center to gable end wall framing. 

h. Gypsum sheathing shall conform to ASTM C 1396 and shall be installed in accordance with GA 253. Fiberboard sheathing shall conform to ASTM C 208. 

i. Spacing of fasteners on floor sheathing panel edges applies to panel edges supported by framing members and required blocking and at all floor perimeters only. 
Spacing of fasteners on roof sheathing panel edges applies to panel edges supported by framing members and required blocking. Blocking of roof or floor sheath- 
ing panel edges perpendicular to the framing members need not be provided except as required by other provisions of this code. Floor perimeter shall be supported 
by framing members or solid blocking. 



148 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602.3(2) 
ALTERNATE ATTACHMENTS 



NOMINAL MATERIAL THICKNESS 

(inches) 


DESCRIPTION 3 , b OF FASTENER AND LENGTH 
(inches) 


SPACING OF FASTENERS 


Edges 
(inches) 


Intermediate supports 
(inches) 


Wood structural panels subfloor, roof and wall sheathing to framing and particleboard wall sheathing to framing 


up to i/ 2 


Staple 15 gao l 3 / 4 


4 


8 


0.097 - 0.099 Nail 2h 4 


3 


6 


Staple 16 gao l 3 / 4 


3 


6 


i9/ 32 and 5/s 


0.113 Nail 2 


3 


6 


Staple 15 and 16 gao 2 


4 


8 


0.097 - 0.099 Nail 2V 4 


4 


8 


23/ 32 and 3/ 4 


Staple 14 gao2 


4 


8 


Staple 15 gao l 3 / 4 


3 


6 


0.097 - 0.099 Nail 2V 4 


4 


8 


Staple 16 gao 2 


4 


8 


1 


Staple 14 gao 2V 4 


4 


8 


0.113 Nail 2% 


3 


6 


Staple 15 gao 2 ! / 4 


4 


8 


0.097 - 0.099 Nail 2 1 /, 


4 


8 


NOMINAL MATERIAL THICKNESS 

(inches) 


DESCRIPTIONS OF FASTENER AND LENGTH 
(inches) 


SPACING OF FASTENERS 


Edges 
(inches) 


Body of panel d 
(inches) 


Floor underlayment; plywood-hardboard-particleboard 


Plywood 


i/ 4 and 5/ 16 


lV 4 ring or screw shank nail-minimum 
12 V 2 gao (0.099") shank diameter 


3 


6 


Staple 18 ga., 7 /« 3 / 1fi crown width 


2 


5 


n/ 32 , 3/ s ' i5/ 32 , and i/ 2 


lV 4 ring or screw shank nail-minimum 
12 V 2 gao (0.099") shank diameter 


6 


8 e 


i9/ 32 , 5/ s ' 23/ 32 and 3/ 4 


l 1 / 2 ring or screw shank nail-minimum 
12 V 2 gao (0.099") shank diameter 


6 


8 


Staple 16 gao l x / 2 


6 


8 


Hardboard f 


0.200 


l 1 / 7 long ring-grooved underlayment nail 


6 


6 


4d cement-coated sinker nail 


6 


6 


Staple 18 ga., 7/ s long (plastic coated) 


3 


6 


Particleboard 


17 4 


4d ring-grooved underlayment nail 


3 


6 


Staple 18 ga., 7 / R long, 3 / 16 crown 


3 


6 


3/ s 


6d ring-grooved underlayment nail 


6 


10 


Staple 16 ga., lV^long, 3 / 8 crown 


3 


6 


l/ 2 .5/ s 


6d ring-grooved underlayment nail 


6 


10 


Staple 16 ga., l 5 / s long, 3/ s crown 


3 


6 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Nail is a general description and may be T-head, modified round head or round head. 

b. Staples shall have a minimum crown width of 7 / 16 -inch on diameter except as noted. 

c. Nails or staples shall be spaced at not more than 6 inches on center at all supports where spans are 41 
than 12 inches on center at intermediate supports for floors. 

d. Fasteners shall be placed in a grid pattern throughout the body of the panel. 

e. For 5-ply panels, intermediate nails shall be spaced not more than 12 inches on center each way. 

f. Hardboard underlayment shall conform to ANSI/AHA AI35.4. 



inches or greater. Nails or staples shall be spaced at not more 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



149 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602.3(3) 

REQUIREMENTS FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL 

WALL SHEATHING USED TO RESIST WIND PRESSURESa,b,c 



MINIMUM NAIL 


MINIMUM 

WOOD 

STRUCTURAL 

PANEL SPAN 

RATING 


MINIMUM 

NOMINAL 

PANEL 

THICKNESS 

(inches) 


MAXIMUM 

WALL STUD 

SPACING 

(inches) 


PANEL NAIL SPACING 


MAXIMUM WIND SPEED 
(mph) 


Size 


Penetration 
(inches) 


Edges 
(inches o.c.) 


Field 
(inches o.c.) 




B 


c 


D 


6d Common 

(2.0" x 0.113") 


1.5 


24/0 


318 


16 


6 


12 


110 


90 


85 


8d Common 
(2.5" x 0.131") 


1.75 


24/16 


7116 


16 


6 


12 


130 


110 


105 


24 


6 


12 


110 


90 


85 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 

a. Panel strength axis parallel or perpendicular to supports. Three-ply plywood sheathing with studs spaced more than 16 inches on center shall be applied with panel 
strength axis perpendicular to supports. 

b. Table is based on wind pressures acting toward and away from building surfaces per Section R30 1 .2. Lateral bracing requirements shall be in accordance with Sec- 
tion R602. 10. 

c. Wood Structural Panels with span ratings ofWall-16 orWall-24 shall be permitted as an alternate to panels with a 24/0 span rating. Plywood siding rated 16 oc or 24 
oc shall be permitted as an alternate to panels with a 24/16 span rating. Wall- 16 and Plywood siding 16 oc shall be used with studs spaced a maximum of 16 inches 
on center. 

TABLE R602.3(4) 
ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR PARTICLEBOARD WALL SHEATHINGa 



THICKNESS 

(inch) 


GRADE 


STUD SPACING 
(inches) 


When siding is nailed to studs 


When siding is nailed to sheathing 


3/ 8 


M- 1 Exterior glue 


16 




U 2 


M-2 Exterior glue 


16 


16 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Wall sheathing not exposed to the weather. If the panels are applied horizontally, the endjoints of the panel shall be offset so that four panels corners will not meet. 
All panel edges must be supported. Leave a i/ 16 -inch gap between panels and nail no closer than 3/ 8 inch from panel edges. 

TABLE R602.3(5) 
SIZE, HEIGHT AND SPACING OF WOOD STUDsa 



STUD SIZE 
(inches) 


BEARING WALLS 


NON BEARING WALLS 


Laterally 

unsupported 

stud height 3 

(feet) 


Maximum spacing 
when supporting 
a roof-ceiling 
assembly or a 
habitable attic 
assembly, only 
(inches) 


Maximum spacing 
when supporting 
one floor, plus a 

roof-ceiling 

assembly or a 

habitable attic 

assembly 

(inches) 


Maximum spacing 

when supporting 

two floors, plus a 

roof-ceiling 

assembly or a 

habitable attic 

assembly 

(inches) 


Maximum 

spacing when 

supporting one 

floor height 3 

(feet) 


Laterally 

unsupported 

stud 

height 3 

(feet) 


Maximum 
spacing 
(inches) 










































- 




- 






2x 3 b 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


10 


16 


2x4 


10 


24 c 


16 c 


- 


24 


14 


24 


3x4 


10 


24 


24 


16 


24 


14 


24 


2x5 


10 


24 


24 




24 


16 


24 


2x6 


10 


24 


24 


16 


24 


20 


24 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.093m 2 - 

a. Listed heights are distances between points of lateral support placed perpendicular to the plane of the wall. Increases in unsupported height are permitted where 
justified by analysis. 

b. Shall not be used in exterior walls. 

c. A habitable attic assembly supported by 2x 4 studs is limited to a roof span of 32 feet. Where the roof span exceeds 32 feet, the wall studs shall be increased to 2 x 6 
or the studs shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice. 



150 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



c^ 



^ 



TOP PLATE 



BOTTOM PLATE 



TOP PLATE 



3- 



RAFTERS AND CEILING 
JOISTS OR APPROVED 
ROOF TRUSS 



SECOND STORY 




£ 



HfO 



FLOOR JOIST- 
SEE DRILLING AND 
NOTCHING PROVISIONS 
SECTION R502.8 



JOIST IS PERMITTED TO 
BE CUT OR NOTCHED 
BETWEEN THESE LIMITS 



A. 



| V3SPAN I 



I VaSPAN 

\+ M H 



O; 



BAND JOIST OR 
BLOCKING 



BAND JOIST 
OR BLOCKING 

SILL PLATE 



LJ/ 



X 



y/A\w/// 



BOTTOM PLATE 



FOR BLOCKING AND 
BRIDGING— -SEE 
SECTION R502.7 



BEARING 
WALL 



LAP JOIST 3 IN. MIN. 
OR SPLICE-SEE 
SECTION R502.6.1 



JOIST 



Trf 
I 



J- 



CRAWL SPACE OR 

BASEMENT 

FOUNDATION 



'/// \\V '/// n\\\ y// AW/// \\\n 



^— i 



TOP PLATE- 
SEE DRILLING AND 
NOTCHING PROVISIONS 
SECTION R602.6.1 



WALL STUD- 
SEE DRILLING AND 
NOTCHING PROVISIONS 
SECTION R602.6 



JOIST NAILED TO 
STUD 



1 IN. x 4 IN. RIBBON 
CUT INTO STUD- 
SEE SECTION R502, i 



SEE SECTION R602.8 
FOR FIREBLOCKING 



:':0 

'•'•-I 



SUBFLOOR 




\^77/f 



PLATFORM FRAMING 



INTERMEDIATE 
BEARING WALL 



\^77// 



MONOLITHIC 

SLAB-ON-GRADE 

FOUNDATION 



BALLOON FRAMING 



For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R602.3(1) 
TYPICAL WALL, FLOOR AND ROOF FRAMING 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



151 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



SINGLE OR DOUBLE 
TOP PLATE 



r<>\ 



FIREBLOCK AROUND 
PIPE 



WALL STUDS- 
SEE SECTION R602.3 



SUBFLOOR 



SILL PLATE 



CUT PLATE TIED WITH 
16 GAGE STEEL STRAP 
SEE SECTION R602.6.1. 



STAGGER JOINTS 24 IN. OR 
USE SPLICE PLATE&- 
SEE SECTION R602.3.2 



JACK STUDS OR 
TRIMMERS 




H « I 



HEADER- 
SEE TABLES R502.5(1) 
AND R502.5(2} 






SOLID BLOCKING 



FLOOR JOISTS 



FOUNDATION 
CRIPPLE WALL- 
SEE SECTION R602.' 



FOUNDATION 
WALL STUDS 



1 IN. BY41N, 
DIAGONAL BRACE 
LET INTO STUDS 



ANCHOR BOLTS EMBEDDED IN 
FOUNDATION 6 FT D.C. MAX. 



CORNER AND PARTITION POSTS 






is 

3 



APPLY APPROVED SHEATHING OR BRACE 
EXTERIOR WALLS WITH 1 IN. BY41N, BRACES LET 
INTO STUDS AND PLATES AND EXTENDING FROM 
BOTTOM PLATE TO TOP PLATE, OR OTHER 
APPROVED METAL STRAP DEVICES INSTALLED IN 
ACCORDANCE WITH THE MANUFACTURER'S 
SPECIFICATIONS. SEE SECTION R602.10. 



NOTE:ATHIRD STUD AND/OR PARTITION INTERSECTION 
BACKING STUDS SHALL BE PERMITTED TO BE OMITTED 
THROUGH THE USE OF WOOD BACKUP CLEATS, METAL 
DRYWALL CLIPS OR OTHER APPROVED DEVICES THAT 
WILL SERVE AS ADEQUATE BACKING FOR THE FACING 
MATERIALS. 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



FIGURE R602.3(2) 
FRAMING DETAILS 



152 



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TABLE R602.3.1 

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE LENGTH OF WOOD WALL STUDS EXPOSED TO WIND SPEEDS OF 100 mph OR LESS 

IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES A, B, C, Do' D { and D 2 b ,c 



HEIGHT 
(feet) 


ON-CENTER SPACING (inches) 


24 


16 


12 


8 


Supporting a roof only 


>10 


2x4 


2x4 


2x4 


2x4 


12 


2x6 


2x4 


2x4 


2x4 


14 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


2x4 


16 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


2x4 


18 


NAa 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


20 


NAa 


NAa 


2x6 


2x6 


24 


NAa 


NAa 


NAa 


2x6 


Supporting one floor and a roof 


>10 


2x6 


2x4 


2x4 


2x4 


12 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


2x4 


14 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


16 


NAa 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


18 


NAa 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


20 


NAa 


NAa 


2x6 


2x6 


24 


NAa 


NAa 


NAa 


2x6 


Supporting two floors and a roof 


>10 


2x6 


2x6 


2x4 


2x4 


12 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


14 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


16 


NAa 


NAa 


2x6 


2x6 


18 


NAa 


NAa 


2x6 


2x6 


20 


NAa 


NAa 


NAa 


2x6 


22 


NAa 


NAa 


NAa 


NAa 


24 


NAa 


NAa 


NAa 


NAa 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 
1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis. 

a. Design required. 

b. Applicability of this table assumes the following: Snow load not exceeding 25 psf, f b not less than 1310 psi determined by multiplying the AF&PA NOS tabular 
base design value by the repetitive use factor, and by the size factor for all species except southern pine, E not less than 1.6 x 10 6 psi, tributary dimensions for floors 
and roofs not exceeding 6 feet, maximum span for floors and roof not exceeding 12 feet, eaves not over 2 feet in dimension and exterior sheathing. Where the condi- 
tions are not within these parameters, design is required. 

c. Utility, standard, stud and No. 3 grade lumber of any species are not permitted. 

(continued) 



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153 



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TABLE R602. 3.1 -continued 

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE LENGTH OF WOOD WALL STUDS EXPOSED TO WIND SPEEDS OF 100 mph OR LESS 

IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES A, B, C, Do, D, and D 2 



H= HEIGHT 



H=HEIGHT 



1 ROOF LOAD 



1 ROOF LOAD 
1 FLOOR LOAD 



1 FLOOR 



H = HEIGHT 



1 ROOF LOAD 

2 FLOOR LOADS 



154 



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R602.6 Drilling and notching-studs. Drilling and notching 
of studs shall be in accordance with the following: 

1. Notching. Any stud in an exterior wall or bearing partition 
may be cut or notched to a depth not exceeding 25 percent 
of its width. Studs in nonbearing partitions may be notched 
to a depth not to exceed 40 percent of a single stud width. 

2. Drilling. Any stud may be bored or drilled, provided that 
the diameter of the resulting hole is no more than 60 per- 
cent of the stud width, the edge of the hole is no more 
than 5/ 8 inch (16 mm) to the edge of the stud, and the hole 
is not located in the same section as a cut or notch. Studs 
located in exterior walls or bearing partitions drilled over 
40 percent and up to 60 percent shall also be doubled 
with no more than two successive doubled studs bored. 
See Figures R602.6(l) and R602.6(2). 



Exception: Use of approved stud shoes is permitted 
when they are installed in accordance with the manu- 
facturer's recommendations. 

R602.6.1 Drilling and notching of top plate. When piping 
or ductwork is placed in or partly in an exterior wall or inte- 
rior load-bearing wall, necessitating cutting, drilling or 
notching of the top plate by more than 50 percent of its 
width, a galvanized metal tie not less than 0.054 inch thick 
(1.37 mm) (16 ga) and 1V 2 inches (38 mm) wide shall be fas- 
tened across and to the plate at each side of the opening with 
not less than eight lOd (0.148 inch diameter) having a mini- 
mum length of 1V 2 inches (38 mm) at each side or equiva- 
lent. The metal tie must extend a minimum of 6 inches past 
the opening. See Figure R602.6.1. 

Exception: When the entire side of the wall with the notch 
or cut is covered by wood structural panel sheathing. 



TOP PLATES 



BORED HOLE MAX. 
DIAMETER 40 PERCENT 
OF STUD DEPTH 



5/ s IN. MIN. TO EDGE 



NOTCH MUST NOT EXCEED 25 
PERCENT OF STUD DEPTH 



A 



\ 



/ 



BORED HOLES SHALL NOT BE 
LOCATED IN THE SAME CROSS 
SECTION OF CUT OR NOTCH IN 
STUD 



^ 



n 



STUD 



5/a1N. MIN. TO EDGE 




IF HOLE IS BETWEEN 40 PERCENT AND 
60 PERCENT OF STUD DEPTH, THEN STUD 
MUST BE DOUBLE AND NO MORE THAN TWO 
SUCCESSIVE STUDS ARE DOUBLED AND SO 
BORED 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

NOTE: Condition for exterior and bearing walls. 



FIGURE R602.6(1) 
NOTCHING AND BORED HOLE LIMITATIONS FOR EXTERIOR WALLS AND BEARING WALLS 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



155 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 




TOP PLATES 



BORED HOLE MAX. 
DIAMETER 60 PERCENT 
OF STUD DEPTH 



5/ s IN. MIN. TO EDGE 



NOTCH MUST NOT EXCEED 
40 PERCENT OF STUD DEPTH 



BORED HOLES SHALL NOT BE 
LOCATED IN THE SAME CROSS 
SECTION OF CUT OR NOTCH IN 
STUD 



'A 



ft/ 








s 



STUD 



5/ s IN. MIN. TO EDGE 



For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R602.6(2) 
NOTCHING AND BORED HOLE LIMITATIONS FOR INTERIOR NONBEARING WALLS 



156 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



EXTERIOR OR BEARING WALL 



no 



NOTCH GREATER THAN 50 
PERCENT OF THE PLATE WIDTH 




TOP PLATES 





16 GAGE (0.054 IN.) AND 1.5 IN. WIDE 
METAL TIE FASTENED ACROSS AND 
TO THE PLATE AT EACH SIDE OF THE 
NOTCH WITH 8-1 6d NAILS EACH SIDE 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R602.6.1 
TOP PLATE FRAMING TO ACCOMMODATE PIPING 



R602.7 Headers. For header spans see Tables R502.5(l) and 
R502.5(2). 

R602.7.1 Wood structural panel box headers. Wood 
structural panel box headers shall be constructed in accor- 
dance with Figure R602.7.2 and Table R602.7.2. 

R602.7.2 Nonbearing walls. Load-bearing headers are not 
required in interior or exterior nonbearing walls. A single 
flat 2-inch-by-4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) member may be 
used as a header in interior or exterior nonbearing walls for 
openings up to 8 feet (2438 mm) in width if the vertical dis- 
tance to the parallel nailing surface above is not more than 
24 inches (610 mm) . For such nonbearing headers, no crip- 
ples or blocking are required above the header. 



R602.8 Fireblocking required. Fireblocking shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Section R302.ll. 

R602.9 Cripple walls. Foundation cripple walls shall be 
framed of studs not smaller than the studding above. When 
exceeding 4 feet (1219 mm) in height, such walls shall be 
framed of studs having the size required for an additional story. 

Cripple walls with a stud height less than 14 inches (356 
mm) shall be sheathed on at least one side with a wood struc- 
tural panel that is fastened to both the top and bottom plates in 
accordance with Table R602.3(l), or the cripple walls shall be 
constructed of solid blocking. Cripple walls shall be supported 
on continuous foundations. 



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157 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602.7.2 
MAXIMUM SPANS FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL BOX HEADERS a 



HEADER 
CONSTRUCTION 13 


HEADER DEPTH 

(inches) 


HOUSE DEPTH (feet) 


24 


26 


28 


30 


32 


Wood structural 
panel-one side 


9 
15 


4 

5 


4 

5 


3 
4 


3 
3 


3 


Wood structural 
panel-both sides 


9 
15 


7 
8 


5 
8 


5 
7 


4 

7 


3 
6 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Spans are based on single story with clear-span trussed roof or two-story with floor and roof supported by interior-bearing walls. 

b. See Figure R602.7.2 for construction details. 



CRIPPLE c 



TOP PLATE 3 



STRENGTH AXIS 




HEADER DEF TH 



STRENGTH AXIS 




WOOD 

STRUCTURAL 
PANELd, e 



INSULATION AS 
REQUIRED 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 
NOTES: 

a. The top plate shall be continuous over header. 

b. Jack studs shall be used for spans over 4 feet. SECTION 

c. Cripple spacing shall be the same as for studs. 

d. Wood structural panel faces shall be single pieces of i5/ 3z -inch-thick Exposure 1 (exterior glue) or thicker, installed on the interior or exterior or both sides of the 
header. 

e. Wood structural panel faces shall be nailed to framing and cripples with 8d common or galvanized box nails spaced 3 inches on center, staggering alternate nails 
l/zinch. Galvanized nails shall be hot-dipped or tumbled. 

FIGURE R602.7.2 
TYPICAL WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL BOX HEADER CONSTRUCTION 



158 



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R602.10 Wall bracing. Buildings shall be braced in accor- 
dance with this section. Where a building, or portion thereof, 
does not comply with one or more of the bracing requirements 
in this section, those portions shall be designed and constructed 
in accordance with Section R301.1. 

Exception: Detached one- and two-family dwellings located 
in Seismic Design Category C are exempt from the seismic 
bracing requirements of this section. Wind speed provisions 
for bracing shall be applicable to detached one- and two-fam- 
ily dwellings. 

R602.10.1 Braced wall lines. Braced wall lines shall be 
provided in accordance with this section. The length of a 
braced wall line shall be measured as the distance between 
the ends of the wall line. The end of a braced wall line shall 
be considered to be either: 

1. The intersection with perpendicular exterior walls or 
projection thereof, 

2. The intersection with perpendicular braced wall 
lines. 

The end of the braced wall line shall be chosen such that 
the maximum length results. 

R602. 10.1.1 Braced wall panels. Braced wallpanels shall 
be constructed in accordance with the intermittent bracing 
methods specified in Section R602.10.2, or the continuous 
sheathing methods specified in Sections R602.10.4 and 
R602.10.5. Mixing of bracing method shall be permitted as 
follows: 

1. Mixing bracing methods from storyto storyis per- 
mitted. 

2. Mixing bracing methods from braced wall line to 
braced wall line within a storyis permitted, except 
that continuous sheathing methods shall conform to 
the additional requirements of Sections R602.10.4 
and R602. 10.5. 

3. Mixing bracing methods within a braced wall line 
is permitted only in Seismic Design Categories A 
and B, and detached dwellings in Seismic Design 
Category C. The length of required bracing for the 
braced wall line with mixed sheathing types shall 
have the higher bracing length requirement, in 
accordance with Tables R602. 10. 1.2(1) and 
R602. 10. 1.2(2), of all types of bracing used. 

R602.10.1.2 Length of bracing. The length of bracing 
along each braced wall line shall be the greater of that 
required by the design wind speed and braced wall line 
spacing in accordance with Table R602. 10. 1.2(1) as 
adjusted by the factors in the footnotes or the Seismic 
Design Category and braced wall line length in accor- 
dance with Table R602. 10. 1.2(2) as adjusted by the fac- 
tors in Table R602. 10. 1.2(3) or braced wall panel 
location requirements of Section R602.10.1.4. Only 



walls that are parallel to the braced wall line shall be 
counted toward the bracing requirement of that line, 
except angled walls shall be counted in accordance with 
Section R602.10.1.3. In no case shall the minimum total 
length of bracing in a braced wall line, after all adjust- 
ments have been taken, be less than 48 inches (1219 mm) 
total. 

R602.10.1.2.1 Braced wall panel uplift load path. 
Braced wallpanels located at exterior walls that sup- 
port roof rafters or trusses (including stories below 
top story) shall have the framing members connected 
in accordance with one of the following: 

1. Fastening in accordance with Table R602.3(l) 
where: 

1.1. The basic wind speed does not exceed 
90 mph (40 m/s) , the wind exposure cat- 
egory is B, the roof pitch is 5: 12 or 
greater, and the roof span is 32 feet 
(9754 mm) or less, or 

1.2. The net uplift value at the top of a wall 
does not exceed 100 plf. The net uplift 
value shall be determined in accordance 
with Section R802.ll and shall be per- 
mitted to be reduced by 60 plf (86 
N/mm) for each full wall above. 

2. Where the net uplift value at the top of a wall 
exceeds 100 plf (146 N/mm), installing approved 
uplift framing connectors to provide a continuous 
load path from the top of the wall to the foundation. 
The net uplift value shall be as determined in Item 
1.2 above. 

3. Bracing and fasteners designed in accordance 
with accepted engineering practice to resist 
combined uplift and shear forces. 

R602.10.1.3 Angled corners. At corners, braced wall 
lines shall be permitted to angle out of plane up to 45 
degrees with a maximum diagonal length of 8 feet (2438 
mm). When determining the length of bracing required, 
the length of each braced wall line shall be determined as 
shown in Figure R602.10.1.3. The placement of bracing 
for the braced wall lines shall begin at the point where the 
braced wall line, which contains the angled wall adjoins 
the adjacent braced wall line (Point A as shown in Figure 
R602.1 0.1.3). Where an angled corner is constructed at an 
angle equal to 45 degrees (0.79 rad) and the diagonal 
length is no more than 8 feet (2438 mm), the angled wall 
may be considered as part of either of the adjoining braced 
wall lines, but not both. Where the diagonal length is 
greater than 8 feet (2438 mm), it shall be considered its 
own braced wall line and be braced in accordance with 
Section R602.10.1 and methods in Section R602.10.2. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



159 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602.1 0.1.2(1)3, b,c,d,e 

BRACING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON WIND SPEED 

(as a function of braced wall line spacing) 



EXPOSURE CATEGORY B, 30 FT MEAN ROOF HEIGHT, 

10 FT EAVE TO RIDGE HEIGHT, 

10 FT WALL HEIGHT, 

2 BRACED WALL LINES 


MINIMUM TOTAL LENGTH (feet) OF BRACED WALL PANELS REQUIRED ALONG 
EACH BRACED WALL LINE 


Basic Wind Speed 
(mph) 


Story 
Location 


Braced Wall Line 
Spacing (feet) 


Method LIB f ,h 


Method GB 
(double sided)9 


Methods DWB, 

WSP, SFB, PCP, 

HPSf,i 


Continuous 
Sheathing 


<85 
(mph) 




10 


3.5 


3.5 


2.0 


1.5 


20 


6.0 


6.0 


3.5 


3.0 


6§ 




30 


8.5 


8.5 


5.0 


4.5 


40 


11.5 


11.5 


6.5 


5.5 


50 


14.0 


14.0 


8.0 


7.0 




60 


16.5 


16.5 


9.5 


8.0 




10 


6.5 


6.5 


3.5 


3.0 


20 


11.5 


11.5 


6.5 


5.5 


6§ 




30 


16.5 


16.5 


9.5 


8.0 


40 


21.5 


21.5 


12.5 


10.5 


50 


26.5 


26.5 


15.0 


13.0 




60 


31.5 


31.5 


18.0 


15.5 




10 


NP 


9.0 


5.5 


4.5 


20 


NP 


17.0 


10.0 


8.5 


6§ 




30 


NP 


24.5 


14.0 


12.0 


40 


NP 


32.0 


18.0 


15.5 


50 


NP 


39.0 


22.5 


19.0 




60 


NP 


46.5 


26.5 


22.5 


<90 

(mph) 




10 


3.5 


3.5 


2.0 


2.0 


20 


7.0 


7.0 


4.0 


3.5 


ft§ 




30 


9.5 


9.5 


5.5 


5.0 


40 


12.5 


12.5 


7.5 


6.0 


50 


15.5 


15.5 


9.0 


7.5 




60 


18.5 


18.5 


10.5 


9.0 




10 


7.0 


7.0 


4.0 


3.5 


20 


13.0 


13.0 


7.5 


6.5 




= 


30 


18.5 


18.5 


10.5 


9.0 


A 


iH 


40 


24.0 


24.0 


14.0 


12.0 


50 


29.5 


29.5 


17.0 


14.5 




60 


35.0 


35.0 


20.0 


17.0 




10 


NP 


10.5 


6.0 


5.0 


20 


NP 


19.0 


11.0 


9.5 


6fi 




30 


NP 


27.5 


15.5 


13.5 


40 


NP 


35.5 


20.5 


17.5 


50 


NP 


44.0 


25.0 


21.5 








60 


NP 


52.0 


30.0 


25.5 



(continued) 



160 



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WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602.1 0.1.2(1)3, b,c,d, e-continued 

BRACING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON WIND SPEED 

(as a function of braced wall line spacing) 



EXPOSURE CATEGORY B, 30 FT MEAN ROOF HEIGHT, 

10 FT EAVE TO RIDGE HEIGHT, 

10 FT WALL HEIGHT, 

2 BRACED WALL LINES 


MINIMUM TOTAL LENGTH (feet) OF BRACED WALL PANELS REQUIRED ALONG 
EACH BRACED WALL LINE 


Basic Wind Speed 
(mph) 


Story 
Location 


Braced wall 
Line Spacing (feet) 


Method LIB f ,h 


Method GB 
(doubled sided)9 


Method DWB, 

WSP, SFB, PCP, 

HPSf,i 


Continuous 
Sheathing 


< 100 
(mph) 




10 


4.5 


4.5 


2.5 


2.5 


20 


8.5 


8.5 


5.0 


4.0 


A§ 




30 


12.0 


12.0 


7.0 


6.0 


40 


15.5 


15.5 


9.0 


7.5 


50 


19.0 


19.0 


11.0 


9.5 




60 


22.5 


22.5 


13.0 


11.0 




10 


8.5 


8.5 


5.0 


4.5 


20 


16.0 


16.0 


9.0 


8.0 


A§ 




30 


23.0 


23.0 


13.0 


11.0 


40 


29.5 


29.5 


17.0 


14.5 


50 


36.5 


36.5 


21.0 


18.0 




60 


43.5 


43.5 


25.0 


21.0 




10 


NP 


12.5 


7.5 


6.0 


20 


NP 


23.5 


13.5 


11.5 


6§ 




30 


NP 


34.0 


19.5 


16.5 


40 


NP 


44.0 


25.0 


21.5 


50 


NP 


54.0 


31.0 


26.5 




60 


NP 


64.0 


36.5 


31.0 


< 110 
(mph) 




10 


5.5 


5.5 


3.0 


3.0 


20 


10.0 


10.0 


6.0 


5.0 


fit 




30 


14.5 


14.5 


8.5 


7.0 


40 


18.5 


18.5 


11.0 


9.0 


50 


23.0 


23.0 


13.0 


11.5 




60 


27.5 


27.5 


15.5 


13.5 




10 


10.5 


10.5 


6.0 


5.0 






20 


19.0 


19.0 


11.0 


9.5 




- 


30 


27.5 


27.5 


16.0 


13.5 


ft 


iH 


40 


36.0 


36.0 


20.5 


17.5 


50 


44.0 


44.0 


25.5 


21.5 




60 


52.5 


52.5 


30.0 


25.5 




10 


NP 


15.5 


9.0 


7.5 


20 


NP 


28.5 


16.5 


14.0 


fit 




30 


NP 


41.0 


23.5 


20.0 


40 


NP 


53.0 


30.5 


26.0 


50 


NP 


65.5 


37.5 


32.0 








60 


NP 


77.5 


44.5 


37.5 



(continued) 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



161 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602.1 0.1.2(1)3, b,c,d, e-continued 

BRACING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON WIND SPEED 

(as a function of braced wall line spacing) 

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound force = 4.448 N. 

a. Tabulated bracing lengths are based on Wind Exposure Category B, a 30-ft mean roof height, a 10-ft eave to ridge height, a 10-ft wall height, and two braced wall 
lines sharing load in a given plan direction on a given story level. Methods of bracing shall be as described in Sections R602 . 10.2, R602 . 10.4 and R602 . 10.5. Inter- 
polation shall be permitted. 



NUMBER OF STORIES 


EXPOSURE/HEIGHT FACTORS 


Exposure B 


Exposure C 


Exposure D 


1 


1.0 


1.2 


1.5 


2 


1.0 


1.3 


1.6 


3 


1.0 


1.4 


1.7 



b. For other mean roof heights and exposure categories, the required bracing length shall be multiplied by the appropriate factor from the following table: 

c. For other roof-to-eave ridge heights, the required bracing length shall be multiplied by the appropriate factor from the following table: interpolation shall be per- 
mitted. 



SUPPORT CONDITION 


ROOF EAVE-TO-RIDGE HEIGHT 


5 ft or less 


10 ft 


15 ft 


20 ft 


Roof only 


0.7 


1.0 


1.3 


1.6 


Roof + floor 


0.85 


1.0 


1.15 


1.3 


Roof + 2 floors 


0.9 


1.0 


1.1 


NP 



d. For a maximum 9-foot wall height, multiplying the table values by 0.95 shall be permitted. For a maximum 8-foot wall height, multiplying, the table values by 0.90 
shall be permitted. For a maximum 12-foot wall height, the table values shall be multiplied by 1.1. 

e. For three or more braced wall lines in a given plan direction, the required bracing length on each braced wall line shall be multiplied by the appropriate factor from 
the following table: 



NUMBER OF BRACED WALL LINES 


ADJUSTMENT FACTOR 


3 


1.30 


4 


1.45 


>5 


1.60 



f. Bracing lengths are based on the application of gypsum board finish (or equivalent) applied to the inside face of a braced wall panel. When gypsum board finish (or 
equivalent) is not applied to the inside face of braced wall panels, the tabulated lengths shall be multiplied by the appropriate factor from the following table: 



BRACING METHOD 


ADJUSTMENT FACTOR 


Method LIB 


1.8 


Methods DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP, HPS 


1.4 



g. Bracing lengths for Method GB are based on the application of gypsum board on both faces of a braced wall panel. When Method GB is provided on only one side 
of the wall, the required bracing amounts shall be doubled. When Method GB braced wall panels installed in accordance with Section R602. 10.2 are fastened at 4 
inches on center at panel edges , including top and bottom plates , and are blocked at all horizontalj oints , multiplying the required bracing percentage for wind load- 
ing by 0.7 shall be permitted. 

h. Method LIB bracing shall have gypsum board attached to at least one side according to the Section R602.10.2 Method GB requirements. 

i. Required bracing length for Methods DWB , WSP, SFB , PBS , PCP and HPS in braced wall lines located in one-story buildings and in the top story of two or three 
story buildings shall be permitted to be multiplied by 0.80 when an approved hold-down device with a minimum uplift design value of 800 pounds is fastened to the 
end studs of each braced wall panel in the braced wall line and to the foundation or framing below. 



162 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602.1 0.1.2(2)a, b,c 

BRACING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY 

(AS A FUNCTION OF BRACED WALL LINE LENGTH) 



SOIL CLASS D a 

WALL HEIGHT =10 FT 

10 PSF FLOOR DEAD LOAD 

15 PSF ROOF/CEILING DEAD LOAD 

BRACED WALL LINE SPACING < 25 FT 


MINIMUM TOTAL LENGTH (feet) OF BRACED WALL PANELS REQUIRED 
ALONG EACH BRACED WALL LINE 


Seismic Design 

Category 

(SDC) 


Story Location 


Braced Wall 
Line Length 


Method LIB 


Methods 
DWB, SFB, GB, 
PBS, PCP, HPS 


Method WSP 


Continuous 
Sheathing 


SDCAand B 
and Detached Dwellings in C 


Exempt from Seismic Requirements 
Use Table R602. 10. 1.2(1) for Bracing Requirements 


SDCC 




10 


2.5 


2.5 


1.6 


1.4 


A. 




20 


5.0 


5.0 


3.2 


2.7 


o§ 




30 


7.5 


7.5 


4.8 


4.1 


40 


10.0 


10.0 


6.4 


5.4 




50 


12.5 


12.5 


8.0 


6.8 




10 


NP 


4.5 


3.0 


2.6 


A 




20 


NP 


9.0 


6.0 


5.1 


a§ 




30 


NP 


13.5 


9.0 


7.7 


40 


NP 


18.0 


12.0 


10.2 




50 


NP 


22.5 


15.0 


12.8 




10 


NP 


6.0 


4.5 


3.8 


ftfil 




20 


NP 


12.0 


9.0 


7.7 


30 


NP 


18.0 


13.5 


11.5 


40 


NP 


24.0 


18.0 


15.3 




50 


NP 


30.0 


22.5 


19.1 


SDC Do or D 1 




10 


NP 


3.0 


2.0 


1.7 


o§ 




20 


NP 


6.0 


4.0 


3.4 


30 


NP 


9.0 


6.0 


5.1 


40 


NP 


12.0 


8.0 


6.8 




50 


NP 


15.0 


10.0 


8.5 


Afifi 


10 


NP 


6.0 


4.5 


3.8 


20 


NP 


12.0 


9.0 


7.7 


30 


NP 


18.0 


13.5 


11.5 


a a 




40 


NP 


24.0 


18.0 


15.3 




50 


NP 


30.0 


22.5 


19.1 




10 


NP 


8.5 


6.0 


5.1 


ftfil 




20 


NP 


17.0 


12.0 


10.2 


30 


NP 


25.5 


18.0 


15.3 


40 


NP 


34.0 


24.0 


20.4 






50 


NP 


42.5 


30.0 


25.5 



(continued) 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



163 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602.1 0.1.2(2)a, b,C-continued 

BRACING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY 

(AS A FUNCTION OF BRACED WALL LINE LENGTH) 



SOIL CLASS D a 

WALL HEIGHT =10 FT 

10 PSF FLOOR DEAD LOAD 

15 PSF ROOF/CEILING DEAD LOAD 

BRACED WALL LINE SPACING < 25 FT 


MINIMUM TOTAL LENGTH (feet) OF BRACED WALL PANELS REQUIRED 
ALONG EACH BRACED WALL LINE 


Seismic Design 

Category 

(SDC) 


Story Location 


Braced Wall 
Line Length 


Method LIB 


METHODS DWB, 

SFB, GB, PBS, PCP, 

HPS 


Method WSP 


Continuous 
Sheathing 


SDCD Z 




10 


NP 


4.0 


2.5 


2.1 


A 




20 


NP 


8.0 


5.0 


4.3 


6§ 




30 


NP 


12.0 


7.5 


6.4 


40 


NP 


16.0 


10.0 


8.5 




50 


NP 


20.0 


12.5 


10.6 


6&fi 


10 


NP 


7.5 


5.5 


4.7 


20 


NP 


15.0 


11.0 


9.4 


30 


NP 


22.5 


16.5 


14.0 


40 


NP 


30.0 


22.0 


18.7 


50 


NP 


37.5 


27.5 


23.4 




10 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


ftfil 




20 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


30 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


40 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 






50 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 47.89 Pa. 

a. Wall bracing lengths are based on a soil site class "D." Interpolation of bracing length between the lvalues associated with the seismic design categories shall be 
permitted when a site-specific lvalue is determined in accordance with Section 1613.5 of the International Building Code. 

b. Foundation cripple wall panels shall be braced in accordance with Section R602.10.9. 

c. Methods of bracing shall be as described in Sections R602. 10.2, R602. 10.4 and R602.10.5. 



TABLE R602.10.1.2(3) 
ADJUSTMENT FACTORS TO THE LENGTH OF REQUIRED SEISMIC WALL BRACINGa 



ADJUSTMENT BASED ON: 


MULTIPLY LENGTH OF 
BRACING PER WALL LINE BY: 


APPLIES TO: 


Story height b (Section R301.3) 


<10ft 


1.0 


All bracing methods - 

Sections R602. 10.2, 

R602. 10.4 and R602. 10.5 


> 10 < 12 ft 


1.2 


Braced wall line spacing townhouses in SDC A-Cb,c 


< 35 ft 


1.0 


> 35 < 50 ft 


1.43 


Wall dead load 


> 8 < 15 psf 


1.0 


<8psf 


0.85 


Roof/ceiling dead load 
for wall supporting 13 


roof only or roof plus 
one story 


< 15 psf 


1.0 


roof only 


< 15psf<25psf 


1.1 


roof plus one story 


< 15 psf < 25 psf 


1.2 


Walls with stone or masonry veneer in SDC C-D z 


See Section R703.7 


Cripple walls 


See Section R602. 10.9 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 47.89 Pa. 

a. The total length of bracing required for a given wall line is the product of all applicable adjustment factors. 

b. Linear interpolation shall be permitted. 

c. Braced wall line spacing and adjustment to bracing length in SDC Do, D lf and D z shall comply with Section R602.10.1.5. 



164 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



BRACED WALL LINE 1; 

USE THIS LENGTH WHEN CALCULATING 

THE AMOUNT OF BRACING 



■7 


O 




III 


z 




X 


O 




CVJ 


2 

CO 




LU 

-z. 
_l 


o 




_l 
_l 


h- 

-z. 




< 


3 


N 


Q 
HI 


o 


LU 


< 


_l 


00 


LU 

X 

I- 


...J 
...J 

1 


U_ 


■z. 


Q 


O 

X 


$ 


LU 


h- 


3 


^ 


O 


o 


DQ 


Z. 


_l 




L±J 


< 




—I 


u 





8' MAX. 



:\ 



POINT A 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



FIGURE R602.10.1.3 
ANGLED CORNERS 



R602.10.1.4 Braced wall panel location. Braced wall 
panels shall be located in accordance with Figure 
R602.1 0.1.4 (1). Braced wallpanels shall be located not 
more than 25 feet (7620 mm) on center and shall be per- 
mitted to begin no more than 12.5 feet (3810 mm) from 
the end of a braced wall line in accordance with Section 
R602.10.1 and Figure R602. 10. 1.4(2). The total com- 
bined distance from each end of a braced wall line to the 
outermost braced wall panel or panels in the line shall 
not exceed 12.5 feet (3810 mm) . Braced wallpanels may 
be offset out-of-plane up to 4 feet (1219 mm) from the 
designated braced wall line provided that the total 
out-to-out offset of braced wallpanels in a braced wall 
line is not more than 8 feet (2438 mm) in accordance with 
Figures R602. 10. 1.4(3) and R602. 10. 1.4(4). All braced 
wallpanels within a braced wall line shall be permitted 
to be offset from the designated braced wall line. 

R602. 10. 1.4.1 Braced wall panel location in Seis- 
mic Design Categories Do, T> x and D 2 « Braced wall 
lines at exterior walls shall have a braced wallpanel 
located at each end of the braced wall line. 

Exception: For braced wall panel construction 
Method WSP of Section R602.10.2, the braced 
wallpanehhaW be permitted to begin no more than 
8 feet (2438 mm) from each end of the braced wall 
line provided one of the following is satisfied in 
accordance with Figure R602. 10. 1.4.1 : 

1. A minimum 24-inch- wide (610 mm) panel 
is applied to each side of the building corner 
and the two 24-inch-wide (610 mm) panels 



at the corner are attached to framing in 
accordance with Figure R602. 10.4.4(1), or 

2. The end of each braced wallpanel closest to 
the corner shall have a hold-down device 
fastened to the stud at the edge of the braced 
wallpanel closest to the corner and to the 
foundation or framing below. The hold- 
down device shall be capable of providing 
an uplift allowable design value of at least 
1,800 pounds (8 kN). The hold-down device 
shall be installed in accordance with the 
manufacturer's recommendations. 

R602.10.1.5 Braced wall line spacing for Seismic 
Design Categories Do, D { and D 2 - Spacing between 
braced wall lines in each story shall not exceed 25 feet 
(7620 mm) on center in both the longitudinal and trans- 
verse directions. 

Exception: In one- and two-story buildings, spacing 
between two adjacent braced wall lines shall not 
exceed 35 feet (10 668 mm) on center in order to 
accommodate one single room not exceeding 900 
square feet (84 m 2 ) in each dwelling unit. Spacing 
between all other braced wall lines shall not exceed 25 
feet (7620 mm). A spacing of 35 feet (10 668 mm) or 
less shall be permitted between braced wall lines 
where the length of wall bracing required by Table 
R602.10.1 .2(2) is multiplied by the appropriate adjust- 
ment factor from Table R602.10.1.5, the 
length- to- width ratio for the floor/roof diaphragm does 
not exceed 3: 1, and the top plate lap splice face nailing 
is twelve 16d nails on each side of the splice. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



165 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



BRACED WALL 
LINE SPACING 



BRACED 
WALL 
LINE A ^ 



<! 



BRACED 

WALL 

LINEA^ 



BRACED 

WATT 

PANEL 



< 25' 





NOTE: WALL FRAMING NOT SHOWN 
FOR CLARITY 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



FIGURE R602.10.1.4(1) 
BRACED WALL PANELS AND BRACED WALL LINES 



End of braced wall line 



End 
Distance 1 



Braced wall panel 



End of braced wall line 

End 
Distance 2 



End Distance 1 
+ End Distance 2 
= Maximum of 12.5' 



E x te n t of b r ac e d w a II I in e 



Braced wall panel shall be permitted to be located away from the end of a braced wall line, provided the total end distance from each end to the 
nearest braced wall panel does not exceed 12.5'. If braced wall panel is located at the end of the braced wall line, then end distance is 0'. 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



FIGURE R602.10.1.4(2) 
BRACED WALL PANEL END DISTANCE REQUIREMENTS (SDC A, B AND C) 



R602.10.2 Intermittent braced wall panel construction 
methods. The construction of intermittent braced wallpan- 
els shall be in accordance with one of the methods listed in 
Table R602. 10.2. 

R602. 10.2.1 Intermittent braced wall panel interior 
finish material. Intermittent braced wall panels shall 
have gypsum wall board installed on the side of the wall 
opposite the bracing material. Gypsum wall board shall 
be not less than i/ 2 inch (12.7 mm) in thickness and be 
fastened in accordance with Table R702.3.5 for interior 
gypsum wall board. 



Exceptions: 

1. Wall panels that are braced in accordance with 
Methods GB, ABW, PFG and PFH. 

2. When an approved interior finish material with 
an in-plane shear resistance equivalent to gyp- 
sum board is installed. 

3. For Methods DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP and 
HPS, omitting gypsum wall board is permitted 
provided the length of bracing in Tables 
R602.10.1.2(l) and R602.10.1.2(2) is multi- 
plied by a factor of 1.5. 



166 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



4-FOOT OFFSET 



8-FOOT TOTAL OUT-TO-OUT OFFSET 

(4 FEET EACH WAY) IN BRACED WALL LINE 



<1 



4' I 



BRACED WALL 
LINE 



4' 



8' 



BRACED WALL LINE 



OFFSETS IN DISCONTINUOUS BRACED LINE 




BRACED WALL LINE 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



FIGURE R602.10.1.4(3) 
OFFSETS PERMITTED FOR BRACED WALL LINES 



OFFSET < 4' 
EACH DIRECTION 
8' MAXi OFFSET 



BWLA 



I BWLC I 



BRACED WALL LINE SPACING 
FOR BWLA. 



BRACED WALL LINE SPACING 
FOR BWLC. 



i\ 



DESIGNATED 

LOCATION OF 

BRACED WALL 

LINE AT BUILDING 

EXTERIOR 



DESIGNATED — 
LOCATION OF 

BRACED WALL 
LINE AT BUILDING 

INTERIOR 



NOTE: BRACED WALL SPACING FOR BWL B IS THE GREATER OF THE DISTANCE FROM BWLA TO BWL B OR FROM 
BWL B TO BWL C. 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



FIGURE R602.10.1.4(4) 
BRACED WALL LINE SPACING 



R602. 10.2.2 Adhesive attachment of sheathing in 
Seismic Design Categories C, Do, D l and D 2 . Adhesive 
attachment of wall sheathing shall not be permitted in 
Seismic Design Categories C, Do, D x and D 2 * 

R602.10.3 Minimum length of braced panels. For Meth- 
ods DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP and HPS, each bracedwall 
panelshaW be at least 48 inches (1219 mm) in length, cover- 
ing a minimum of three stud spaces where studs are spaced 



16 inches (406 mm) on center and covering a minimum of 
two stud spaces where studs are spaced 24 inches (610 mm) 
on center. For Method GB, each braced wallpane I and shall 
be at least 96 inches (2438 mm) in length where applied to 
one face of a braced wallpaneland at least 48 inches (1219 
mm) where applied to both faces. For Methods DWB, WSP, 
SFB, PBS, PCP and HPS, for purposes of computing the 
length of panel bracing required in Tables R602. 10. 1.2(1) 
and R602.10.1.2(2), the effective length of the bracedwall 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



167 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



panel shall be equal to the actual length of the panel. When 
Method GB panels are applied to only one face of a braced 
wall panel, bracing lengths required in Tables 
R602.10.1.2(l) and R602. 10. 1.2(2) for Method GB shall be 
doubled. 

Exceptions: 

1. Lengths of braced wall panels for continuous 
sheathing methods shall be in accordance with 
Table R602.10.4.2. 

2. Lengths of Method ABW panels shall be in accor- 
dance with Sections R602. 10.3.2. 

3. Length of Methods PFH and PFG panels shall be 
in accordance with Section R602. 10.3.3 and 
R602.10.3.4 respectively. 

4. For Methods DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP and 

HPS in Seismic Design Categories A, B, and C: 
Panels between 36 inches (914 mm) and 48 inches 
(1219 mm) in length shall be permitted to count 
towards the required length of bracing in Tables 
R602.10.1.2Q) andR602.10.1.2(2), and the effec- 
tive contribution shall comply with Table 
R602.10.3. 

R602. 10.3.1 Adjustment of length of braced panels. 
When story height (H), measured in feet, exceeds 10 feet 



(3048 mm), in accordance with Section R301.3, the min- 
imum length of braced wallpanels specified in Section 
R602.10.3 shall be increased by a factor H/10. See Table 
R602. 10.3.1. Interpolation is permitted. 

R602. 10.3.2 Method ABW: Alternate braced wall 
panels. Method ABW braced wallpanels constructed in 
accordance with one of the following provisions shall be 
permitted to replace each 4 feet (1219 mm) of braced 
wallpanels required by Section R602. 10.3. The maxi- 
mum height and minimum length and hold-down force 
of each panel shall be in accordance with Table 
R602.10.3.2: 

1. In one-story buildings, each panel shall be 
installed in accordance with Figure R602. 10.3.2. 
The hold-down device shall be installed in accor- 
dance with the manufacturer's recommendations. 
The panels shall be supported directly on a founda- 
tion or on floor framing supported directly on a 
foundation which is continuous across the entire 
length of the braced wall line. 

2. In the first story of two-story buildings, each 
braced wallpanelshaU be in accordance with Item 
1 above, except that the wood structural panel 
sheathing edge nailing spacing shall not exceed 4 
inches (102 mm) on center. 




METHOD WSP 
BRACING ONLY 



l-UPTOB'-l 



1800 LBF HOLD-DOWN DEVICE 



METHOD WSP 
BRACING ONLY 



24 




THIS 24" -WIDE SEGMENT DOES 
24" NOT COUNT AS BRACING UNLESS 

CONTINUOUSLY SHEATHED, PER 
R602.10.4 



For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound force = 4,448 N. 

FIGURE R602. 10.1.4.1 
BRACED WALL PANELS AT ENDS OF BRACED WALL LINES IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES Do, D1 AND D2 



TABLE R602.10.1.5 
ADJUSTMENTS OF BRACING LENGTH FOR BRACED WALL LINES GREATER THAN 25 FEETa.b 



BRACED WALL LINE SPACING 

(feet) 


MULTIPLY BRACING LENGTH 
IN TABLE R602.10.1.2(2) BY: 


25 
30 

35 


1.0 
1.2 

1.4 



For 51: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Linear interpolation is permitted. 

b. When a braced wall line has a parallel braced wall line on both sides, the larger adjustment factor shall be used. 



168 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602.10.2 
INTERMITTENT BRACING METHODS 



METHOD 



LIB 



DWB 



WSP 



SFB 



MATERIAL 



Let-in-bracing 



Diagonal wood boards 



Wood structural panel 
(see Section R604) 



Structural 
fiberboard sheathing 



MINIMUM THICKNESS 



1x4 wood or approved metal 

straps at 45 ° to 60° angles for 

maximum 16" stud spacing 



FIGURE 



3 / 4 " (1" nominal) 
for maximum 24" stud spacing 



n{' or 25 / 32 " for maximum 16" 
stud spacing 



— i i 

w 



CONNECTION CRITERIA 



Wood: 2-8d nails per stud 

including top and bottom plate 

metal: per manufacturer 



2-8d(2 1 / 2 ,, x 0.113") nails 
or 2 staples, l 3 / 4 " per stud 



For exterior sheathing 
see Table R602. 3(3) 

For interior sheathing 
see Table R602.3(l) 



P/f galvanized roofing nails or 
8d common (2V 2 "x 0.131) nails 
at 3" spacing (panel edges) at 6" 
spacing (intermediate supports) 



GB 



Gypsum board 



PBS 



Particleboard sheathing 
(see Section R605) 



31 8 " or i/ 2 " for maximum 16" 
stud spacing 



PCP 



Portland cement 
plaster 



See Section R703.6 
For maximum 16" stud spacing 



Nails or screws at 7" spacing at 

panel edges including top and 

bottom plates; for all braced wall 

panel locations for exterior 
sheathing nail or screw size, see 

Table R602.3(l); for interior 

gypsum board nail or screw size, 

see Table R702.3.5 

1 7 2 " galvanized roofing nails or 
8d common (2 1 / 2 " x 0.131) nails 
at 3" spacing (panel edges) at 6 
spacing (intermediate supports) 



I 1 // , 11 gage, 71 16 " head nails at 

6" spacing or 

7/ 8 ", 16 gage staples at 6" 

spacing 



HPS 



Hardboard panel 
siding 



For maximum 16" stud spacing 



ABW 



Alternate braced 
wall 



See Section R602. 10.3.2 



H 



illi n i um 



u 



PFH 



Intermittent portal 
frame 



See Section R602. 10.3. 3 



Jt ^TVLjt 



PFG 



Intermittent portal frame 
at garage 



See Section R602. 10.3.4 




0.092" dia., 0.225" head nails 
with length to accommodate 

P/f penetration into studs at 4" 
spacing (panel edges), at 8" 

spacing (intermediate supports) 



See Section R602. 10.3.2 



See Section R602. 10.3. 3 



See Section R602. 10.3.4 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



169 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R602. 10.3.3 Method PFH: Portal frame with 
hold-downs. Method PFH braced wall panels con- 
structed in accordance with one of the following provi- 
sions are also permitted to replace each 4 feet (1219 mm) 
of braced wall panel as required by Section R602.10.3 
for use adjacent to a window or door opening with a 
full-length header: 

1 . Each panel shall be fabricated in accordance with Fig- 
ure R602. 10.3.3. The wood structural panel sheathing 
shall extend up over the solid sawn or glued-laminated 
header and shall be nailed in accordance with Figure 
R602. 10.3.3. A spacer, if used with a built-up header, 
shall be placed on the side of the built-up beam oppo- 
site the wood structural panel sheathing. The header 



shall extend between the inside faces of the first 
full-length outer studs of each panel. One anchor bolt 
not less than 5 s -inch-diameter (16 mm) and installed 
in accordance with Section R403.1.6 shall be pro- 
vided in the center of each sill plate. The hold-down 
devices shall be an embedded- strap type, installed in 
accordance with the manufacturer's recommenda- 
tions . The panels shall be supported directly on a foun- 
dation which is continuous across the entire length of 
the braced wall line. The foundation shall be rein- 
forced as shown on Figure R602. 10.3.2. This rein- 
forcement shall be lapped not less than 15 inches (381 
mm) with the reinforcement required in the continu- 
ous foundation located directly under the braced wall 
line. 



TABLE R602.10.3 

EFFECTIVE LENGTHS FOR BRACED WALL PANELS LESS THAN 48 INCHES IN ACTUAL LENGTH 

(BRACE METHODS DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP AND HPS a ) 







EFFECTIVE LENGTH OF BRACED WALL PANEL 




ACTUAL LENGTH OF BRACED WALL PANEL 

(inches) 




(inches) 




8-foot Wall Height 


9-foot Wall Height 


10-foot Wall Height 


48 


48 




48 




48 


42 


36 




36 




N/A 


36 


27 




N/A 




N/A 



For 51 : 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 
a. Interpolation shall be permitted. 



TABLE R602.10.3.1 
MINIMUM LENGTH REQUIREMENTS FOR BRACED WALL PANELS 



SEISMIC DESIGN 

CATEGORY AND 

WIND SPEED 


BRACING 
METHOD 


HEIGHT OF BRACED WALL PANEL 


8ft 


9ft 


10 ft 


11 ft 


12 ft 


SDC A, B^DcDj and D 2 
Wind speed < 110 mph 


DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, 

PCP, HPS and Method GB 

when double sided 


4' - 0" 


4' - 0" 


4' - 0" 


4' - 5" 


4' - 10" 


Method GB , single sided 


8'-0" 


8' - 0" 


8' - 0" 


8' - 10" 


9' -8" 



For 51 : 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



TABLE R602. 10.3.2 
MINIMUM LENGTH REQUIREMENTS AND HOLD-DOWN FORCES FOR METHOD ABW BRACED WALL PANELS 



SEISMIC DESIGN 

CATEGORY AND WIND 

SPEED 




HEIGHT OF BRACED WALL PANEL 


8ft 


9ft 


10 ft 


11 ft 


12 ft 


SDCA,BandC 

Wind speed < 110 mph 


Minimum sheathed length 


2' - 4" 


2' -8" 


2' - 10" 


3' - 2" 


3' -6" 


R602. 10.3.2, item 1 hold-down 
force (lb) 


1800 


1800 


1800 


2000 


2200 


R602. 10.3.2, item 2 hold-down 
force (lb) 


3000 


3000 


3000 


3300 


3600 


SDC Do, D x andD 2 
Wind speed < 110 mph 


Minimum sheathed length 


2' -8" 


2' -8" 


2' - 10" 


Npa 


Npa 


R602. 10.3.2, item 1 hold-down 


1800 


1800 


1800 


Npa 


Npa 


R602. 10.3.2, item 2 hold-down 
force (lb) 


3000 


3000 


3000 


Npa 


Npa 



For 51 : 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 305 mm, 1 pound = 4.448 N. 
a. NP = Not Permitted. Maximum height of 10 feet. 



170 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



2. In the first story of two-story buildings, each wall 
panel shall be braced in accordance with item 1 
above, except that each panel shall have a length of 
not less than 24 inches (610 mm). 

R602. 10.3.4 Method PFG: at garage door openings in 
Seismic Design Categories A, Band C. Where support- 
ing a roof or one story and a roof, alternate braced wall 
panels constructed in accordance with the following pro- 
visions are permitted on either side of garage door open- 
ings. For the purpose of calculating wall bracing 
amounts to satisfy the minimum requirements of Table 
R602. 10. 1.2(1), the length of the alternate braced wall 
panel shall be multiplied by a factor of 1.5. 

1. Braced wallpane /length shall be a minimum of 24 
inches (610 mm) and braced wall panel height 
shall be a maximum of 10 feet (3048 mm) . 

2. Braced wallpaneh\m\\ be sheathed on one face with 
a single layer of 7/ft -inch-minimum (11 mm) thick- 
ness wood structural panel sheathing attached to 
framing with 8d common nails at 3 inches (76 mm) 
on center in accordance with Figure R602. 10.3.4. 

3. The wood structural panel sheathing shall extend up 
over the solid sawn or glued-laminated header and 
shall be nailed to the header at 3 inches (76 mm) on 
center grid in accordance with Figure R602.1 0.3.4. 

4. The header shall consist of a minimum of two solid 
sawn 2x1 2s (51 by 305 mm) or a 3 inches x 11.25 
inch (76 by 286 mm) glued-laminated header. The 



header shall extend between the inside faces of the 
first full-length outer studs of each panel in accor- 
dance with Figure R602.1 0.3.4. The clear span of 
the header between the inner studs of each panel 
shall be not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) and not 
more than 18 feet (5486 mm) in length. 

5. A strap with an uplift capacity of not less than 
1,000 pounds (4448 N) shall fasten the header to 
the side of the inner studs opposite the sheathing 
face. Where building is located in Wind Exposure 
Categories C or D, the strap uplift capacity shall be 
in accordance with Table R602. 10.4. 1.1. 

6. A minimum of two bolts not less than liz-inch (12.7 
mm) diameter shall be installed in accordance with 
Section R403.1.6. A 3/i6-inch by 2V 2 -inch (4.8 by 63 
by 63 mm) by 2V 2 -inch steel plate washer is installed 
between the bottom plate and the nut of each bolt. 

7. Braced wall panel shall be installed directly on a 
foundation. 

8. Where an alternate braced wall panel is located 
only on one side of the garage opening, the header 
shall be connected to a supportingjack stud on the 
opposite side of the garage opening with a metal 
strap with an uplift capacity of not less than 1,000 
pounds. Where that supportingjack stud is not part 
of a braced wall panel assembly, another 1,000 
pounds (4448 N) strap shall be installed to attach 
the supportingjack stud to the foundation. 



PANEL LENGTH PER TABLE R602.10.3.2 
I 



f 



MON. VTHICKWOOD STRUCTURAL 
PANEL SHEATHING ON ONE FACE 

MINIMUM 2x4 

FRAMING, MINIMUM 

DOUBLE STUDS 

REQUIRED 
STUDS UNDER HEADERAS^ 
REQUIRED 

HOLD-DOWN OR STRAP-TYPE 
ANCHOR PER TABLE 
R602.10.3.2. (BOTH SHOWN FOR 
CLARITY.) STRAP-STYLE 
ANCHORS SHALL BE PERMITTED 
TO BE ATTACHED OVER THE 
WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL 



£=i 



M 



< 



I I I 
-I J- J 




FOR PANEL SPLICE (IF NEEDED) 
ADJOINING PANEL EDGES SHALL 
MEET OVER AND BE FASTENED TO 
COMMON FRAMING 



8D COMMON OR GALV. BOX 
NAILS @ 6"0.O AT PANEL EDGES. 
FOR SINGLE STORY AND AT 4" O.C 
PANEL EDGES FOR THE FIRST OF 2 
STORIES. 

8D COMMON OR GALV. BOX 
■ NAILS @ 12"0.O AT 
INTERIOR SUPPORTS 

(2) W DIAMETER ANCHOR BOLTS 
PER FIGURE R403.1.1, LOCATED 
BETWEEN 6 AND 12 INCHES OF 
EACH END OF THE SEGMENT 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R602.10.3.2 
ALTERNATE BRACED WALL PANEL 



MINIMUM REINFORCING OF 

FOUNDATION, ONE #4 BAR TOP AND 
BOTTOM OF FOOTING. REINFORCING 
SHALL BE LAPPED 15 INCHES 

MINIMUM FOOTING SIZE UNDER 
OPENING IS 12"x12". ATURNED-DOWN 
SLAB SHALL BE PERMITTED AT DOOR 
OPENINGS. REINFORCING SHALL 
BE AS SHOWN ABOVE. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



171 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



MAX. 

HEIGHT 

10' 



EXTENT OF HEADER 
DOUBLE PORTAL FRAME (TWO BRACED WALL PANELS) . 



EXTENT OF HEADER 
SINGLE PORTAL FRAME (ONE BRACED WALL PANEL) 



"&• 



MIN. 3"x 11. 25" NET HEADER 



FASTEN TOP PLATE TO HEADER WITH TWO 
ROWS OF 16D SINKER NAILS AT 3"O.C. TYP. 



1000 LB STRAP OPPOSITE SHEATHING 



1000 LB 
STRAP 



FASTEN SHEATHING TO HEADER WITH 8D COMMON OR 
GALVANIZED BOX NAILS IN 3" GRID PATTERN AS SHOWN AND 
3-O.C. IN ALL FRAMING (STUDS, BLOCKING, AND SILLS) TYP. 

MIN.WIDTH =16"FORONE STORY STRUCTURE 
MIN. WIDTH = 24" FOR USE IN THE FIRST OF TWO 
STORY STRUCTURES 



MIN. 2x4 FRAMING 



3/8" MIN. THICKNESS WOOD 
STRUCTURAL PANEL SHEATHING 



MIN. 

DOUBLE 

2x4 POST 



MIN. 4200 LB TIE-DOWN DEVICE (EMBEDDED INTO 
CONCRETE AND NAILED INTO FRAMING) 



SEE SECTION R602.10.3.3 



i 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound force = 4.448 N. 



TYPICAL PORTAL 

FRAME 

CONSTRUCTION 



FOR A PANEL SPLICE 
(IF NEEDED), PANEL 
EDGES SHALL BE 
BLOCKED, AND OCCUR 
WITHIN 24 2 OF MID- 
HEIGHT. ONE ROW OF 
TYP. SHEATHING-TO- 
FRAMING NAILING IS 
REQUIRED. 
IF 2x4 BLOCKING IS 
USED, THE 2x4'S MUST 
BE NAILED TOGETHER 
WITH 3 16D SINKERS 



MIN. 1000 LB 
TIE DOWN 
DEVICE 



FIGURE R602.10.3.3 
METHOD PFH: PORTAL FRAME WITH HOLD-DOWNS 




EXTENT OF HEADER (TWO BRACED WALL SEGMENTS) ■ 



EXTENT OF HEADER (ONE BRACED WALL SEGMENT) - 



TOP PLATE CONTINUITY IS 
REQUIRED PER SECTION R602.3.2 



SIDE 
ELEVATION 




MIN.3"x 11. 25"NET HEADER 

HEADER SHALL OCCUR AT TOP OF WALL 



2' TO 18' (FINISHED WIDTH) 

FASTEN SHEATHING TO HEADER WITH 8D COMMON 
NAILS IN 3 2 GRID PATTERN AS SHOWN AND 3 2 O.C. IN 
FRAMING AS SHOWN (STUDS AND SILLS) TYP. 



MINIMUM 1000 LB HEADER-TO-JACK STUD STRAP ON 

BOTH SIDES OF OPENING PER TABLE R602.1 0.4.1 .1 
(INSTALL ON BACKSIDE AS SHOWN ON SIDE ELEVATION) 

HEADER SHALL BE FASTENED TO THE KING STUD WIT 
6-1 6D SINKER NAILS 

FOR A PANEL SPLICE (IF NEEDED), PANEL EDGES SHALL BE 
BLOCKED AND OCCUR WITHIN 24" OF MID HEIGHT. ONE 
ROW OF TYP. SHEATHING-TO-FRAMING IS REQUIRED IN EACH 
PANEL. 

WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL STRENGTH AXIS 
MIN. (2) 2x4 TYP. 



MIN. LENGTH BASED ON 4:1 HEIGHT-TO-LENGTH RATIO: 
FOR EXAMPLE: 24" MIN. FOR 8' HEIGHT 



BRACED 

WALL 
SEGMENT 

PER 
R602.10.4 



NO. OF 

/JACK STUDS 

' PER TABLE 

R502.5(1&2) 




L MIN.2.5"x3i6"PLATEWASHER 
-ANCHOR BOLT PER R403.1.6 TYP. 



16D SINKER 
NAILS IN 2 „ 



-1000 LB HEADER- 
TO-JACK-STUD STRAP 
ON BOTH SIDES 
OF OPENING 



7 /ie 2 MIN. 

THICKNESS WOOD 
STRUCTURAL PANEL 
SHEATHING 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound force = 4.448 N. 

FIGURE R602.10.3.4 
METHOD PFG PORTAL FRAME AT GARAGE DOOR OPENINGS IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES A, BAND C 



172 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R602.10.4 Continuous sheathing. Braced wall lines with 
continuous sheathing shall be constructed in accordance 
with this section. All braced wall lines along exterior walls 
on the same story shall be continuously sheathed. 

Exception: Within Seismic Design Categories A, Band 
C or in regions where the basic wind speed is less than or 
equal to 100 mph (45 m/s), other bracing methods pre- 
scribed by this code shall be permitted on other braced 
wall lines on the same story level or on any braced wall 
line on different s tory levels of the building. 

R602.10.4.1 Continuous sheathing braced wall panels. 

Continuous sheathing methods require structural panel 
sheathing to be used on all sheathable surfaces on one side 
of a bracedwallline including areas above and below open- 
ings and gable end walls. Braced wallpanels shall be con- 
structed in accordance with one of the methods listed in 
Table R602. 10.4.1. Different bracing methods, other than 
those listed in Table R602.1 0.4.1, shall not be permitted 
along a braced wall line with continuous sheathing. 

R602.10.4.1.1 Continuous portal frame. Continuous 
portal frame braced wallpanels shall be constructed in 
accordance with Figure R602. 10.4.1.1. The number of 
continuous portal frame panels in a single braced wall 
line shall not exceed four. For purposes of resisting wind 
pressures acting perpendicular to the wall, the require- 
ments of Figure R602.10.4.1.1 and Table R602.10.4.1.1 
shall be met. There shall be a maximum of two braced 
wall segments per header and header length shall not 
exceed 22 feet (6706 mm). Tension straps shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's recom- 
mendations. 



R602.10.4.2 Length of braced wall panels with contin- 
uous sheathing. Braced wallpanels along a braced wall 
line with continuous sheathing shall be full-height with a 
length based on the adjacent clear opening height in accor- 
dance with Table R602.10.4.2 and Figure R602.10.4.2. 
Within a bracedwallline when a panel has an opening on 
either side of differing heights, the taller opening height 
shall be used to determine the panel length from Table 
R602.10.4.2. For Method CS-PF, wall height shall be 
measured from the top of the header to the bottom of the 
bottom plate as shown in Figure R602.10.4. 1. 1. 

R602.10.4.3 Length ofbracingfor continuous sheath- 
ing. B raced walllines with continuous sheathing shall be 
provided with braced wallpanels in the length required 
in Tables R602.10.1.2(l) and R602.10.1.2(2). Only 
those full-height braced wallpanels complying with the 
length requirements of Table R602. 10.4.2 shall be per- 
mitted to contribute to the minimum required length of 
bracing. 

R602. 10.4.4 Continuously sheathed braced wall 

panel location and corner construction. For all contin- 
uous sheathing methods, full-height braced wallpanels 
complying with the length requirements of Table 
R602 . 10.4.2 shall be located at each end of a bracedwall 
line with continuous sheathing and at least every 25 feet 
(7620 mm) on center. A minimum 24 inch (610 mm) 
wood structural panel corner return shall be provided at 
both ends of a braced wall line with continuous sheath- 
ing in accordance with Figures R602. 10.4.4(1) and 
R602. 10.4.4(2). In lieu of the corner return, ahold-down 
device with a minimum uplift design value of 800 pounds 



TABLE R602.10.4.1 
CONTINUOUS SHEATHING METHODS 



METHOD 



MATERIAL 



MINIMUM THICKNESS 



FIGURE 



CONNECTION CRITERIA 



CS-WSP 



Wood structural panel 






w 



6d common (2" x 0.113") nails 

at 6" spacing (panel edges) and 

at 12" spacing (intermediate 

| supports) or 16 gao x l 3 / 4 staples 

at 3 " spacing (panel edges) and 

6" spacing (intermediate 

supports) 



CS-G 



Wood structural panel adjacent 

to garage openings and 

supporting roof load onlya,b 




See Method CS-WSP 



CS-PF 



Continuous portal frame 



See Section 
R602.10.4.1.1 




See Section 
R602.10.4.1.1 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 47.89 Ik 

a. Applies to one wall of a garage only. 

b. Roof covering dead loads shall be 3 psf or less. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



173 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



(3560 N) shall be fastened to the corner stud and to the 
foundation or framing below in accordance with Figure 
R602. 10.4.4(3). 

Exception: The flrSt braced wallpanelshall be permitted 
to begin 12.5 feet (3810 mm) from each end of the braced 
waJl line in Seismic Design Categories A, B and C and 8 
feet (2438 mm) in Seismic Design Categories Do, D 1 and 
D 2 provided one of the following is satisfied: 

1. A minimum 24 inch (610 mm) long, full-height 
wood structural panel is provided at both sides 



of a corner constructed in accordance with Fig- 
ure R602. 10.4.4(1) at the b raced wall line ends 
in accordance with Figure R602. 10.4.4(4), or 

The braced wall pane I closest to the corner shall 
have a hold-down device with a minimum uplift 
design value of 800 pounds (3560 N) fastened to 
the stud at the edge of the braced wallpane I clos- 
est to the corner and to the foundation or framing 
belowinaccordancewithFigureR602. 10.4.4(5) . 



EXTENT OF HEADER (TWO BRACED WALL SEGMENTS) ; 

- EXTENT OF HEADER (ONE BRACED WALL SEGMENT) - 



MIN.3"x 11-%"NETHEADER; 
HEADER SHALL OCCUR AT TOP OF WALL 



J7^018'-(F-INISH£D WIDTH) 




TOP PLATE CONTINUITY IS 
REQUIRED PER R602.3.2 



X 



FASTEN SHEATHING TO HEADER WITH 8D COMMON 



1000 LB HEADER-TO-JACK-STUD STRAP ON BOTH SIDES 
OF OPENING (INSTALL ON BACKSIDE AS SHOWN ON 
SIDE ELEVATION) 



FOR A PANEL SPLICE (IF NEEDED), PANEL EDGES SHALL 
BLOCKED AND OCCUR WITHIN 24"OF MID HEIGHT; ONE BE 
ROW OF TYP. SHEATHING-TO-FRAMING IS REQUIRED IN EACH 
PANEL. 



BRACEDWAL 

LINE WITH 
CONTINUOUS 
SHEATHING 



NO. OF 
JACK STUDS 
'PER TABLE 
R502.5(1&2) 



-WOOD STRUCTURAL 
-MIN. (2) 2x4 TYP. 



PANEL STRENGTH AXIS 



LENGTH BASED ON TABLE R602.10.4.2 



ANCHOR BOLT PER R403.1.6TYP. 
MIN. 2"x2"x 3 /i6" PLATE WASHER 



J, 



■V T. 




NAIL SOLE PLATE 
TO JOIST PER 
TABLE R602.3(1) 



FRAMING ANCHORS 
670 LB t 
670 LB -> 



WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL SHEATHING OVER APPROVED BAND JOIST 

OVER RAISED WOOD FLOOR OR SECOND FLOOR - FRAMING ANCHOR OPTION 




16D SINKER 
NAILS IN 2 ROWS 
@3"O.C. 



1000 LB HEADER- 
TO-JACK-STUD STRAP 
ON BOTH SIDES 
OF OPENING 



THICKNESS WOOD 
STRUCTURAL PANEL 
SHEATHING 



NAIL SOLE 
PLATE TO JOIST 
PER TABLE 
R602.3(1) 



fl 



NAIL SOLE PLATE 
TO JOIST PER 
TABLE R602.3(1) 



y 


T Y 


r 










. . ./. 


r' 


1 


// 





NAIL SOLE 
PLATE TO JOIST 
PER TABLE 
R602.3(1) 



WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL SHEATHING OVER APPROVED BAND JOIST - 




OVER RAISED WOOD FLOOR OR SECOND FLOOR - WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL OVERLAP OPTION 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound force = 4.448 N. 



NOT TO SCALE 



FIGURE R602. 10.4. 1.1 
METHOD CS-PF: CONTINUOUS PORTAL FRAME PANEL CONSTRUCTION 



174 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602. 10.4.1.1 

TENSION STRAP CAPACITY REQUIRED FOR RESISTING WIND PRESSURES 

PERPENDICULAR TO 6:1 ASPECT RATIO WALLSa,b 



MINIMUM WAN 

STUD FRAMING 

NOMINAL SIZE 

AND GRADE 


MAXIMUM 
PONY WAN 
HEIGHT (feet) 


MAXIMUM 

TOTAL WAN 

HEIGHT 

(feet) 


MAXIMUM 

OPENING 

WIDTH 

(feet) 


BASIC WIND SPEED (mph) 


85 


90 


100 


85 


90 


100 


Exposure B Exposure C 


Tension strap capacity required (lbOa,b 


2x4 
No.2 Grade 





10 


18 


1000 


1000 


1000 


1000 


1000 


1000 


1 


10 


9 


1000 


1000 


1000 


1000 


1000 


1275 


16 


1000 


1000 


1750 


1800 


2325 


3500 


18 


1000 


1200 


2100 


2175 


2725 


DR 


2 


10 


9 


1000 


1000 


1025 


1075 


1550 


2500 


16 


1525 


2025 


3125 


3200 


3900 


DR 


18 


1875 


2400 


3575 


3700 


DR 


DR 


2 


12 


9 


1000 


1200 


2075 


2125 


2750 


4000 


16 


2600 


3200 


DR 


DR 


DR 


DR 


18 


3175 


3850 


DR 


DR 


DR 


DR 


4 


12 


9 


1775 


2350 


500 


3550 


DR 


DR 


16 


4175 


DR 


DR 


DR 


DR 


DR 


2x6 

Stud Grade 


2 


12 


9 


1000 


1000 


1325 


1375 


1750 


2550 


16 


1650 


2050 


2925 


3000 


3550 


DR 


18 


2025 


2450 


3425 


3500 


4100 


DR 


4 


12 


9 


1125 


1500 


2225 


2275 


2775 


3800 


16 


2650 


3150 


DR 


DR 


DR 


DR 


18 


3125 


3675 


DR 


DR 


DR 


DR 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound force = 4.448 N. 

a. DR = design required. 

b. Strap shall be installed in accordance with manufacturer's recommendations. 



I 

£2 

L±J 

I 

J 

J 

I 





PANEL 
LENGTH 



Szo 
— i lj-i iZi 




PANEL 
LENGTH 



Szo 
jw ED 
Ogx 






Li. 



sis 

— i LH lD 



PANEL 
LENGTH 



FIGURE R602.10.4.2 
BRACED WALL PANELS WITH CONTINUOUS SHEATHING 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



175 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602. 10.4.2 
LENGTH REQUIREMENTS FOR BRACED WALL PANELS WITH CONTINUOUS SHEATHINGa (inches) 



METHOD 


ADJACENT CLEAR 
OPENING HEIGHT 

(inches) 


WALL HEIGHT (feet) 


8 


9 


10 


n 


12 


CS-WSP 


64 


24 


27 


30 


33 


36 


68 


26 


27 


30 






72 


28 


27 


30 






76 


29 


30 


30 


- 


- 


80 


31 


33 


30 


- 


- 


84 


35 


36 


33 


- 


- 


88 


39 


39 


36 






92 


44 


42 


39 






96 


48 


45 


42 






100 


- 


48 


45 


- 


- 


104 


- 


51 


48 


- 


- 


108 


- 


54 


51 


- 


- 


112 






54 


44 




116 






57 






120 


- 


- 


60 


- 


- 


122 


- 


- 


- 


- 


48 


132 


- 


- 


- 


66 


- 


144 










75 


CS-G 


< 120 


24 


27 


30 






CS-PF 


< 120 


16 


18 


20 







For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 
a. Interpolation shall be permitted. 



176 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



MINIMUM 24 IN. WOOD 
STRUCTURAL PANEL OR 32 IN. 
STRUCTURAL FIBERBOARD 
SHEATHING CORNER RETURN 



16DNAIL(3 1 / 2 "x 0.131") 
AT 12 IN. O.C. 



OPTIONAL NONSTRUCTURAL - 
FILLER PANEL 




SEE TABLE R602.3(1) FOR FASTENING 



ORIENTATION OF STUD MAY VARY SEE FIGURE R602.3(2) 



GYPSUM WALLBOARD AS REQUIRED AND INSTALLED IN 
/ /ACCORDANCE WITH CHAPTER 7 



SEE TABLE R602.3(1) 
FOR FASTENING 



CONTINUOUS WOOD 
r - - T4m - STRUCTURAL PANEL 

" SEE TABLE R602.3(1 ) BRACED WALL LINE 

FOR FASTENING 



(a) OUTSIDE CORNER DETAIL 



ORIENTATION OF STUDS MAY VARY. 
SEE FIGURE R602.3(2) 



CONTINUOUS WOOD 
STRUCTURAL PANEL OR 
STRUCTURAL FIBERBOARD 
BRACED WALL LINE 



16D NAIL(3Yz"x 0.131") 
AT 12 IN O.C. 

GYPSUM WALLBOARD AS — 
REQUIRED AND INSTALLED 
IN ACCORDANCE WITH 
CHAPTER 7 

MINIMUM 24 IN. WOOD 

STRUCTURAL PANEL SHEATHING 
OR 32 IN. STRUCTURAL 
FIBERBOARD CORNER RETURN 



I 



SEE TABLE R602.3(1) FOR FASTENING 



SEE TABLE R602.3(1) FOR FASTENING 



(b) INSIDE CORNER DETAIL 



CONTINUOUS WOOD STRUCTURAL 

PANEL OR STRUCTURAL FIBER- 
BOARD BRACED WALL LINE 



GYPSUM WALLBOARD AS 
REQUIRED AND INSTALLED 

IN ACCORDANCE WITH s 

CHAPTER 7 



16D NAIL(3Yz"x 0.131") 
2 ROWS AT 24 IN. O.C. 

OPTIONAL BLOCKING FOR GYPSUM 
WALLBOARD 



m 



\ 



ES 



*S<Ma 



SEE TABLE R602.3(1) 
FOR FASTENING 



MINIMUM 24 IN. WOOD STRUCTURAL 
PANEL SHEATHING OR 32 IN. 
STRUCTURAL FIBERBOARD 
SHEATHING (BOTH EDGES 
AT CORNERS) 




SEE TABLE R 602.3(1) 
FOR FASTENING 



OPTIONAL NONSTRUCTURAL 
FILLER PANEL 



FASTENERS ON BOTH STUDS 
AT EACH PANEL EDGE 



(c) GARAGE DOOR CORNER 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 305 mm. 



FIGURE R602. 10.4.4(1) 
TYPICAL EXTERIOR CORNER FRAMING FOR CONTINUOUS SHEATHING 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



177 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



— CORNER DETAIL — 
PER FIGURE R602.10.4.4(1) 



/ 




^h 



— I LJ-" UJ 

°6 = 





BRACED WALL PANELS 



MEETING MINIMUM REQUIRED LENGTH 

PER SECTION R602.10.4.2 OR R602.10.5 

AT BOTH ENDS OF BRACED WALL LINE 

(ALL OTHER FRAMED PORTIONS OF 

WALL ALSO SHEATHED) 



MINIMUM 2' 
RETURN CORNER 



For 51: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



FIGURE R602. 10.4.4(2) 
BRACED WALL LINE WITH CONTINUOUS SHEATHING WITH CORNER RETURN PANEL 



— CORNER DETAIL 
PER FIGURE R602. 10.4.4(1) 




Si* 
_i lu m 




— ■ !=H G3 



BRACED WALL PANELS 

MEETING MINIMUM REQUIRED LENGTH 

PER SECTION R602. 10.4.2 or R602.10.5 

AT BOTH ENDS OF BRACED WALL LINE 

(ALL OTHER FRAMED PORTIONS OF 

WALL ALSO SHEATHED) 




800 LB-HOLD-DOWN 
DEVICE IN LIEU OF 
CORNER RETURN 



For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound = 4.448 N. 



FIGURE R602. 10.4.4(3) 
BRACED WALL LINE WITH CONTINUOUS SHEATHING WITHOUT CORNER RETURN PANEL 



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2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 




BRACED WALL PANELS 



MINIMUM 2' PANELS AT 
BOTH SIDES OF CORNER 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



MEETING MINIMUM REQUIRED LENGTH 

PER SECTION R602.10.4.2 OR R602.10.5 

AT BOTH ENDS OF BRACED WALL LINE 

(ALL OTHER FRAMED PORTIONS OF 

WALL ALSO SHEATHED) 



FIGURE R602.1 0.4.4(4) 

BRACED WALL LINE WITH CONTINUOUS SHEATHING FIRST BRACED WALL PANEL 

AWAY FROM END OF WALL LINE WITHOUT TIE DOWN 




o & S 




X 

< x 



BRACED WALL PANELS 

MEETING MINIMUM REQUIRED LENGTH 

PER SECTION R602.1 0.4.2 OR R602.10.5 

AT BOTH ENDS OF BRACED WALL LINE 

(ALL OTHER FRAMED PORTIONS OF 

WALL ALSO SHEATHED) 



800 LB-HOLD-DOWN 
DEVICE IN LIEU OF 
CORNER RETURN 



For SI: 1 foot = 305 mm. 1 pound = 4.448 N. 



FIGURE R602.1 0.4.4(5) 

BRACED WALL LINE WITH CONTINUOUS SHEATHING-FIRST BRACED WALL 

PANEL AWAY FROM END OF WALL LINE WITH HOLD-DOWN 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



179 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R602.10.5 Continuously-sheathed braced wall line 
using Method CS-SFB (structural fiberboard sheath- 
ing). Continuously sheathed braced wall lines using struc- 
tural fiberboard sheathing shall comply with this section. 
Different bracing methods shall not be permitted within a 
continuously sheathed braced wall line. Other bracing 
methods prescribed by this code shall be permitted on other 
braced wall lines on the same story level or on different 
story levels of the building. 

R602. 10.5.1 Continuously sheathed braced wall line 
requirements. Continuously-sheathed bracedwalllines 
shall be in accordance with Figure R602. 10.4.2 and shall 
comply with all of the following requirements: 

1. Structural fiberboard sheathing shall be applied to 
all exterior sheathable surfaces of a braced wall 
line including areas above and below openings. 

2. Only full-height or blocked braced wall panels 
shall be used for calculating the braced wall length 
in accordance with Tables R602. 10. 1.2(1) and 
R602.10.1.2(2). 

R602. 10.5.2 Braced wall panel length. In a continu- 
ously-sheathed structural fiberboard braced wall line, 
the minimum braced wallpanelizngth shall be in accor- 
dance with Table R602. 10.5.2. 

R602. 10.5.3 Braced wall panel location and corner 
construction. A braced wall panel shall be located at 
each end of a continuously-sheathed braced wall line. A 
minimum 32-inch (813 mm) structural fiberboard 
sheathing panel corner return shall be provided at both 
ends of a continuously-sheathed braced wall line in 
accordance with Figure R602. 10.4.4(1) In lieu of the 
corner return, a hold-down device with a minimum uplift 
design value of 800 pounds (3560 N) shall be fastened to 
the corner stud and to the foundation or framing below in 
accordance with Figure R602. 10.4.4(3) . 

Exception: The first braced wall panel shall be per- 
mitted to begin 12 feet 6 inches (3810 mm) from each 
end of the braced wall line in Seismic Design Catego- 
ries A, Band C provided one of the following is satis- 
fied: 

1. A minimum 32-inch-Iong (813 mm), full-height 
structural fiberboard sheathing panel is pro- 
vided at both sides of a corner constructed in 



accordance with Figure R602. 10.4.4(1) at the 
braced wall line ends in accordance with Figure 
R602. 10.4.4(4), or 

2. The braced wall panel closest to the corner shall 
have a hold-down device with a minimum uplift 
design value of 800 pounds (3560 N) fastened to 
the stud at the edge of the braced wallpanelclos- 
est to the corner and to the foundation or framing 
belowinaccordancewithFigureR602 . 10.4.4(5) . 

R602. 10.5.4 Continuously sheathed braced wall lines. 
Where a continuously-sheathed braced wall line is used 
in Seismic Design Categories Do, D { and D z or regions 
where the basic wind speed exceeds 100 miles per hour 
(45 m/s) , the braced wall line shall be designed in accor- 
dance with accepted engineering practice and the provi- 
sions of the International BUilding Code. Also, all other 
exterior braced wall lines in the same story shall be con- 
tinuously sheathed. 

R602.10.6 Braced wall panel connections. Braced wall 
panels shall be connected to floor framing or foundations as 
follows: 

1. Where joists are perpendicular to a braced wallpanel 
above or below, a rim joist, band joist or blocking 
shall be provided along the entire length of the braced 
wallpanel in accordance with Figure R602. 10.6(1). 
Fastening of top and bottom wall plates to framing, 
rimjoist, bandjoist andlor blocking shall be in accor- 
dance with Table R602.3Q). 

2. Wherejoists are parallel to a braced wall pan el above 
or below, a rimjoist, endjoist or other parallel fram- 
ing member shall be provided directly above and 
below the braced wallpanel in accordance with Fig- 
ure R602.1 0.6(2) . Where a parallel framing member 
cannot be located directly above and below the panel, 
full-depth blocking at 16 inch (406 mm) spacing shall 
be provided between the parallel framing members to 
each side of the braced wallpanel'm. accordance with 
Figure R602. 10.6(2). Fastening of blocking and wall 
plates shall be in accordance with Table R602.3(l) 
and Figure R602. 10.6(2). 

3. Connections of braced wall panels to concrete or 
masonry shall be in accordance with Section 
R403.1.6. 



TABLE R602. 10.5.2 

MINIMUM LENGTH REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL FIBERBOARD BRACED 

WALL PANELS IN A CONTINUOUSLY-SHEATHED WALLa 



MINIMUM LENGTH OF STRUCTURAL FIBERBOARD BRACED WALL PANEL 
finnhfisl 


MINIMUM OPENING CLEAR HEIGHT NEXT TO THE 

STRUCTURAL FIBERBOARD BRACED WALL PANEL 

(% of wall height) 


8-foot wall 


9-foot wall 


10-foot wall 


48 


54 


60 


100 


32 


36 


40 


85 


24 


27 


30 


67 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 
a. Interpolation is permitted. 



180 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



CONTINUOUS RIM 
OR BAND JOIST 



FULL HEIGHT BLOCKING 
CONTINUOUS ALONG LENGTH 
OF BRACED WALL PANEL 



E><y 



PERPENDICULAR FRAMING 



8d @ 6"O.C. ALONG 
BRACED WALL PANEL 




■BRACED WALL PANEL 



/ 



i- 



3-1 6d @ 16" O.C. ALONG 
BRACED WALL PANEL 



4 



8d @ 6"O.C. ALONG 
BRACED WALL PANEL 



BRACED WALL PANEL 



3-1 6d @ 16"O.C. ALONG 
BRACED WALL PANEL 



tv 



PERPENDICULAR FRAMING 



^ 



CONTINUOUS RIM 
OR BAND JOIST 



FULL HEIGHT BLOCKING 
CONTINUOUS ALONG LENGTH 
OF BRACED WALL PANEL 



For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R602.10.6(1) 
BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION WHEN PERPENDICULAR TO FLOOR/CEILING FRAMING 



CONTINUOUS RIM 
OR END JOIST 




8d @ 6"O.C. ALONG 
BRACED WALL PANEL 



-BRACED WALL PANEL 



3-16d@ 16" O.C. ALONG 
BRACED WALL PANEL 




ADDITIONAL FRAMING 
MEMBER DIRECTLY ABOVE 
BRACED WALL PANEL 





8d @ 6" O.C. ALONG 
BRACED WALL PANEL 



- BRACED WALL PANEL 



3-1 6d@16" O.C. ALONG 
BRACED WALL PANEL 



CONTINUOUS RIM 
OR BAND JOIST 



: 



i 



FULL HEIGHT BLOCKING 
@ 16" O.C. ALONG 
BRACED WALL PANEL 



4 

==** 



u 



TOE NAIL3-8d 
NAILS AT EACH 
BLOCKING 
MEMBER 



BRACED WALL PANEL 



■3-16d AT EACH 
BLOCKING MEMBER 



t_k3J 



-2-1 6d NAILS 
EACH SIDE 



ADDITIONAL FRAMING 
MEMBER DIRECTLY BELOW 
BRACED WALL PANEL 



FULL HEIGHT 
BLOCKING @ 16-O.C. 
ALONG BRACED WALL 



For 51 : 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R602.1 0.6(2) 
BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION WHEN PARALLEL TO FLOOR/CEILING FRAMING 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



181 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R602. 10.6.1 Braced wall panel connections for Seis- 
mic Design Categories Do, D r and D 2 . Braced wallpan- 
els shall be fastened to required foundations in 
accordance with Section R602.11.1, and top plate lap 
splices shall be face-nailed with at least eight 16d nails 
on each side of the splice. 

R602. 10.6.2 Connections to roof framing. Exterior 
braced wallpanels shall be connected to roof framing as 
follows . 

1. Parallel rafters or roof trusses shall be attached to 
the top plates of braced wallpanels in accordance 
with Table R602.3Q). 

2. For SDC A, Band C and wind speeds less than 
100 miles per hour (45 m/s) , where the distance 
from the top of the rafters or roof trusses and per- 
pendicular top plates is 9 1 / 4 inches (235 mm) or 
less, the rafters or roof trusses shall be connected 
to the top plates of braced wall lines in accor- 
dance with Table R602.3(l) and blocking need 
not be installed. Where the distance from the top 
of the rafters and perpendicular top plates is 
between 9h 4 inches (235 mm) and 15h 4 inches 
(387 mm) the rafters shall be connected to the top 
plates of braced wall panels with blocking in 
accordance with Figure R602. 10.6.2(1) and 
attached in accordance with Table R602.3(l). 
Where the distance from the top of the roof 
trusses and perpendicular top plates is between 
9h 4 inches (235 mm) and I5h 4 inches (387 mm) 
the roof trusses shall be connected to the top 
plates of braced wall panels with blocking in 
accordance with Table R602.3(l). 



3. For SDC Do, D l and D z orwind speeds of 100 miles 
per hour (45 m/s) or greater, where the distance 
between the top of rafters or roof trusses and per- 
pendicular top plates is 75% inches (387 mm) or 
less, rafters or roof trusses shall be connected to the 
top plates of braced wallpanels with blocking in 
accordance with Figure R602. 10.6.2(1) and 
attached in accordance with Table R602.3(l) . 

4. For all seismic design categories and wind speeds, 
where the distance between the top of rafters or 
roof trusses and perpendicular top plates exceeds 
15 ] / 4 inches (387 mm), perpendicular rafters or 
roof trusses shall be connected to the top plates of 
braced wallpanels in accordance with one of the 
following methods: 

4. 1. In accordance with Figure R602 . 10.6.2(2), 

4.2. In accordance with Figure R602 . 10.6.2(3), 

4.3. With full height engineered blocking panels 
designed for values listed in American For- 
est and Paper Association (AF&PA) Wood 
Frame Construction Manual for One- and 
Two-Family Dwellings (WFCM). Both the 
roof and floor sheathing shall be attached to 
the blocking panels in accordance with 
Table R602.3(l). 

4.4. Designed in accordance with accepted 
engineering methods. 

Lateral support for the rafters and ceiling joists shall 
be provided in accordance with Section R802.8. Lateral 
support for trusses shall be provided in accordance with 
Section R802.10.3. Ventilation shall be provided in 
accordance with Section R806.1. 




SOLID BLOCKING BETWEEN 
RAFTERS ATTACHED TO TOP 
PLATES WITH 8d @ 6"OC ALONG 
LENGTH OF BRACED WALL PANEL 



ROOF SHEATHING — 
EDGE NAILING PER 
TABLE R602.3(1) 
(TYP) 




BRACING a_ 
BRACED WALL 
LINE 



6'-0"MAX 



^\ PRE-ENGINEERED 

TRUSSES 

NAILING PER 
TABLE R602.3(1) 

PROVIDE VENTING 
PER SECTION R806 
(NOT SHOWN) 



a. METHODS OF BRACING SHALL BE AS DESCRIBED IN SECTION R602.10.2 
METHOD DWB, WSP, SFB, GB, PBS, PCP OR HPS 



For SI: 1 inch =25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R602.1 0.6.2(1) 

BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION 

TO PERPENDICULAR RAFTERS 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

FIGURE R602.1 0.6.2(2) 
BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION OPTION TO 
PERPENDICULAR RAFTERS OR ROOF TRUSSES 



182 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



PROVIDE VENTING 
PER SECTION R806 




T 

2x BLOCKING 



6'-Q"MAX 



PRE-ENGINEERED 
TRUSSES 

NAILING PER 
TABLE R602.3(1) 




ROOF SHEATHING 
EDGE NAILING PER 
TABLE R602.3(1) (TVP) 

BRACING" A 
VENTING 



WALL SHEATHING; 
BELOW NOT 
SHOWN 



. METHODS OF BRACING SHALL BE AS DESCRIBED IN SECTION R602.10.2 METHOD DWB, SFB, BG, PBS, PCP OR HPS 



SECTION 



ELEVATION 



FIGURE R602. 10.6.2(3) 
BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION OPTION TO PERPENDICULAR RAFTERS OR ROOF TRUSSES 



R602.10.7 Braced wall panel support. Braced wallpanel 
support shall be provided as follows: 

1. Cantilevered floor joists, supporting braced wall 
lines, shall comply with Section R502.3.3. Solid 
blocking shall be provided at the nearest bearing wall 
location. In Seismic DeSign Categories A, Band C, 
where the cantilever is not more than 24 inches (610 
mm), a full height rim joist instead of solid blocking 
shall be provided. 

2. Elevated post or pier foundations supporting braced 
wall panels shall be designed in accordance with 
accepted engineering practice. 

3. Masonry stem walls with a length of 48 inches (1220 
mm) or less supporting braced wall panels shall be 
reinforced in accordance with Figure R602.10.7. 
Masonry stem walls with a length greater than 48 
inches (1220 mm) supporting braced wall panels 
shall be constructed in accordance with Section 
R403.1 Bracedwallpanels constructed in accordance 
with Sections R602. 10.3.2 and R602. 10.3.3 shall not 
be attached to masonry stem walls. 

R602. 10.7.1 Braced wall panel support for Seismic 
Design Category D 2 - In one-story buildings located in 
Seismic DeSign Category D 2 , bracedwallpanels shall be 
supported on continuous foundations at intervals not 
exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm). In two-story buildings 
located in Seismic DeSign Category D 2 , all braced wall 
panels shall be supported on continuous foundations . 

Exception: Two-story buildings shall be permitted to 
have interior bracedwallpanels supported on contin- 
uous foundations at intervals not exceeding 50 feet 
(15 240 mm) provided that: 

1. The height of cripple walls does not exceed 4 
feet (1219 mm). 



2. First-floor bracedwallpanels are supported on 
doubled floor joists, continuous blocking or 
floor beams. 

3. The distance between bracing lines does not 
exceed twice the building width measured par- 
allel to the braced wall line. 

R602.10.8 Paneljoints. All vertical joints of panel sheath- 
ing shall occur over, and be fastened to common studs. Hori- 
zontal joints in bracedwallpanels shall occur over, and be 
fastened to common blocking of a minimum 1V 2 inch (38 
mm) thickness. 

Exceptions: 

1. Blocking at horizontal joints shall not be required 
in wall segments that are not counted as braced 
wallpanels. 

2. Where the bracing length provided is at least twice 
the minimum length required by Tables 
R602.10.1.2(l) and R602. 10. 1.2(2) blocking at 
horizontal joints shall not be required in braced 
wall panels constructed using Methods WSP, 
SFB, GB, PBS or HPS. 

3. When Method GB panels are installed horizon- 
tally, blocking ofhorizontaljoints is not required. 

R602.10.9 Cripple wall bracing. In Seismic DeSign Cate- 
gories other than D 2 , cripple walls shall be braced with a 
length and type of bracing as required for the wall above in 
accordance with Tables R602 . 10. 1.2(1) and R602 . 10. 1.2(2) 
with the following modifications for cripple wall bracing: 

1. The length of bracing as determined from Tables 
R602.10.1.2(l) and R602. 10. 1.2(2) shall be multi- 
plied by a factor of 1.15, and 

2. The wall panel spacing shall be decreased to 18 feet 
(5486 mm) instead of 25 feet (7620 mm). 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



183 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R602. 10.9.1 Cripple wall bracing in Seismic Design 
Categories Do, D Y and Df In addition to the require- 
ments of Section R602.10.9, where braced wall lines at 
interior walls occur without a continuous foundation 
below, the length of parallel exterior cripple wall bracing 
shall be l 1 / 2 times the length required by Tables 
R602. 10. 1.2(1) and R602. 10. 1.2(2). Where cripple 
walls braced using Method WSP of Section R602.10.2 
cannot provide this additional length, the capacity of the 
sheathing shall be increased by reducing the spacing of 
fasteners along the perimeter of each piece of sheathing 
to 4 inches (102 mm) on center. 

In Seismic Design Category D 2 , cripple walls shall be 
braced in accordance with Tables R602. 10. 1.2(1) and 
R602.10.1.2(2). 

R602. 10.9.2 Redesignation of cripple walls. In any Seis- 
mic Design Category, cripple walls shall be permitted to be 
redesignated as the first storywalls for purposes of deter- 



mining wall bracing requirements. If the cripple walls are 
redesignated, the stories above the redesignated story shall 
be counted as the second and third stories, respectively. 

R602.ll Wall anchorage. Braced wall line sills shall be 
anchored to concrete or masonry foundations in accordance 
with Sections R403.1.6 and R602.11.1. 

602.11.1 Wall anchorage for all buildings in Seismic 
Design Categories Do, D^ and Z) z and townhouses in Seis- 
mic Design Category C. Plate washers, a minimum of 
0.229 inch by 3 inches by 3 inches (5.8 mm by 76 mm by 76 
mm) in size, shall be provided between the foundation sill 
plate and the nut except where app roved anchor straps are 
used. The hole in the plate washer is permitted to be diago- 
nally slotted with a width of up to 3/ 16 inch (5 mm) larger 
than the bolt diameter and a slot length not to exceed l 3 / 4 
inches (44 mm), provided a standard cut washer is placed 
between the plate washer and the nut. 



48" OR LESS 



X 

< 



48" OR LESS 



^^ 




4. Vs . Vs ''v. «TT «5" 



C . .' . . . 



3" COVER 



J 



/I 



BRACED WALL PANEL 

y 2 " ANCHOR BOLTS PER BRACED 
WALL PANEL REQUIREMENTS 

BOND BEAM WITH 1-#4 BAR 

#4 BAR MINEFIELD BEND 6" 
EXTENSION INTO BOND BEAM 






20"MIN.TYR 



BRACED WALL PANEL 

1 / 2 "ANCHOR BOLTS PER 
BRACED WALL PANEL 
REQUIREMENTS 

#4 BAR 



BOND BEAM 




3" COVER 



SHORT STEM WALL REINFORCEMENT 



TALL STEM WALL REINFORCEMENT 



48" OR LESS 



-BRACED WALL PANEL 

-BOND BEAM WITH 1-#4 BAR 



S/a"THREADED RODS MAY BE 
SUBSTITUTED FOR ANCHOR 
BOLTS AND REBAR 



C, 



2A 



-3" COVER MIN. 2" CUT WASHERS 
OPTIONAL STEM WALL REINFORCEMENT 



BRACED WALL- 
PANEL 




BOND BEAM 
8"MIN. CMU 



TYPICAL STEM WALL SECTION 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



NOTE: GROUT BOND BEAMS AND ALL CELLS WHICH CONTAIN 
REBAR, THREADED RODS AND ANCHOR BOLTS. 



FIGURE R602.10.7 
MASONRY STEM WALLS SUPPORTING BRACED WALL PANELS 



184 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R602.11.2 Stepped foundations in Seismic Design Cate- 
gories Do, D x and D 2 - In all buildings located in Seismic 
Design Categories Do, D l or D z , where the height of a 
required braced wall line that extends from foundation to 
floor above varies more than 4 feet (1219 mm), the braced 
wall line shall be constructed in accordance with the follow- 
ing: 

1. Where the lowest floor framing rests directly on a sill 
bolted to a foundation not less than 8 feet (2440 mm) 
in length along a line of bracing, the line shall be con- 
sidered as braced. The double plate of the cripple stud 
wall beyond the segment of footing that extends to the 
lowest framed floor shall be spliced by extending the 
upper top plate a minimum of 4 feet (1219 mm) along 
the foundation. Anchor bolts shall be located a maxi- 
mum of 1 foot and 3 feet (305 and 914 mm) from the 
step in the foundation. See Figure R602.ll .2. 

2. Where cripple walls occur between the top of the 
foundation and the lowest floor framing, the bracing 
requirements of Sections R602.10.9 and R602.10.9.1 
shall apply. 

3. Where only the bottom of the foundation is stepped 
and the lowest floor framing rests directly on a sill 
bolted to the foundations, the requirements of Sec- 
tions R403.1.6 and R602.11.1 shall apply. 

R602.12 Wall bracing and stone and masonry veneer. 
Where stone and masonry veneer is installed in accordance 
with Section R703. 7, wall bracing shall comply with this sec- 
tion. 

For all buildings in Seismic Design Categories A, Band C, 
wall bracing at exterior and interior braced wall line sshaW be in 



accordance with Section R602.10 and the additional require- 
ments of Table R602.12(l). 

For detached one- or two-family dwellings in Seismic 
Design Categories Do, D { and D z , wall bracing and hold downs 
at exterior and interior braced wall lines shall be in accordance 
with Sections R602 . 10 and R602 . 1 1 and the additional require- 
ments of Section R602 . 12 . 1 and Table R602 . 12 (2) . In Seismic 
Design Categories Do, D 1 and D z , cripple walls are not permit- 
ted, and required interior braced wall lines shall be supported 
on continuous foundations. 

R602.12.1 Seismic Design Categories Do, D x and D 2 . Wall 
bracing where stone and masonry veneer exceeds the first 
story height in Seismic Design Categories Do, D r and D z 
shall conform to the requirements of Sections R602.10 and 
R602.ll and the following requirements. 

R602.12.1.1 Length of bracing. The length of bracing 
along each braced wall line shall be in accordance with 
Table R602. 12(2). 

R602.12.1.2 Braced wall panel location. Braced wall 
panels shall begin no more than 8 feet (2440 mm) from 
each end of a bracedwallline and shall be spaced a maxi- 
mum of 25 feet (7620 mm) on center. 

R602.12.1.3 Braced wall panel construction. Braced 
wallpanels shall be constructed of sheathing with a thick- 
ness of not less than 7/ 16 inch (11 mm) nailed with 8d com- 
mon nails spaced 4 inches (102 mm) on center at all panel 
edges and 12 inches (305 mm) on center at intermediate 
supports. The end of each braced wall panel shall have a 
hold down device in accordance with Table R602.12(2) 
installed at each end. Size, height and spacing of wood 
studs shall be in accordance with Table R602.3(5). 



2xSILL PLATE 



CONCRETE 

STEPPED 

FOOTING 



WHERE FOOTING SECTION "A ! IS MORE THAN 8 FT 
SPLICE PROVIDE METAL TIE 16 GA BY 1.5 BY 4 FT MIN. EACH 

SIDE OF SPLICE W/8-16d COMMON NAILS. 

2- 2x PLATE 



Wl AV\ WI s W/// \\V W 






^ 



^) 



FOOTING SECTION "A" 



l',H 



2x CRIPPLE 
STUD WALL 



\\> 



\^\ I 

// / /N '"\\\V"\\\V///\\V I 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

Note: Where footing Section "A" is less than 8 feet long in a 25-foot-Iong wall, install bracing at cripple stud wall. 

FIGURE R602.11.2 
STEPPED FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



185 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602.12(1) 

STONE OR MASONRY VENEER WALL BRACING REQUIREMENTS, WOOD 

OR STEEL FRAMING, SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES A, Band C 



SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY 


NUMBER OF WOOD 
FRAMED STORIES 


WOOD FRAMED STORY 


MINIMUM SHEATHING AMOUNT 
(length of braced wall line length)a 


AorB 


1,2 or 3 


all 


Table R602. 10. 1.2(2) 


C 


1 


1 only 


Table R602. 10. 1.2(2) 


2 


top 


Table R602. 10. 1.2(2) 


bottom 


1.5 times length required by 
Table R602. 10. 1.2(2) 


3 


top 


Table R602.10. 1.2(2) 


middle 


1.5 times length required by 
Table R602. 10. 1.2(2) 


bottom 


1.5 times length required by 
Table R602. 10. 1.2(2) 



a. Applies to exterior and interior braced wall lines. 



TABLE R602.12(2) 

STONE OR MASONRY VENEER WALL BRACING REQUIREMENTS, 

ONE- AND TWO-FAMILY DETACHED DWELLINGS, SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES Do' D 1 and D 2 



SEISMIC DESIGN 
CATEGORY 


NUMBER OF 
STORIES 3 


STORY 


MINIMUM SHEATHING 

AMOUNT (length of 

braced wall line length 

in feet)b 


MINIMUM SHEATHING 

THICKNESS AND 

FASTENING 


SINGLE STORY HOLD 
DOWN FORCE (lb)C 


CUMULATIVE HOLD 
DOWN FORCE (lb)d 


Do 


1 


1 only 


35 


7/ 16 -inch wood structural 

panel sheathing with 8d 

common nails spaced at 

4 inches on center at 

panel edges, 12 inches 

on center at intermediate 

supports; 8d common 

nails at 4 inches on 

center at braced wall 

panel end posts with 

hold down attached 


N/A 


- 


2 


top 


35 


1900 




bottom 


45 


3200 


5100 


3 


top 


40 


1900 




middle 


45 


3500 


5400 


bottom 


60 


3500 


8900 


Di 


1 


1 only 


45 


2100 


- 


2 


top 


45 


2100 




bottom 


45 


3700 


5800 


3 


top 


45 


2100 




middle 


45 


3700 


5800 


bottom 


60 


3700 


9500 


D z 


1 


1 only 


55 


2300 


- 


2 


top 


55 


2300 


. 


bottom 


55 


3900 


6200 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.479kPa, 1 pound-force = 4.448 N. 

a. Cripple walls are not permitted in Seismic Design Categories Do, D : and D z . 

b. Applies to exterior and interior braced wall lines. 

c. Hold down force is minimum allowable stress design load for connector providing uplift tie from wall framing at end of braced wall panel at the noted story to wall 
framing at end of braced wall panel at the story below, or to foundation or foundation wall. Use single story hold down force where edges of braced wall panels do 
not align; a continuous load path to the foundation shall be maintained. [See Figure R602.12] . 

d. Where hold down connectors from stories above align with stories below, use cumulative hold down force to size middle and bottom story hold down connectors. 
(See Figure R602. 12). 



186 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R602.12.1.4 Minimum length of braced panel. Each 
braced wall pan el shall be at least 48 inches (1219 mm) 
in length, covering a minimum of 3 stud spaces where 
studs are spaced 16 inches (406 mm) on center and cov- 
ering a minimum of 2 stud spaced where studs are spaced 
24 inches on center. 

R602.12.1.5 Alternate braced wall panel. Alternate 
braced wall panels described in Section R602.10.3.2 
shall not replace the braced wall panel specification of 
this section. 

R602.12.1.6 Continuously sheathed wall bracing. 
Continuously sheathed provisions of Section R602.1 0.4 
shall not be used in conjunction with the wall bracing 
provisions of this section. 



SECTION R603 
STEEL WALL FRAMING 

R603.1 General. Elements shall be straight and free of any 
defects that would significantly affect structural performance. 
Cold-formed steel wall framing members shall comply with 
the requirements of this section. 

R603.1.1 Applicability limits. The provisions of this sec- 
tion shall control the construction of exterior cold-formed 
steel wall framing and interior load-bearing cold-formed 



steel wall framing for buildings not more than 60 feet (18 
288 mm) long perpendicular to the joist or truss span, not 
more than 40 feet (12 192 mm) wide parallel to the joist or 
truss span, and less than or equal to three stories above grade 
plane. All exterior walls installed in accordance with the 
provisions of this section shall be considered as load-bear- 
ing walls. Cold-formed steel walls constructed in accor- 
dance with the provisions of this section shall be limited to 
sites subjected to a maximum design wind speed of 110 
miles per hour (49 m/s) Exposure B or C and a maximum 
ground snow load of 70 pounds per square foot (3.35 kPa). 

R603.1.2 In-line framing. Load-bearing cold-formed steel 
studs constructed in accordance with Section R603 shall be 
located in-line with joists, trusses and rafters in accordance 
with Figure R603 . 1.2 and the tolerances specified as follows : 

1. The maximum tolerance shall be 3/ 4 inch (19 mm) 
between the centerline of the horizontal framing 
member and the centerline of the vertical framing 
member. 

2. Where the centerline of the horizontal framing mem- 
ber and bearing stiffener are located to one side of the 
centerline of the vertical framing member, the maxi- 
mum tolerance shall be i/ 8 inch (3 mm) between the 
web of the horizontal framing member and the edge 
of the vertical framing member. 



EDGES OF 

BRACED 

WALL PANELS 

ALIGN. 

HOLD DOWNS 

ALIGN. 



SINGLE STORY 

HOLD DOWN 

FORCE 

-TOP STORY 



BRACED WALL 
PANEL 



CUMULATIVE 

HOLD DOWN 

FORCE 

-MIDDLE STORY 

BRACED WALL 
PANEL 



CUMULATIVE 

HOLD DOWN 

FORCE 

-BOTTOM STORY 




EDGE NAIL 
SHEATHING 
TO BRACED 
WALL PANEL 
END POST 
WITH HOLD 
DOWN, 
TYPICAL. 



BOTH HOLD 
DOWNS ON 
SAME POST 
OR STUD 
TOP AND 
BOTTOM 




(a) 



(b) 



EDGES OF 

BRACED WALL 

PANELS 

DO NOT ALIGN. 

USE (a) WHERE 

THEY ALIGN. 



BRACED WALL 
PANEL 



SINGLE STORY 
HOLD DOWN 
FORCE-TOP 
STORY 

BRACED WALL 
PANEL 

SINGLE STORY 
HOLD DOWN 
FORCE 
-MIDDLE STORY 



BRACED WALL 
PANEL 

SINGLE STORY 
HOLD DOWN 
FORCE 
-BOTTOM STORY 



(a) Braced wall panels stacked (aligned story to story). Use cumulative hold down force. 

(b) Braced wall panels not stacked. Use single story hold down force. 

FIGURE R602.12 
HOLD DOWNS AT EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR BRACED WALL PANELS 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



187 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 




HORIZONTAL 

FRAMING 

MEMBER 

BEARING STIFFENER 
TRACK 



STUD 




HORIZONTAL 
y FRAMING 
MEMBER 

BEARING STIFFENER 
TRACK 



-STUD 



9 STUD 



HORIZONTAL HORIZONTAL 
£ FRAMING <£ FRAMING 



C BEARING 
STIFFENER 



MEMBER 



%"(19mm) 
MAX.- 



1*1 

l 

it 



MEMBER 



] c 



y 



-%"(19mm) 
MAX. 



VERTICAL 
<t FRAMING 
MEMBER 



HORIZONTAL 

FRAMING 

MEMBER 



- 3 /4"(19mm) 



3 C 



_L 



VERTICAL 
£ FRAMING 
MEMBER 



-V (3mm) MAX. 

FROM WEB OF 
HORIZONTAL 
FRAMING 
MEMBER TO 
EDGE OF 
VERTICAL 
FRAMING 
MEMBER 



MAX. 



VERTICAL 
FRAMING 
MEMBER 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 



FIGURE R603.1.2 
IN-LINE FRAMING 



R603.2 Structural framing. Load-bearing cold-formed steel 
wall framing members shall comply with Figure R603 .2(1) and 
with the dimensional and minimum thickness requirements 
specified in Tables R603 .2(1) and R603 .2(2). Tracks shall com- 
ply with Figure R603.2(2) and shall have a minimum flange 
width of V/ 4 inches (32 mm). The maximum inside bend radius 
for members shall be the greater of 3/ 32 inch (2.4 mm) minus half 
the base steel thickness or 1.5 times the base steel thickness. 

R603.2.1 Material. Load-bearing cold-formed steel fram- 
ing members shall be cold-formed to shape from structural 
quality sheet steel complying with the requirements of one 
of the following: 

1. ASTM A 653: Grades 33, and 50 (Class 1 and 3). 

2. ASTM A 792: Grades 33, and 50A. 

3. ASTM A 1003: Structural Grades 33 Type H, and 50 
Type H. 

R603.2.2 Identification. Load-bearing cold-formed steel 
framing members shall have a legible label, stencil, stamp 
or embossment with the following information as a mini- 
mum: 

1. Manufacturer's identification. 

2. Minimum base steel thickness in inches (mm). 

3. Minimum coating designation. 

4. Minimum yield strength, in kips per square inch (ksi) 
(MPa). 



R603.2.3 Corrosion protection. Load-bearing cold-formed 
steel framing shall have a metallic coating complying with 
ASTM A 1003 and one of the following: 

1. A minimum of G 60 in accordance with ASTM A 
653. 

2. A minimum of AZ 50 in accordance with ASTM A 

792. 

R603.2.4 Fastening requirements. Screws for steel-to- steel 
connections shall be installed with a minimum edge distance 
and center-to-center spacing of 7 / 2 inch (12.7 mm), shall be 
self-drilling tapping and shall conform to ASTM C 1513. 
Structural sheathing shall be attached to cold-formed steel 
studs with minimum No. 8 self-drilling tapping screws that 
conform to ASTM C 1513. Screws for attaching structural 
sheathing to cold-formed steel wall framing shall have a min- 
imum head diameter of 0.292 inch (7.4 mm) with counter- 
sunk heads and shall be installed with a minimum edge 
distance of 3/ 8 inch (9.5 mm) . Gypsum board shall be attached 
to cold-formed steel wall framing with minimum No. 6 
screws conforming to ASTM C 954 or ASTM C 1513 with a 
bugle head style and shall be installed in accordance with 
Section R702. For all connections, screws shall extend 
through the steel a minimum of three exposed threads. All 
fasteners shall have rust inhibitive coating suitable for the 
installation in which they are being used, or be manufactured 
from material not susceptible to corrosion. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.2(1) 
LOAD-BEARING COLD-FORMED STEEL STUD SIZES 



MEMBER DESIGNATIONS 


WEB DEPTH 

(inches) 


MINIMUM FLANGE WIDTH 

(inches) 


MAXIMUM FLANGE WIDTH 

(inches) 


MINIMUM LIP SIZE 
(inches) 


350S162-t 


3.5 


1.625 


2 


0.5 


550S162-t 


5.5 


1.625 


2 


0.5 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 

a. The member designation is defined by the first number representing the member depth in hundredths of an inch" S " representing a stud orj oist member, the second 

number representing the flange width in hundredths of an inch, and the letter "t" shall be a number representing the minimum base metal thickness in mils [See 

Table R603. 2(2)]. 



TABLE R603.2(2) 
MINIMUM THICKNESS OF COLD-FORMED STEEL MEMBERS 



DESIGNATION THICKNESS 

(mils) 


MINIMUM BASE STEEL THICKNESS 

(inches) 


33 


0.0329 


43 


0.0428 


54 


0.0538 


68 


0.0677 


97 


0.0966 



For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FLANGE 




DEPTH OF WEB 
(OUTSIDE TO 
OUTSIDE) 



FLANGE 




SIZE OF TRACK 
(INSIDE TO INSIDE) 



FIGURE R603.2(1) 
C-SHAPED SECTION 



FIGURE R603.2(2) 
TRACK SECTION 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



189 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



Where No. 8 screws are specified in a steel-to-steel con- 
nection, the required number of screws in the connection is 
permitted to be reduced in accordance with the reduction 
factors in Table R603.2.4, when larger screws are used or 
when one of the sheets of steel being connected is thicker 
than 33 mils (0.84 mm) . When applying the reduction fac- 
tor, the resulting number of screws shall be rounded up. 

TABLE R603.2.4 
SCREW SUBSTITUTION FACTOR 



SCREW SIZE 


THINNEST CONNECTED STEEL SHEET (mils) 


33 


43 


#8 


1.0 


0.67 


#10 


0.93 


0.62 


#12 


0.86 


0.56 



For 51: 1 mil =0.0254 mm. 

R603.2.5 Web holes, web hole reinforcing and web hole 
patching. Web holes, web hole reinforcing and web hole 
patching shall be in accordance with this section. 

R603. 2.5.1 Web holes. Web holes in wall studs and other 
structural members shall comply with all of the follow- 
ing conditions: 

1. Holes shall conform to Figure R603 .2.5.1; 

2. Holes shall be permitted only along the centerline 
of the web of the framing member; 

3. Holes shall have a center-to-center spacing of not 
less than 24 inches (610 mm); 

4. Holes shall have a web hole width not greater than 
0.5 times the member depth, or 1V 2 inches (38 
mm); 



IC'MIN 




PENETRATION 
(HOLE.PUNCHOUT} 



M"MIM 



1V/ 1 MAX. 



STUDfrPLMCHOUT 



For 51 : 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R603.2.5.1 
WEB HOLES 



5. Holes shall have a web hole length not exceeding 
4 1 / 2 inches (114 mm); and 

6. Holes shall have a minimum distance between the 
edge of the bearing surface and the edge of the web 
hole of not less than 10 inches (254 mm) . 

Framing members with web holes not conforming to 
the above requirements shall be reinforced in accordance 
with Section R603 .2.5.2, patched in accordance with 
Section R603.2.5.3 or designed in accordance with 
accepted engineering practice. 



R603.2.5.2 Web hole reinforcing. Web holes in gable 
endwall studs not conforming to the requirements of 
Section R603 .2.5.1 shall be permitted to be reinforced 
if the hole is located fully within the center 40 percent of 
the span and the depth and length of the hole does not 
exceed 65 percent of the flat width of the web. The rein- 
forcing shall be a steel plate or C-shape section with a 
hole that does not exceed the web hole size limitations 
of Section R603. 2. 5.1 for the member being reinforced. 
The steel reinforcing shall be the same thickness as the 
receiving member and shall extend at least 1 inch (25.4 
mm) beyond all edges of the hole. The steel reinforcing 
shall be fastened to the web of the receiving member 
with No .8 screws spaced no more than 1 inch (25.4 mm) 
center-to-center along the edges of the patch with mini- 
mum edge distance of i/ 2 inch (12.7 mm). 

R603.2.5.3 Hole patching. Web holes in wall studs and 
other structural members not conforming to the require- 
ments in Section R603 .2.5.1 shall be permitted to be 
patched in accordance with either of the following meth- 
ods: 

1. Framing members shall be replaced or designed 
in accordance with accepted engineering practice 
when web holes exceed the following size limits: 

1.1. The depth of the hole, measured across the 
web, exceeds 70 percent of the flat width of 
the web; or 

1.2. The length of the hole measured along the 
web exceeds 10 inches (254 mm) or the 
depth of the web, whichever is greater. 

2. Web holes not exceeding the dimensional require- 
ments in Section R603.2.5.3, Item 1 shall be 
patched with a solid steel plate, stud section or track 
section in accordance with Figure R603.2.5.3. The 
steel patch shall, as a minimum, be the same thick- 
ness as the receiving member and shall extend at 
least 1 inch (25.4 mm) beyond all edges of the hole. 
The steel patch shall be fastened to the web of the 
receiving member with No. 8 screws spaced no 
more than 1 inch (25.4 mm) center- to-center along 
the edges of the patch with a minimum edge dis- 
tance of i/ 2 inch (12.7 mm). 



190 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



STUD 




NO. 8 SCREWS 
SPACEDATTO.C. 

(TYP.) 



SOLID STEEL PLATE, 
C-SHAPE OR TRACK, 
MIN. THICKNESS AS STUD 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

FIGURE R603.2.5.3 
STUD WEB HOLE PATCH 

R603.3 Wall construction. All exterior cold-formed steel 
framed walls and interior load-bearing cold-formed steel 
framed walls shall be constructed in accordance with the provi- 
sions of this section. 

R603.3.1 Wall to foundation or floor connection. Cold- 
formed steel framed walls shall be anchored to foundations or 
floors in accordance with Table R603.3.1 and Figure 
R603.3.1 (1), R603.3.1 (2) orR603.3.1 (3). Anchor bolts shall 
be located not more than 12 inches (305 mm) from corners or 
the termination of bottom tracks. Anchor bolts shall extend a 
minimum of 15 inches (381 mm) into masonry or 7 inches 
(178 mm) into concrete. Foundation anchor straps shall be 
permitted, in lieu of anchor bolts, if spaced as required to pro- 
vide equivalent anchorage to the required anchor bolts and 
installed in accordance with manufacturer's requirements. 

R603.3.1.1 Gable endwalls. Gable endwalls with 
heights greater than 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be anchored 
to foundations or floors in accordance with Tables 
R603.3.1.1 (1) or R603.3.1.1 (2). 

R603.3.2 Minimum stud sizes. Cold-formed steel walls shall 
be constructed in accordance with Figures R603.3.1 (1), 
R603.3.1 (2), or R603.3.1 (3) , as applicable. Exterior wall stud 
size and thickness shall be determined in accordance with the 
limits set forth in Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(31). 
Interior load-bearing wall stud size and thickness shall be 
determined in accordance with the limits set forth in Tables 
R603 .3.2(2) through R603.3.2(3 1) based upon an 85 miles per 
hour (38 mis) Exposure AlB wind value and the building 
width, stud spacing and snow load, as appropriate. Fastening 
requirements shall be in accordance with Section R603.2.4 and 
Table R603.3.2(l). Top and bottom tracks shall have the same 
minimum thickness as the wall studs. 

Exterior wall studs shall be permitted to be reduced to the 
next thinner size, as shown in Tables R603 .3.2(2) through 
R603. 3.2(31), but not less than 33 mils (0.84 mm) ,where 
both of the following conditions exist: 

1. Minimum of i/ 2 inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board is 
installed and fastened in accordance with Section 
R702 on the interior surface. 



2. Wood structural sheathing panels of minimum 7/ 16 
inch (11 mm) thick oriented strand board or i5/ 32 inch 
(12 mm) thick plywood is installed and fastened in 
accordance with Section R603.9.1 and Table 
R603.3.2(l) on the outside surface. 

Interior load-bearing walls shall be permitted to be reduced 
to the next thinner size, as shown in Tables R603.3.2(2) 
through R603.3.2(31), but not less than 33 mils (0.84 mm), 
where a minimum of i/ 2 inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board is 
installed and fastened in accordance with Section R702 on 
both sides of the wall. The tabulated stud thickness for load- 
bearing walls shall be used when the atticload is 10 pounds per 
square feet (480 Pa) or less. A limited attic storage load of 20 
pounds per square feet (960 Pa) shall be permitted provided that 
the next higher snow load column is used to select the stud size 
from Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(31) . 

For two-story buildings, the tabulated stud thickness for 
walls supporting one floor, roof and ceiling shall be used 
when second floor live load is 30 pounds per square feet 
(1440 Pa). Second floor live loads of 40 psf (1920 pounds per 
square feet) shall be permitted provided that the next higher 
snow load column is used to select the stud size from Tables 
R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(21). 

For three-story buildings, the tabulated stud thickness for 
walls supporting one or two floors, roof and ceiling shall be 
used when the third floor live load is 30 pounds per square 
feet (1440 Pa). Third floor live loads of 40 pounds per 
square feet (1920 Pa) shall be permitted provided that the 
next higher snow load column is used to select the stud size 
from Tables R603.3.2(22) through R603.3.2(31). 

R603. 3.2.1 Gable endwalls. The size and thickness of 
gable endwall studs with heights less than or equal to 10 
feet (3048 mm) shall be permitted in accordance with the 
limits set forth in Tables R603. 3.2.1 (1) orR603.3.2.1 (2). 
The size and thickness of gable endwall studs with 
heights greater than 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be deter- 
mined in accordance with the limits set forth in Tables 
R603.3.2.1 (3) or R603.3.2.1 (4). 

R603.3.3 Stud bracing. The flanges of cold-formed steel 
studs shall be laterally braced in accordance with one of the 
following: 

1. Gypsum board on both sides, structural sheathing on 
both sides, or gypsum board on one side and structural 
sheathing on the other side of load-bearing walls with 
gypsum board installed with minimum No. 6 screws 
in accordance with Section R702 and structural 
sheathing installed in accordance with Section 
R603.9.1 and Table R603.3.2(l). 

2. Horizontal steel straps fastened in accordance with Fig- 
ure R603. 3.3(1) on both sides at mid-height for 8-foot 
(2438 mm) walls, and at one-third points for 9-foot and 
10-foot (2743 mm and 3048 mm) walls. Horizontal steel 
straps shall be at least 1.5 inches in width and 33 mils in 
thickness (38 mm by 0.84 mm). Straps shall be attached 
to the flanges of studs with one No. 8 screw. In-line 
blocking shall be installed between studs at the termina- 
tion of all straps and at 12 foot (3658 mm) intervals 
along the strap. Straps shall be fastened to the blocking 
with two No. 8 screws. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



191 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.1 
WALL TO FOUNDATION OR FLOOR CONNECTION REQUIREMENTSa,b 



FRAMING 
CONDITION 


WIND SPEED (mph) AND EXPOSURE 


85 B 


90 B 


100 B 
85 C 


110 B 

90C 


100 c 


< 110 c 


Wall bottom track to 
floor per Figure 
R603.3.l(1) 


I-No.8 screw at 
12" o.c. 


I-No.8 screw at 
12" o.c. 


I-No.8 screw at 
12" o.c. 


I-No.8 screw at 
12" o.c. 


2-No. 8 screws at 
12" o.c. 


2 No. 8 screws at 
12" o.c. 


Wall bottom track to 
foundation per Figure 
R603.3.1(2)d 


V 2 " minimum 

diameter anchor 

bolt at 6' o.c. 


V 2 " minimum 

diameter anchor 

bolt at 6' o.c. 


V 2 " minimum 

diameter anchor 

bolt at 4' o.c. 


V 2 " minimum 

diameter anchor 

bolt at 4' o.c. 


V 2 " minimum 

diameter anchor 

bolt at 4' o.c. 


V 2 " minimum 

diameter anchor 

bolt at 4' o.c. 


Wall bottom track to 
wood sill per Figure 
R603.3.1(3) 


Steel plate spaced 
at 4' o.c, with 
4-No. 8 screws 

and4-10dor6-8d 
common nails 


Steel plate spaced 
at 4' o.c, with 
4-No. 8 screws 

and4-10dor6-8d 
common nails 


Steel plate spaced 
at 3' o.c, with 
4-No. 8 screws 

and4-10dor6-8d 
common nails 


Steel plate spaced 
at 3' o.c, with 
4-No. 8 screws 

and4-10dor6-8d 
common nails 


Steel plate spaced 
at 2' o.c, with 
4-No. 8 screws 

and4-10dor6-8d 
common nails 


Steel plate spaced 
at 2' o.c, with 
4-No. 8 screws 

and4-10dor6-8d 
common nails 


Wind uplift connector 
strength to 16" stud 
spacing 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


65 lb per foot of 
wall length 


Wind uplift connector 
strength for 24" stud 
spacing 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


100 lb per foot of 
wall length 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, lib = 4.45 N. 

a. Anchor bolts are to be located not more than 12 inches from corners or the termination of bottom tracks (e.g. , at door openings or corners) .Bolts are to extend a min- 
imum of 15 inches into masonry or 7 inches into concrete. 

b. All screw sizes shown are minimum. 

c. NR = uplift connector not required. 

d. Foundation anchor straps are permitted in place of anchor bolts, if spaced as required to provide equivalent anchorage to the required anchor bolts and installed in 
accordance with manufacturer's requirements. 



STRUCTURAL STEEL STUD 



FLOOR JOIST 



FLOOR 
SHEATHING 




NO. 8 SCREWS SPACED 
PER TABLE R603.3.1 



STRUCTURAL STUD 



FIGURE R603.3.1 (1) 
WALL TO FLOOR CONNECTION 



192 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



STUD 



TRACK 




NO. 8 SCREW THROUGH 
EACH FLANGE 



4 NO. 8 SCREWS THROUGH 
EACH FLANGE 

STUD BLOCKING INSIDE WALL TRACK 
(MINIMUM THICKNESS OF STUD) 

ANCHOR BOLT OR OTHER CONNECTION 
AS REQUIRED 

FOUNDATION OR SLAB ON GRADE 



SILL SEALER AS REQUIRED 



For 51 : 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



For 51 : 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R603.3.1 (2) 
WALL TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION 




MINIMUM 3"x4"x33 MIL 
METAL PLATE 

4-1 Od OR 6-8d COMMON NAIL 

NO. 8 SCREW THROUGH EACH FLANGE 

MINIMUM 4 NO. 8 SCREWS 

ANCHOR BOLT THROUGH WOOD SILL 
OR OTHER CONNECTION AS REQUIRED 



FOUNDATION OR SLAB ON GRADE 



FIGURE R603.3.1 (3) 
WALL TO WOOD SILL CONNECTION 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



193 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 







TABLE R603.3.1.1 (1) 
GABLE ENDWALLTO FLOOR CONNECTION REQUIREMENTSa,b,c 




BASIC WIND SPEED 
(mph) 


WALL BOTTOM TRACK TO FLOOR JOIST OR TRACK CONNECTION 


Exposure 


Stud height, h (tt) 


B 


C 


10<h<14 


14 < h < 18 


18<h<22 


85 


- 


I -No. 8 screw @ 12" Qc. 


I-No. 8 screw @ 12" Qc. 


I-No. 8 screw @ 12" Qc. 


90 




I-No.8 screw @ 12" O.c. 


I-No.8 screw @ 12" O.c. 


I-No.8 screw @ 12" O.c. 


100 


85 


I-No.8 screw @ 12" O.c. 


I-No.8 screw @ 12" O.c. 


I-No.8 screw @ 12" O.c. 


110 


90 


I -No. 8 screw @ 12" O.c. 


I-No. 8 screw @ 12" O.c. 


2-No. 8 screws @ 12" O.c. 




100 


I-No.8 screw @ 12" O.c. 


2-No. 8 screws @ 12" O.c. 


I-No.8 screw @ 8" O.c. 


- 


110 


2-No. 8 screws @ 12" Qc. 


I-No. 8 screw @ 8" Qc. 


2-No. 8 screws @ 8" Qc. 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Refer to Table R603.3.1.1(2) for gable endwall bottom track to foundation connections. 

b. Where attachment is not given, special design is required. 

c. Stud height, h, is measured from wall bottom track to wall top track or brace connection height. 

TABLE R603.3.1.1 (2) 
GABLE ENDWALL BOTTOM TRACK TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION REQUIREMENTSa,b,c 



BASIC WIND SPEED 

(mph) 


MINIMUM SPACING FOR i/ 2 IN. DIAMETER ANCHOR BOLTS d 


Exposure 


Stud height, h (tt) 


B 


c 


10 < h < 14 


14 < h < 18 


18<h<22 


85 


- 


6' - 0" Qc. 


6' - 0" Qc. 


6' - 0" Qc. 


90 




6' - 0" O.c. 


5' - 7" O.c. 


6' - 0" O.c. 


100 


85 


5' - 10" O.c. 


6' - 0" O.c. 


6' - 0" O.c. 


110 


90 


4' - 10" O.c. 


5' - 6" O.c. 


6' - 0" O.c. 




100 


4'- l"Qc. 


6' - 0" O.c. 


6' - 0" Qc. 


- 


110 


5' - 1" Qc. 


6' - 0" Qc. 


5' - 2" Qc. 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Refer to Table R603.3.1.1 (1) for gable endwall bottom track to floor joist or track connection connections. 

b. Where attachment is not given, special design is required. 

c. Stud height, h, is measured from wall bottom track to wall top track or brace connection height. 

d. Foundation anchor straps are permitted in place of anchor bolts if spaced as required to provide equivalent anchorage to the required anchor bolts and installed in 
accordance with manufacturer's requirements. 



R603.3.4 Cutting and notching. Flanges and lips of 
cold-formed steel studs and headers shall not be cut or notched. 

R603.3.5 Splicing. Steel studs and other structural mem- 
bers shall not be spliced. Tracks shall be spliced in accor- 
dance with Figure R603.3.5. 

R603.4 Corner framing. In exterior walls, corner studs and the 
top tracks shall be installed in accordance with Figure R603.4. 

R603.5 Exterior wall covering. The method of attachment of exte- 
rior wall covering materials to cold-formed steel stud wall 
framing shall conform to the manufacturer's installation instructions. 

R603.6 Headers. Headers shall be installed above all wall 
openings in exterior walls and interior load-bearing walls. Box 
beam headers and back-to-back headers each shall be formed 
from two equal sized C- shaped members in accordance with 
Figures R603.6(l) and R603.6(2), respectively, and Tables 
R603 .6(1) through R603 .6(24) . L-shaped headers shall be per- 
mitted to be constructed in accordance with AISI S230. Alter- 
nately, headers shall be permitted to be designed and 
constructed in accordance with AISI S 100, Section D4. 

R603.6.1 Headers in gable endwalls. Box beam and 
back-to-back headers in gable endwalls shall be permitted to 



be constructed in accordance with Section R603 .6 or with the 
header directly above the opening in accordance with Figures 
R603.6.1 (1) and R603.6.1 (2) and the following provisions: 

1. Two 362S 162-33 for openings less than or equal to 4 
feet (1219 mm). 

2. Two 600S 162-43 for openings greater than 4 feet 
(1219 mm) but less than or equal to 6 feet (1830 mm) . 

3. Two 800S 162-54 for openings greater than 6 feet 
(1829 mm) but less than or equal to 9 feet (2743 mm) . 

R603.7 Jack and king studs. The number of jack and king 
studs installed on each side of a header shall comply with Table 
R603.7(l). King, jack and cripple studs shall be of the same 
dimension and thickness as the adjacent wall studs. Headers 
shall be connected to king studs in accordance with Table 
R603.7(2) and the following provisions: 

1. For box beam headers, one-half of the total number of 
required screws shall be applied to the header and one 
half to the king stud by use of C-shaped or track member 
in accordance with Figure R603.6(l). The track or 
C-shape sections shall extend the depth of the header 
minus i/ 2 inch (12.7 mm) and shall have a minimum 
thickness not less than that of the wall studs. 



194 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



2. For back- to-back headers, one-half the total number of 
screws shall be applied to the header and one-half to the king 
stud by use of a minimum 2-inch-by-2-inch (51 mm X 51 
mm) clip angle in accordance with Figure R603.6(2). The 
clip angle shall extend the depth of the header minus i/ 2 inch 
(12.7 mm) and shall have a minimum thickness not less than 
that of the wall studs. Jack and king studs shall be intercon- 
nected with structural sheathing in accordance with Figures 
R603.6(l) and R603.6(2). 

R603.8 Head and sill track. Head track spans above door and 
window openings and sill track spans beneath window openings 
shall comply with Table R603.8. For openings less than 4 feet 
(1219 mm) in height that have both a head track and a sill track, 
multiplying the spans by 1.75 shall be permitted in Table R603.8. 
For openings less than or equal to 6 feet (1829 mm) in height that 
have both a head track and a sill track, multiplying the spans in 
Table R603.8 by 1.50 shall be permitted. 

R603.9 Structural sheathing. Structural sheathing shall be 
installed in accordance with Figure R603.9 and this section on 
all sheathable exterior wall surfaces, including areas above and 
below openings. 

R603.9.1 Sheathing materials. Structural sheathing panels 
shall consist of minimum 7/i6-inch (11 mm) thick oriented 
strand board or 15 / 32 -inch (12 mm) thick plywood. 

R603.9.2 Determination of minimum length of full height 
sheathing. The minimum length of full height sheathing on 
each braced wall line shall be determined by multiplying the 
length of the braced wall line by the percentage obtained 
from Table R603.9.2(l) and by the plan aspect-ratio adjust- 
ment factors obtained from Table R603.9.2(2). The mini- 
mum length of full height sheathing shall not be less than 20 
percent of the braced wall line length. 

To be considered full height sheathing, structural sheath- 
ing shall extend from the bottom to the top of the wall with- 
out interruption by openings. Only sheathed, full height 
wall sections, uninterrupted by openings, which are a mini- 
mum of 48 inches (1219 mm) wide, shall be counted toward 
meeting the minimum percentages in Table R603.9.2(l). In 
addition, structural sheathing shall comply with all of the 
following requirements: 

1. Be installed with the long dimension parallel to the 
stud framing (Le. vertical orientation) and shall cover 
the full vertical height of wall from the bottom of the 
bottom track to the top of the top track of each story. 
Installing the long dimension perpendicular to the 
stud framing or using shorter segments shall be per- 
mitted provided that the horizontal joint is blocked as 
described in Item 2 below. 

2. Be blocked when the long dimension is installed per- 
pendicular to the stud framing (Le. horizontal orienta- 
tion). Blocking shall be a minimum of 33 mil (0.84 
mm) thickness. Each horizontal structural sheathing 
panel shall be fastened with No. 8 screws spaced at 6 
inches (152 mm) on center to the blocking at thejoint. 

3. Be applied to each end (corners) of each of the exterior 
walls with a minimum 48 inch (1219 mm) wide panel. 



R603.9.2.1 The minimum percentage of full-height 
structural sheathing shall be multiplied by 1. 10 for 9 foot 
(2743 mm) high walls and multiplied by 1.20 for 10 foot 
(3048 mm) high walls. 

R603.9.2.2 For hip roofed homes, the minimum percent- 
ages of full height sheathing in Table R603.9.2(l), based 
upon wind, shall be permitted to be multiplied by a factor 
of 0.95 for roof slopes not exceeding 7: 12 and a factor of 
0.9 for roof slopes greater than 7: 12. 

R603. 9.2.3 In the lowest story of a dwelling, multiplying the 
percentage of full height sheathing required in Table 
R603.9.2(l) by 0.6, shall be permitted provided hold down 
anchors are provided in accordance with Section R603. 9.4.2. 

R603.9.3 Structural sheathing fastening. All edges and inte- 
rior areas of structural sheathing panels shall be fastened to 
framing members and tracks in accordance with Figure R603.9 
and Table R603. 3.2(1). Screws for attachment of structural 
sheathing panels shall be bugle-head, flat-head, or similar head 
style with a minimum head diameter of 0.29 inch (8 mm). 

For continuously- sheathed braced wall lines using wood 
structural panels installed with No. 8 screws spaced 4-inches 
(102 mm) on center at all panel edges and 12 inches (304.8 mm) 
on center on intermediate framing members, the following shall 
apply: 

1. Multiplying the percentages of full height sheathing 
in Table R603.9.2(l) by 0.72 shall be permitted. 

2. For bottom track attached to foundations or framing 
below, the bottom track anchor or screw connection 
spacing in Table R505.3.1 (1) and Table R603.3.1 
shall be multiplied by 2/3. 

R603.9.4 Uplift connection requirements. Uplift connec- 
tions shall be provided in accordance with this section. 

R603.9.4.1 Where wind speeds are in excess of 100 miles 
per hour (45 mis), Exposure C, walls shall be provided 
wind direct uplift connections in accordance with AISI 
S230, Section E13.3, and AISI S230, Section F7.2, as 
required for 110 miles per hour (49 m/s) , Exposure C. 

R603.9.4.2 Where the percentage of full height sheathing is 
adjusted in accordance with Section R603.9.2.3, a 
hold-down anchor, with a strength of 4,300 pounds (19 kN), 
shall be provided at each end of each full-height sheathed 
wall section used to meet the minimum percent sheathing 
requirements of Section R603.9.2. Hold down anchors shall 
be attached to back-to-back studs; structural sheathing pan- 
els shall have edge fastening to the studs, in accordance with 
Section R603.9.3 and AISI S230, Table Ell-I. 

A single hold down anchor, installed in accordance with 
Figure R603.9.2, shall be permitted at the comers of buildings. 

R603.9.5 Structural sheathing for stone and masonry 
veneer. In Seismic Design Category C, where stone and 
masonry veneer is installed in accordance with Section 
R703.7, the length of structural sheathing for walls supporting 
one story, roof and ceiling shall be the greater of the amount 
required by Section R603.9.2 or 36 percent, modified by Sec- 
tion R603.9.2 except Section R603.9.2.2 shall not be permit- 
ted. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



195 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(1) 
WALL FASTENING SCHEDULE 3 



DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING ELEMENT 


NUMBER AND SIZE OF FASTENERS a 


SPACING OF FASTENERS 


Floorjoist to track of load-bearing wall 


2-No. 8 screws 


Each joist 


Wall stud to top or bottom track 


2-No. 8 screws 


Each end of stud, one per flange 


5tructural sheathing to wall studs 


No . 8 screws b 


6" o.c. on edges and 12" o.c. at intermediate 
supports 


Roof framing to wall 


Approved design or tie down in accordance with 5ection R802.ll 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. All screw sizes shown are minimum. 

b. Screws for attachment of structural sheathing panels are to be bugle -head, flat-head, or similar head styles with a minimum head diameter of 0.29 inch. 









TABLE R603.3.2(2) 

24-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLya,b,c 

33 ksi STEEL 
























WIND 
SPEED 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 

(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 




8-Foot Studs 9-Foot Studs 




10-Foot Studs 




Exp.B 


Exp.C 










Ground Snow Load (pst) 








20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 

mph 


- 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


90 
mph 


- 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


100 
mph 


85 
mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


110 
mph 


90 
mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 




100 
mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


- 


110 
mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi= 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



196 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 









TABLE R603.3.2(3) 

24-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLya,b,c 

50 ksi STEEL 
























WIND 
SPEED 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 

(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


8-Foot Studs 


9-Foot Studs 


10-Foot Studs 


Exp.B 


EXp.C 


Ground Snow Load ( 


3St) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 

mph 


- 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


90 

mph 




3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


100 

mph 


85 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


110 

mph 


90 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


- 


100 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 




110 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. DeSign load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



197 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 









TABLE R603.3.2(4) 

28-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLya,b,c 

33 ksi STEEL 


























WIND 
SPEED 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 

(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


8-Foot Studs 


9-Foot Studs 


10-Foot Studs 


Exp.B 


EXp.C 


Ground Snow Load ( 


pst) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 

mph 


- 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


90 

mph 




3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


100 

mph 


85 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


110 

mph 


90 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


- 


100 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 




110 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. DeSign load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



198 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 









TABLE R603.3.2(5) 

28-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLya,b,c 

50 ksi STEEL 


























WIND 
SPEED 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 

(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


8-Foot Studs 


9-Foot Studs 


10-Foot Studs 


Exp.B 


EXp.C 


Ground Snow Load (pst) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 

mph 


- 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


90 

mph 




3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


100 

mph 


85 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


110 

mph 


90 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


- 


100 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 




110 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. DeSign load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wll studs. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



199 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 









TABLE R603.3.2(6) 

32-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLya,b,c 

33 ksi STEEL 






















WIND 
SPEED 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 

(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


8-Foot Studs 


9-Foot Studs 


10-Foot Studs 


Exp.B 


EXp.C 


Ground Snow Load ( 


3St) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


- 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


90 

mph 




3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


100 

mph 


85 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


110 

mph 


90 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


- 


100 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 




110 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



200 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 









TABLE R603. 3.2(7) 

32-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLya,b,c 

50 ksi STEEL 






























WIND 
SPEED 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 

(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 




8-Foot Studs 9-Foot Studs 


10-Foot Studs 




Exp.B 


EXp.C 


Ground Snow Load ( 


DSt) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 

mph 


- 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


90 

mph 




3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


100 

mph 


85 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


110 

mph 


90 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 




100 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


- 


110 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. DeSign load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



201 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 









TABLE R603.3.2(8) 

36-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLya,b,c 

33 ksi STEEL 


























WIND 
SPEED 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 

(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 




8-Foot Studs 9-Foot Studs 


10-Foot Studs 




Exp.B 


EXp.C 


Ground Snow Load ( 


3St) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 

mph 


- 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


43 


43 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


90 

mph 




3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


43 


43 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


100 

mph 


85 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


110 

mph 


90 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


68 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 




100 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


- 


110 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi= 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. DeSign load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



202 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 









TABLE R603.3.2(9) 

36-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLya,b,c 

50 ksi STEEL 


























WIND 
SPEED 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 

(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


8-Foot Studs 


9-Foot Studs 


10-Foot Studs 


Exp.B 


EXp.C 


Ground Snow Load ( 


pst) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 

mph 


- 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


90 

mph 




3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


100 

mph 


85 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


110 

mph 


90 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 




100 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


33 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


- 


110 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. DeSign load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



203 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 









TABLE R603. 3.2(10) 

40-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLya,b,c 

33 ksi STEEL 
























WIND 
SPEED 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 

(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


8-Foot Studs 


9-Foot Studs 


10-Foot Studs 


Exp.B 


EXp.C 


Ground Snow Load ( 


pst) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


- 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


68 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


54 


90 

mph 




3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


68 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


54 


100 

mph 


85 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


43 


43 


54 


33 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


68 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


54 


110 

mph 


90 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


33 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


68 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


54 




100 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


68 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


54 


- 


110 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


24 


43 


43 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. DeSign load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



204 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 









TABLE R603.3.2(11) 

40-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLya,b,c 

50 ksi STEEL 


























WIND 
SPEED 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 

(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 




8-Foot Studs 9-Foot Studs 




10-Foot Studs 




Exp.B 


EXp.C 


Ground Snow Load ( 


pst) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


- 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


90 

mph 




3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


100 

mph 


85 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


110 

mph 


90 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 




100 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


- 


110 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: LI 240. 

b. DeSign load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Hoof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



205 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 







TABLE R603.3.2(12) 
24-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c 

33 ksi STEEL 


1 


— 




WIND 
SPEED 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 

(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


8-Foot Studs 


9-Foot Studs 


10-Foot Studs 


Exp.B 


EXp.C 


Ground Snow Load ( 


DSt) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


- 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


90 

mph 




3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


100 

mph 


85 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


110 

mph 


90 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 




100 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


- 


110 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. DeSign load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



206 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 







TABLE R603.3.2(13) 
24-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c 

50 ksi STEEL 
























WIND 
SPEED 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 

(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 




8-Foot Studs 9-Foot Studs 




10-Foot Studs 




Exp.B 


EXp.C 


Ground Snow Load ( 


3St) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


- 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


90 

mph 




3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


100 

mph 


85 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


110 

mph 


90 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 




100 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


- 


110 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L1240. 

b. DeSign load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



207 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(14) 
28-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c 

33 ksi STEEL 








MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 

(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


WIND 
SPEED 


8-Foot Studs 


9-Foot Studs 


10-Foot Studs 


Exp.B 


EXp.C 


Ground Snow Load ( 


3St) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


- 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


90 

mph 




3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


100 

mph 


85 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


110 

mph 


90 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 




100 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


- 


110 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. DeSign load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



208 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(15) 
28-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa ; 

50 ksi STEEL 



b,c 








MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 

(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


WIND 
SPEED 




8-Foot Studs 




9-Foot Studs 






10-Foot Studs 




Exp.B 


EXp.C 


Ground Snow Load ( 


3St) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 

mph 


- 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


90 

mph 




3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


100 

mph 


85 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


110 

mph 


90 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 




100 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


- 


110 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. DeSign load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



209 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(16) 
32-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa ; 

33 ksi STEEL 



b,c 




WIND 
SPEED 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 

(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


8-Foot Studs 


9-Foot Studs 


10-Foot Studs 


Exp.B 


EXp.C 


Ground Snow Load ( 


3St) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


- 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


43 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


90 

mph 




3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


43 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


100 

mph 


85 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


43 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


110 

mph 


90 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


43 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 




100 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


- 


110 

mph 


3505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



210 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(17) 
32-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c 

50 ksi STEEL 



M 







MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 

(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


WIND 
SPEED 


8-Foot Studs 


9-Foot Studs 


10-Foot Studs 


Exp.B 


EXp.C 


Ground Snow Load ( 


3St) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 

mph 


- 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


90 

mph 




3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


100 

mph 


85 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


110 

mph 


90 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 




100 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


- 


110 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. DeSign load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wll studs. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



211 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(18) 
36-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c 

33 ksi STEEL 








MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 

(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


WIND 
SPEED 




8-Foot Studs 






9-Foot Studs 






10-Foot Studs 




Exp.B 


EXp.C 


Ground Snow Load ( 


DSt) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


- 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


90 

mph 




3505162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


100 

mph 


85 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


68 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


110 

mph 


90 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


24 


43 


43 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 




100 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


68 


68 


68 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


- 


110 

mph 


3505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. DeSign load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



212 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(19) 
36-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c 

50 ksi STEEL 




WIND 
SPEED 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 

(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


8-Foot Studs 


9-Foot Studs 


10-Foot Studs 


Exp.B 


EXp.C 


Ground Snow Load ( 


3St) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


- 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


90 

mph 




3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


100 

mph 


85 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


110 

mph 


90 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 




100 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


- 


110 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. DeSign load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



213 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(20) 
40-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c 

33 ksi STEEL 








MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 

(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


WIND 
SPEED 


8-Foot Studs 


9-Foot Studs 


10-Foot Studs 


Exp.B 


EXp.C 


Ground Snow Load ( 


3St) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


- 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


24 


43 


43 


54 


68 


43 


43 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


68 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


90 

mph 




3505162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


24 


43 


43 


54 


68 


43 


43 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


68 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


100 

mph 


85 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


24 


43 


43 


54 


68 


43 


43 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


68 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


110 

mph 


90 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


24 


43 


43 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


68 


68 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 




100 

mph 


3505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


97 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


- 


110 

mph 


3505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


97 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. DeSign load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



214 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603. 3.2(21) 
40-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c 

50 ksi STEEL 








MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 

(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


WIND 
SPEED 




8-Foot Studs 




9-Foot Studs 






10-Foot Studs 




Exp.B 


EXp.C 


Ground Snow Load ( 


pst) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


- 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


43 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


90 

mph 




3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


43 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


100 

mph 


85 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


68 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


43 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


110 

mph 


90 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


43 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 




100 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


43 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


43 


43 


43 


- 


110 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


24 


43 


43 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


43 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. DeSign load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



215 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(22) 
24-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING TWO FLOORS, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c 

33 ksi STEEL 








MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 

(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


WIND 
SPEED 


8-Foot Studs 


9-Foot Studs 


10-Foot Studs 


Exp.B 


EXp.C 


Ground Snow Load ( 


3St) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 

mph 


- 


3505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


90 

mph 




3505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


100 

mph 


85 

mph 


3505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


110 

mph 


90 

mph 


3505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 




100 

mph 


3505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


- 


110 

mph 


3505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


97 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 



For 51 : 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. DeSign load assumptions: 

Top and middle floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Top floor live load is 30 psf. 
Middle floor live load is 40 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



216 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(23) 
24-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING TWO FLOORS, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c 

50 ksi STEEL 








MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 

(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


WIND 
SPEED 


8-Foot Studs 


9-Foot Studs 


10-Foot Studs 


Exp.B 


EXp.C 










Ground Snow Load ( 


pst) 










20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


- 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


90 

mph 




3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


100 

mph 


85 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


110 

mph 


90 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 




100 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


- 


110 

mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 



For 51 : 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L1240. 

b. DeSign load assumptions: 

Top and middle floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Top floor live load is 30 psf. 
Middle floor live load is 40 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



217 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(24) 
28-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING TWO FLOORS, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c 

33 ksi STEEL 








MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 

(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


WIND 
SPEED 




8-Foot Studs 




9-Foot Studs 






10-Foot Studs 




Exp.B 


EXp.C 










Ground Snow Load ( 


pst) 










20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 

mph 


- 


3505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


5505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


90 

mph 




3505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


5505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


100 

mph 


85 

mph 


3505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


5505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


110 

mph 


90 

mph 


3505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


5505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 




100 

mph 


3505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


97 


5505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


- 


110 

mph 


3505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


24 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


5505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 



For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. DeSign load assumptions: 

Top and middle floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Top floor live load is 30 psf. 
Middle floor live load is 40 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



218 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(25) 
28-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING TWO FLOORS, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c 

50 ksi STEEL 








MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 

(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


WIND 
SPEED 


8-Foot Studs 


9-Foot Studs 


10-Foot Studs 


Exp.B 


EXp.C 


Ground Snow Load (pst) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 

mph 


- 


3505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


90 

mph 




3505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


100 

mph 


85 

mph 


3505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


110 

mph 


90 

mph 


3505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 




100 

mph 


3505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


- 


110 

mph 


3505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 



For 51 : 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. DeSign load assumptions: 

Top and middle floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Top floor live load is 30 psf. 
Middle floor live load is 40 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



219 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(26) 
32-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING TWO FLOORS, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c 

33 ksi STEEL 








MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 

(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


WIND 
SPEED 


8-Foot Studs 


9-Foot Studs 


10-Foot Studs 


Exp.B 


EXp.C 










Ground Snow Load ( 


pst) 










20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


- 


3505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


5505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


90 

mph 




3505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


5505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


100 

mph 


85 

mph 


3505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


5505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


110 

mph 


90 

mph 


3505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


5505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 




100 

mph 


3505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


5505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


- 


110 

mph 


3505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 


5505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 



For 51 : 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. DeSign load assumptions: 

Top and middle floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Top floor live load is 30 psf. 
Middle floor live load is 40 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wll studs. 



220 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603. 3.2(27) 
32-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING TWO FLOORS, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c 

50 ksi STEEL 







MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 

(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


WIND 
SPEED 


8-Foot Studs 


9-Foot Studs 


10-Foot Studs 


Exp.B 


EXp.C 










Ground Snow Load ( 


pst) 










20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


- 


3505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


5505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


90 

mph 




3505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


5505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


100 
mph 


85 

mph 


3505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


5505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


110 
mph 


90 

mph 


3505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


5505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 




100 

mph 


3505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


5505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


- 


110 

mph 


3505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


5505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 



For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. DeSign load assumptions: 

Top and middle floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Top floor live load is 30 psf. 
Middle floor live load is 40 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



221 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(28) 
36-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING TWO FLOORS, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c 

33 ksi STEEL 








MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


WIND 
SPEED 


8-Foot Studs 


9-Foot Studs 


10-Foot Studs 


Exp.B 


EXp.C 


Ground Snow Load (pst) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


- 


3505162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


97 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


97 


5505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


68 


68 


90 

mph 




3505162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


97 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


97 


5505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


68 


68 


100 

mph 


85 

mph 


3505162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


97 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


97 


5505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


68 


68 


110 

mph 


90 

mph 


3505162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


97 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


5505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


68 


68 




100 

mph 


3505162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


97 


68 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 


5505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


68 


68 


- 


110 

mph 


3505162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


24 


68 


68 


68 


97 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 


97 


5505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


68 


68 



For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. DeSign load assumptions: 

Top and middle floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Top floor live load is 30 psf. 
Middle floor live load is 40 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the V\all studs. 



222 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(29) 
36-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING TWO FLOORS, ROOF AND CEILINGa ; b ; c 

50 ksi STEEL 



WIND 
SPEED 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 

(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


8-Foot Studs 


9-Foot Studs 


10-Foot Studs 


Exp.B 


EXp.C 


Ground Snow Load (pst) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


- 


3505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


5505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


90 

mph 




3505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


5505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


100 

mph 


85 

mph 


3505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


5505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


110 

mph 


90 

mph 


3505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


5505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 




100 

mph 


3505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


5505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


- 


110 

mph 


3505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


5505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 



For 51 : 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. DeSign load assumptions: 

Top and middle floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Top floor live load is 30 psf. 
Middle floor live load is 40 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



223 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(30) 
40-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING TWO FLOORS, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c 

3ksi STEEL 








MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 

(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


WIND 
SPEED 


8-Foot Studs 


9-Foot Studs 


10-Foot Studs 


Exp.B 


EXp.C 


Ground Snow Load (pst) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 

mph 


- 


3505162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


24 


97 


97 


97 


97 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 


97 


5505162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


90 

mph 




3505162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


24 


97 


97 


97 


97 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 


97 


5505162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


100 

mph 


85 

mph 


3505162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


24 


97 


97 


97 


97 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 


97 


5505162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


110 

mph 


90 

mph 


3505162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


24 


97 


97 


97 


97 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 


97 


5505162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 




100 

mph 


3505162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


24 


97 


97 


97 


97 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 


97 


5505162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


- 


110 

mph 


3505162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


24 


97 


97 


97 


97 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 


97 


97 


5505162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 



For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Top and middle floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Top floor live load is 30 psf. 
Middle floor live load is 40 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



224 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(31) 
40-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING TWO FLOORS, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c 

50 ksi STEEL 








MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


WIND 
SPEED 


8-Foot Studs 


9-Foot Studs 


10-Foot Studs 


Exp.B 


EXp.C 


Ground Snow Load (pst) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


- 


3505162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


5505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


90 

mph 




3505162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


5505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


100 

mph 


85 

mph 


3505162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


5505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


110 

mph 


90 

mph 


3505162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


5505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 




100 

mph 


3505162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


5505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


- 


110 

mph 


3505162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


97 


5505162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 



For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. DeSign load assumptions: 

Top and middle floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Top floor live load is 30 psf. 
Middle floor live load is 40 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the vvall studs. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



225 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



BEND SECTION OR CLIP FLANGE 
TO FORM VERTICAL 




iy 2 "x33MIL 

FLAT STRIP (MINIMUM) 

WALL FRAMING 



TRACK/STUD BLOCKING @ ENDS OF 
STRAP & INTERMITTENTLY EVERY 12' 

2-NO. 8 SCREWS @ STRAP TO BLOCKING 



NO. 8 SCREW 

@ EACH STRAP TO STUD 



For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R603.3.3(1) 
STUD BRACING WITH STRAPPING ONLY 



STUD/TRAK BLOCKING 

@ EACH END OF STRAP 

& INTERMITTENTLY EVERY 12' 



WALL SHEATHING 




WALL FRAMING 



1 1 / 2 "x33 MIL 
FLAT STRAP 



BEND SECTION OR CLIP 
FLANGE TO FORM VERTICAL 



2 NO. 8 SCREWS 

@ STRAP TO BLOCKING 



■ NO. 8 SCREW 
@ EACH STRAP TO STUD 



For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R603.3.3(2) 
STUD BRACING WITH STRAPPING AND SHEATHING MATERIAL 



226 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



4-NO. 8 SCREWS 

ON EACH SIDE OF SPLICE 




STUD SECTION INSIDE TRACK 



For 51 : 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R603.3.5 
TRACK SPLICE 



■ 4-NO. 8 SCREWS AT LAPPED TRACK 



CLIP TRACK FLANGE 
AT LAP JOINT 



TRACK 




-NO. 6 SCREWS 



For 51 : 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



2 NO. 8 SCREWS 

@ 24"O.C. CONNECTING 

CORNER STUDS 



EXTERIOR 
WALL STUD 



INTERIOR GYPSUM 
WALL BOARD FINISH 



-* 


1 


1 


1 


1 



TRACK 



FIGURE R603.4 
CORNER FRAMING 



PLAN 



K 



ALTERNATE PLAN 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



227 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603. 3.2.1 (1) 

ALL BUILDING WIDTHS 

GABLE ENDWALLS 8, 9 OR 10 FEET IN HEIGHTa,b,c 

33 ksi STEEL 



WIND SPEED 


MEMBER SIZE 


STUD SPACING 

(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (Mils) 


Exp.B 


EXp.C 


8-foot studs 


9-foot studs 


10-foot studs 


85 mph 




3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


90mph 




3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


100 mph 


85 mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


110 mph 


90 mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 




100 mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


- 


110 mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


54 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 



For 51: 1 inch = 25.4, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 1 ksi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 
Ground snow load is 70 psf. 

Roof and ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Floor live load is 40 psf. 
Attic dead load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



228 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603. 3.2.1 (2) 

ALL BUILDING WIDTHS 

GABLE ENDWALLS 8, 9 OR 10 FEET IN HEIGHTa,b,c 

50 ksi STEEL 



WIND SPEED 


MEMBER SIZE 


STUD SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS 


(Mils) 


Exp.B 


EXp.C 


8-foot studs 


9-foot studs 


10-foot studs 


85 mph 




3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


90mph 




3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


100 mph 


85 mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


110 mph 


90 mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


- 


100 mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


- 


110 mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


43 


54 


5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 1 ksi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Ground snow load is 70 psf. 

Roof and ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 

Floor dead load is 10 psf. 

Floor live load is 40 psf. 

Attic dead load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



229 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603. 3.2.1 (3) 

ALL BUILDING WIDTHS 

GABLE ENDWALLS OVER 10 FEET IN HEIGHTa,b,c 

33 ksi STEEL 



WIND SPEED 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 

(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (Mils) 


Exp.B 


EXp.C 


Rtnrl Hein 


ht h (feef) 


10<h<12 


12<h<14 


14 < h < 16 


16 < h < 18 


18<h<20 


20 < h < 22 


85 mph 


- 


3505162 


16 


33 


43 


54 


97 






24 


43 


54 


97 








5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


54 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


68 


97 


90mph 




3505162 


16 


33 


43 


68 


97 






24 


43 


68 


97 








5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


54 


54 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


68 


97 


100 mph 


85 mph 


3505162 


16 


43 


54 


97 








24 


54 


97 










5505162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


54 


54 


68 


24 


33 


43 


54 


68 


97 


97 


110 mph 


90 mph 


3505162 


16 


43 


68 










24 


68 












5505162 


16 


33 


43 


43 


54 


68 


97 


24 


43 


54 


68 


97 


97 


- 




100 mph 


3505162 


16 


54 


97 










24 


97 












5505162 


16 


33 


43 


54 


68 


97 




24 


43 


68 


97 


97 






- 


110 mph 


3505162 


16 


68 


97 










24 


97 












5505162 


16 


43 


54 


68 


97 


97 




24 


54 


68 


97 


- 


- 


- 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 1 ksi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Ground snow load is 70 psf. 

Roof and ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 

Floor dead load is 10 psf. 

Floor live load is 40 psf. 

Attic dead load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



230 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603. 3.2.1 (4) 

ALL BUILDING WIDTHS 

GABLE ENDWALLS OVER 10 FEET IN HEIGHTa,b,c 

50 ksi STEEL 



WIND SPEED 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 

(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (Mils) 


Exp.B 


EXp.C 


StnH Hpin 


ht h (feet) 


10<h<12 


12<h<14 


14<h<16 


16<h<18 


18<h<20 


20 < h < 22 


85 mph 


- 


3505162 


16 


33 


43 


54 


97 






24 


33 


54 


97 








5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


54 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


54 


97 


90mph 




3505162 


16 


33 


43 


68 


97 






24 


43 


68 


97 








5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


54 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


68 


97 


100 mph 


85 mph 


3505162 


16 


33 


54 


97 








24 


54 


97 










5505162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


54 


68 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


97 


97 


110 mph 


90 mph 


3505162 


16 


43 


68 










24 


68 












5505162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


68 


97 


24 


33 


43 


54 


68 


97 


- 




100 mph 


3505162 


16 


54 


97 










24 


97 












5505162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


54 


97 




24 


43 


54 


54 


97 






- 


110 mph 


3505162 


16 


54 


97 










24 


97 












5505162 


16 


33 


43 


54 


68 


97 




24 


43 


54 


68 


97 


- 


- 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 1 ksi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Ground snow load is 70 psf. 

Roof and ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 

Floor dead load is 10 psf. 

Floor live load is 40 psf. 

Attic dead load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



231 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



2N0.8 SCREWS @ 24"O.C 
ONE PER FLANGE 



C-SHAPES 



2 NO. 8 SCREWS AT 
24" ON CENTER, 
ONE PER FLANGE 



TRACK 

CRIPPLE STUD 

TRACK 




TRACK 



TRACK OR C-SHAPE 
ATTACH WITH NO. 8 SCREWS 
(MINIMUM DEPTH = HEADER 
DEPTH MINUS Y2 INCH) 



KING STUD(S) 
JACK STUD(S) 



NO. 8 SCREWS THROUGH 
SHEATHING TO EACH 
JACK AND KING STUD 
AT 12" ON CENTER 

STRUCTURAL SHEATHING 



For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R603.6(1) 
BOX BEAM HEADER 



2-NO. 8 SCREWS 
AT 24" ON CENTER 
(2 SCREWS THROUGH 
TOP FLANGES AND 
2 SCREWS THROUGH 
BOTTOM FLANGES) 



BACK-TO-BACK 
C-SHAPES 

2-NO. 8 SCREWS 
AT 24" ON CENTER 

CRIPPLE STUD 



^> 




TRACK 



STRUCTURAL SHEATHING 



TRACK 



2" x 2" CLIP ANGLE ATTACHED 
WITH NO. 8 SCREWS, 
MINIMUM LENGTH =WEB DEPTH 
MINUS Y2 INCH 



TRACK 

JACK STUDS (AS REQUIRED) 

KING STUDS (AS REQUIRED) 



NO. 8 SCREWS THROUGH 

SHEATHING TO EACH JACK 

& KING STUD AT 12" ON CENTER 



For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE 601.6(2) 
BACK-TO-BACK HEADER 



232 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



KING STUD(S) - 



TRACK OR C-SHAPE- 



JACKSTUD(S)- 



Oi 




CRIPPLE STUD 
HEAD TRACK 



C-SHAPES 



FIGURE R603.6.1 (1) 
BOX BEAM HEADER IN GABLE ENDWALL 



KING STUD(S) 



2 IN. x 2 IN. CLIP ANGLE 



JACK STUD(S) 




CRIPPLE STUD 
HEAD TRACK 



C-SHAPES 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R603.6.1 (2) 
BACK-TO-BACK HEADER IN GABLE ENDWALL 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



233 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(1) 

BOX-BEAM HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting Roof and Ceiling Only (33 ksi steel)a, b 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(20 pst) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(30 pst) 


Building width (feet) 


Building width (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-3505162-33 


3'-3" 


2'-8" 


T-T 






2'-8" 


T-T 








2-3505162-43 


4'-2" 


3'-9" 


3'-4" 


2'-ll" 


T-T 


3'-9" 


3'-4" 


2'-ll" 


T-T 


T-T 


2-3505162-54 


5'-0" 


4'-6" 


4'-l" 


3'-8" 


3'-4" 


4'-6" 


4'-l" 


3'-8" 


3'-3" 


3'-0" 


2-3505162-68 


5'-7" 


5'-l" 


4'-7" 


4'-3" 


3'-10" 


5'-l" 


4'-7" 


4'-2" 


3'-10" 


3'-5" 


2-3505162-97 


T-V 


6'-6" 


6'-l" 


5'-8" 


5'-3" 


6'-7" 


6'-l" 


5'-7" 


5'-3" 


4'-ll" 


2-5505162-33 


4*-8" 


4'-0" 


3'-6" 


3'-0" 


2'-6" 


4'-l" 


3'-6" 


3'-0" 


2'-6" 




2-5505162-43 


6'-0" 


5'-4" 


4'-10" 


4'-4" 


3'-ll" 


5'-5" 


4'-10" 


4'-4" 


3'-10" 


3'-5" 


2-5505162-54 


7'-0" 


6'-4" 


5'-9" 


5'-4" 


4'-10" 


6'-5" 


5'-9" 


5'-3" 


4'-10" 


4'-5" 


2-5505162-68 


8'-0" 


7*-4" 


6'-9" 


6'-3" 


5'-10" 


7'-5" 


6'-9" 


6'-3" 


5*-9" 


5'-4" 


2-5505162-97 


9«_H" 


9'-2" 


8'-6" 


8'-0" 


7'-6" 


9'-3" 


8'-6" 


8'-0" 


7'-5" 


7'-0" 


2-8005162-33 


4'-5" 


3'-ll" 


3'-5" 


3'-l" 


2'-10" 


3'-ll" 


3'-6" 


3'-l" 


2*-9" 


T-T 


2-8005162-43 


7-3" 


6*-7" 


5'-ll" 


5'-4" 


4'-10" 


6'-7" 


5'-ll" 


5'-4" 


4'-9" 


4'-3" 


2-8005162-54 


8'-10" 


8*-0" 


7'-4" 


6'-9" 


6*-2" 


8'-l" 


7'-4" 


6*-8" 


6'-l" 


5'-7" 


2-8005162-68 


10'-5" 


9'-7" 


8'-10" 


8'-2" 


T-T 


9'-8" 


8'-10" 


8'-l" 


7'-6" 


7'-0" 


2-8005162-97 


13'-I" 


12'-1" 


ir-3" 


10'-7" 


lO'-O" 


12'-2" 


ir-4" 


10'-6" 


lO'-O" 


9'-4" 


2-10005162-43 


7'-10" 


6'-10" 


6'-l" 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


6'-ll" 


6'-l" 


5'-5" 


4'-ll" 


4'-6" 


2-10005162-54 


lO'-O" 


9'-l" 


8'-3" 


T-T 


7-0" 


9'-2" 


8'-4" 


7-7" 


6 -IV 


6'-4" 


2-10005162-68 


ir-ii" 


lO'-ll" 


KM" 


9'-4" 


8'-8" 


ir-o" 


lO'-l" 


9'-3" 


8*-7" 


8'-0" 


2-10005162-97 


15'-3" 


14'-3" 


13'-5" 


12'-6" 


ir-io" 


14*-4" 


13'-5" 


12*-6" 


ir-9" 


ir-o" 


2-12005162-54 


ll'-I" 


lO'-O" 


9'-2" 


8'-5" 


7'-9" 


lO'-l" 


9'-2" 


8'-4" 


T-T 


7'-0" 


2-12005162-68 


13'-3" 


12'-1" 


ir-2" 


10'-4" 


9'-7" 


12*-3" 


ir-2" 


10'-3" 


9'-6" 


8'-10" 


2-12005162-97 


16'-8" 


15*-7" 


14'-8" 


13'-11" 


13'-3" 


15'-8" 


14'-8" 


13-11" 


13*-2" 


12*-6" 



For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Roof/Ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic dead load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header 



234 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(2) 

BOX-BEAM HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting Roof and Ceiling Only (50 ksi steel)a, b 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(20 pst) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(30 pst) 


Building width (feet) 


Building width (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-3505162-33 


4'-4" 


3'-ll" 


3'-6" 


3'-2" 


2'-10" 


3'-ll" 


3'-6 


- 


3'-l" 


2'-9" 


2'-5" 


2-3505162-43 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


4'-7" 


4'-2" 


3'-10" 


5'-0" 


4'-7 


- 


4'-2" 


3'-10" 


3'-6" 


2-3505162-54 


6'-2" 


5'-10" 


5'-8" 


5'-3" 


4'-10" 


5'-ll" 


5'-8 


- 


5'-2" 


4'-10" 


4'-6" 


2-3505162-68 


6'-7" 


6'-3" 


6'-0" 


5'-10" 


5'-8" 


6'-4" 


6'-l 


- 


5'-10" 


5'-8" 


5'-6" 


2-3505162-97 


7'-3" 


6'-ll" 


6'-8" 


6'-5" 


6'-3" 


7'-0" 


6'-8 


- 


6'-5" 


6'-3" 


6'-0" 


2-5505162-33 


6'-2" 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


4'-7" 


4'-2" 


5'-7" 


5'-0 


- 


4'-6" 


4'-l" 


3'-8" 


2-5505162-43 


7'-9" 


7'-2" 


6'-7" 


6'-l" 


5'-8" 


7'-3" 


6'-7 


- 


6'-l" 


5'-7" 


5'-2" 


2-5505162-54 


8'-9" 


8'-5" 


8'-l" 


7'-9" 


7'-3" 


8'-6" 


8'-l 


- 


7'-8" 


7'-2" 


6'-8" 


2-5505162-68 


9'-5" 


9'-0" 


8'-8" 


8'-4" 


8'-l" 


9'-l" 


8'-8 


- 


8'-4" 


8'-l" 


7'-10" 


2-5505162-97 


10'-5" 


lO'-O" 


9'-7" 


9'-3" 


9'-0" 


lO'-O" 


9'-7 


- 


9'-3" 


8'-ll" 


8'-8" 


2-8005162-33 


4'-5" 


3'-ll" 


3'-5" 


3'-l" 


2'-10" 


3'-ll" 


3'-6 


' 


3'-l" 


2'-9" 


2'-6" 


2-8005162-43 


9'-l" 


8'-5" 


7'-8" 


6'-ll" 


6'-3" 


8'-6" 


7'-8 


- 


6'-10" 


6'-2" 


5'-8" 


2-8005162-54 


lO'-lO" 


10'-2" 


9'-7" 


9'-0" 


8'-5" 


10'-2" 


9'-7 


- 


8'-ll" 


8'-4" 


7'-9" 


2-8005162-68 


12'-8" 


H'-IO" 


ll'-2" 


10'-7" 


lO'-l" 


ll'-ll" 


1T-2" 


10'-7" 


lO'-O" 


9'-6" 


2-8005162-97 


14'-2" 


13'-6" 


13'-0" 


12'-7" 


12'-2" 


13'-8" 


13'-1" 


12'-7" 


12'-2" 


ir-9" 


2-10005162-43 


7'-10" 


6'-10" 


6'-l" 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


6'-ll" 


6'-r 


5'-5" 


4'-ll" 


4'-6" 


2-10005162-54 


12'-3" 


ll'-5" 


10'-9" 


10'-2" 


9'-6" 


ir-6" 


10'-9" 


lO'-l" 


9'-5" 


8'-9" 


2-10005162-68 


14'-5" 


13'-5" 


12'-8" 


12'-0" 


1T-6" 


13'-6" 


12'-8" 


12'-0" 


ir-5" 


lO'-lO" 


2-10005162-97 


17'-1" 


16'-4" 


15'-8" 


14'-11" 


14'-3" 


16'-5" 


15'-9" 


14'-10" 


14'-1" 


13'-6" 


2-12005162-54 


12'-ir 


ir-3" 


lO'-O" 


9'-0" 


8'-2" 


ir-5" 


lO'-O" 


9'-0" 


8'-l" 


7'-4" 


2-12005162-68 


15'-11" 


14'-10" 


14'-0" 


13'-4" 


12'-8" 


15'-0" 


14'-0" 


13'-3" 


12'-7" 


ll'-ll" 


2-12005162-97 


19'-11" 


18'-7" 


17'-6" 


16'-8" 


15'-10" 


18'-9" 


17'-7" 


16'-7" 


15'-9" 


15'-0" 



For 51 : 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Roof/Ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic dead load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



235 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(3) 

BOX-BEAM HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting Roof and Ceiling Only (33 ksi steel)a, b 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(50 pst) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(70 pst) 


Building width c (feet) 


Building width (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-3505162-33 






















2-3505162-43 


2'-4" 




















2-3505162-54 


y-v 


2'-8" 


2'-3" 


- 


- 


2'-l" 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-3505162-68 


3'-7" 


y-T 


2'-8" 


2'-3 M 


- 


2'-6" 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-3505162-97 


5'-l" 


4'-7" 


4'-3" 


3'-ll" 


y-r 


4*-l" 


3'-8 M 


3'-4" 


3'-0 M 


2'-8" 


2-5505162-33 


2'-2" 




















2-5505162-43 


3'-8" 


3'-l" 


2'-6" 






2'-3" 










2-5505162-54 


4'_7» 


4'-0" 


3'-6" 


3'-0" 


2'-6" 


3'-3" 


2'-8" 


2'-l" 






2-5505162-68 


5'-6" 


4*-ir 


4'-5" 


3'-ll" 


3'-6 M 


4'-3 M 


3'-8 M 


3'-l" 


2'-7" 


2'-l" 


2-5505162-97 


7'-3" 


6'-7" 


6'-l" 


5'-8 M 


5'-3" 


5'-ll" 


5'-4" 


4'-ll" 


4'-6 M 


4'-l" 


2-8005162-33 


2'-7" 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-8005162-43 


4'-6" 


3'-9" 


3'-l" 


2'-5" 


- 


2'-10 M 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-8005162-54 


5*-10" 


5'-l" 


4'-6" 


3'-ll" 


3'-4" 


4'-3" 


3'-6" 


2'-9" 






2-8005162-68 


7'-2" 


6'-6" 


5*-10 M 


5'-3" 


4'-8 M 


5'-7" 


4*-10 M 


4'-2" 


3'-7" 


2 , -ll" 


2-8005162-97 


9'-7" 


8'-9" 


8'-2" 


7-7" 


7'-0" 


7-11" 


7-2" 


6'-7" 


6'-0" 


5'-7" 


2-10005162-43 


4'-8" 


4'-l" 


3'-6" 


2'-9" 




3'-3" 


2'-2" 








2-10005162-54 


6'-7" 


5*-10" 


5'-l" 


4*-5 M 


3'-9" 


4*-10 M 


4'-0 M 


yT 


2'-3 M 


- 


2-10005162-68 


8'-3" 


7-5" 


6'-8" 


6'-0" 


5'-5" 


6'-5" 


5'-7" 


4'-9" 


4'-l" 


3'-5" 


2-10005162-97 


ll'-4" 


10'-5" 


9'-8" 


9'-0" 


8'-5" 


9'-5" 


8'-6" 


7*-10 M 


T-T 


6'-7" 


2-12005162-54 


7-3" 


6'-5" 


5'-7" 


4*-10" 


4'-2" 


5'-4" 


4*-4" 


3'-5" 


2'-5" 




2-12005162-68 


9'-2" 


8'-2" 


7'-5" 


6'-8 M 


6'-0 M 


7'-l" 


6'-2 M 


5'-4" 


4'-6" 


3'-9" 


2-12005162-97 


12'-10" 


ll'-9" 


10*-11" 


10'-2" 


9'-6" 


10'-7" 


9'-8" 


8'-10" 


8'-2" 


7'-6" 



For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Roof/Ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic dead load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header 



236 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(4) 
BOX-BEAM HEADER SPANS 
Headers Supporting Roof and Ceiling Only (50 ksi 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(50 pst) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(70 pst) 


Building width (feet) 


Building width (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-3505162-33 


2'-7" 


2'-2" 


















2-3505162-43 


3'-8" 


3'-3" 


2'-10" 


2'-6" 


2'-l" 


2'-8" 


2'-3" 








2-3505162-54 


4'-8" 


4'-2" 


3'-9" 


3'-5" 


3'-l" 


3'-7" 


3'-2" 


2'-9" 


2'-5" 


2'-0" 


2-3505162-68 


5'-7" 


5'-2" 


4'-9" 


4'-4" 


3'-ll" 


4'-7" 


4'-l" 


3'-7" 


3'-2" 


2'-10" 


2-3505162-97 


6'-2" 


5'-ll" 


5'-8" 


5'-6" 


5'-4" 


5'-8" 


5'-5" 


5'-3" 


4'- 11" 


4'-7" 


2-5505162-33 


3 , -ll" 


3'-4" 


2'-10" 


2'-4" 




2'-7" 










2-5505162-43 


5'-4" 


4'-10" 


4'-4" 


3'-10" 


3'-5" 


4'-2" 


3'-7" 


3'-l" 


2'-7" 


2'-l" 


2-5505162-54 


6'-ir 


6'-3" 


5'-9" 


5'-3" 


4'-9" 


5'-6" 


4'-ll" 


4'-5" 


3'-ll" 


3'-5" 


2-5505162-68 


8'-0" 


7-6" 


6'-ll" 


6'-5" 


5'-ll" 


6'-9" 


6'-l" 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


4'-7" 


2-5505162-97 


8'-ll" 


8'-6" 


8'-2" 


7'-ll" 


7'-8" 


8'-l" 


7'-9" 


7'-6" 


7'-l" 


6'-7" 


2-8005162-33 


2'-8" 


2'-4" 


2'-l" 


r-ir 


l'-9" 


2'-0" 


r-9" 


- 


- 


- 


2-8005162-43 


5'-10" 


5'-2" 


4'-7" 


4'-2" 


3'-10" 


4'-5" 


3'-ll" 


3'-6" 


3'-0" 


2'-6" 


2-8005162-54 


8'-0" 


7'-3" 


6'-8" 


6'-l" 


5'-7" 


6'-5" 


5'-9" 


5'-l" 


4'-7" 


4'-0" 


2-8005162-68 


9'-9" 


9'-0" 


8'-3" 


7'-8" 


7'-l" 


8'-0" 


7'-3" 


6'-7" 


6'-0" 


5'-6" 


2-8005162-97 


12'-1" 


1T-7" 


H'-2" 


10'-8" 


10'-2" 


ir-o" 


10'-4" 


9'-9" 


9'-2" 


8'-7" 


2-10005162-43 


4'-8" 


4'-l" 


3'-8" 


3'-4" 


3'-0" 


3'-6" 


3'-l" 


2'-9" 


2'-6" 


2'-3" 


2-10005162-54 


9'-l" 


8'-2" 


7'-3" 


6'-7" 


6'-0" 


7-0" 


6'-2" 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


4'-6" 


2-10005162-68 


ir-r 


10'-2" 


9'-5" 


8'-8" 


8'-l" 


9'-l" 


8'-3" 


7'-6" 


6'-10" 


6'-3" 


2-10005162-97 


13'-9" 


12'-11" 


12'-2" 


ir-7" 


ir-i" 


ll'-ll" 


1T-3" 


10'-7" 


9'-ll" 


9'-4" 


2-12005162-54 


7'-8" 


6'-9" 


6'-l" 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


5'-10" 


5'-l" 


4'-7" 


4'-l" 


3'-9" 


2-12005162-68 


12'-3" 


ll'-3" 


10'-4" 


9'-7" 


8'-ll" 


lO'-l" 


9'-l" 


8'-3" 


7'-6" 


6'-10" 


2-12005162-97 


15'-4" 


14'-5" 


13'-7" 


12'-11" 


12'-4" 


13'-4" 


12'-6" 


ir-io" 


11'1" 


10'-5" 



For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Roof/Ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic dead load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



237 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(5) 

BOX-BEAM HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting One Floor, Roof and Ceiling (33 ksi steel)a, b 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(20 pst) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(30 pst) 


Building width (feet) 


Building width (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-3505162-33 






















2-3505162-43 


2'-2" 










2'-l" 










2-3505162-54 


2'-ir 


2'-5" 


- 


- 


- 


2'-10 M 


2'-4" 


- 


- 


- 


2-3505162-68 


3'-8" 


3'-2" 


2'-9" 


2'-4" 


- 


y_ T 


3'-l" 


2'-8" 


2'-3" 


- 


2-3505162-97 


4'_H» 


4'-5" 


4'-2" 


3'-8" 


3'-5" 


4'-10 M 


4'-5 M 


4'-0 M 


3'-8 M 


3'-4" 


2-5505162-33 






















2-5505162-43 


3'-5" 


2'-9" 


2'-l" 






3'-3" 


2'-7" 








2-5505162-54 


4'-4" 


3'-9" 


3'-2" 


2'-7" 


2'-l" 


4'-3 M 


3'-7 M 


3'-l" 


2'-6" 




2-5505162-68 


5'-3" 


4'_8" 


4'-l" 


y-T 


3'-2" 


5'-2" 


4'-7" 


4'-0 M 


3'-6" 


3 , -l" 


2-5505162-97 


7-0" 


6'-5" 


5'-10" 


5'-5" 


5'-0 M 


6-11" 


6'-4 M 


5'-9 M 


5'-4 M 


4'-ll" 


2-8005162-33 


2'-l" 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-8005162-43 


4'-2" 


3'-4" 


2'-7" 


- 


- 


4'-0 M 


3'-3 M 


2'-5 M 


- 


- 


2-8005162-54 


5'-6" 


4'-9" 


4'_1" 


3'-5" 


2'-9" 


5'-5 M 


4'-8 M 


3'-ll" 


3'-3" 


2'-8 M 


2-8005162-68 


6'-ll M 


6'-2" 


5'-5" 


4'-10" 


4'-3" 


6'-9" 


6'-0" 


5'-4 M 


4'-8 M 


4'-l" 


2-8005162-97 


9'-4" 


8'-6" 


r-io" 


7'-3" 


6'-8 M 


9'-2" 


8'-4" 


7'-8" 


r-i" 


6'-7" 


2-10005162-43 


4'-4" 


3'-9" 


2'-ll" 






4'-3 M 


3'-8" 


2'-9 M 






2-10005162-54 


6'-3" 


5*-5" 


4'-7" 


3*-ll" 


3'-2 M 


6'-l" 


5'-3 M 


4'-6 M 


3'-9" 


3'-0" 


2-10005162-68 


7-11" 


7-_0" 


6'-3" 


5'-6" 


4'-10 M 


T9 » 


6'-10" 


6'-l" 


5'-4 M 


4'-9 M 


2-10005162-97 


ll'-0" 


lO'-l" 


9'-3" 


8'-7" 


8'-0 M 


lO'-ir 


9-11" 


9'-2 M 


8'-5 M 


7'-10 M 


2-12005162-54 


6'-ll M 


5'-ll" 


5'-l" 


4'-3 M 


3'-5 M 


6'-9 M 


5'-9 M 


4-11" 


4'-l" 


3'-3 M 


2-12005162-68 


8'-9" 


7-9" 


6'-ll" 


6 , -l" 


5'-4" 


8'-7" 


r-T 


6'-9 M 


5'-ll" 


5'-3 M 


2-12005162-97 


12'-4" 


ir-5" 


10'-6" 


9'-8" 


9'-0" 


12'-3" 


ir-3" 


10*-4" 


9'-6" 


8'-10" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Roof/Ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Attic dead load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header 



238 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(6) 

BOX-BEAM HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting One Floor, Roof and Ceiling (50 ksi steel)a, b 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(20 pst) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(30 pst) 


Building width (feet) 


Building width (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-3505162-33 


2'-4" 










2'-3" 










2-3505162-43 


3'-4" 


2'- 11" 


2'-6" 


2'-l" 




3'-3" 


2'-10" 


2'-5" 


2'-0" 




2-3505162-54 


4'-4" 


3'-10" 


3'-5" 


3'-l" 


2'-9" 


4'-3" 


2'-9" 


3'-4" 


3'-0" 


2'-8" 


2-3505162-68 


5'-0" 


4'-9" 


4'-7" 


4'-2" 


3'-9" 


4'-ll" 


4'-8" 


4'-6" 


4'-l" 


3'-9" 


2-3505162-97 


5'-6" 


5'-3" 


5'-l" 


4'-ll" 


2'-9" 


5'-5" 


5'-2" 


5'-0" 


4'-10" 


4'-8" 


2-5505162-33 


3'-6" 


2'-ll" 


2'-4" 






3'-5" 


2'-10" 


2'-3" 






2-5505162-43 


5'-0" 


4'-5" 


3'-ll" 


3'-5" 


3'-0" 


4'-ll" 


4'-4" 


3'-10" 


3'-4" 


2'-ll" 


2-5505162-54 


6'-6" 


5'-10" 


5'-3" 


4'-9" 


4'-4" 


6'-4" 


5'-9" 


5'-2" 


4'-8" 


4'-3" 


2-5505162-68 


T-T 


6'-10" 


6'-5" 


5'-ll" 


5'-6" 


7'-0" 


6'-9" 


6'-4" 


5'-10" 


5'-4" 


2-5505162-97 


7-11" 


T-T 


7'-3" 


7'-0" 


6'-10" 


7'-9" 


7'-5" 


7'-2" 


6'-H" 


6'-9" 


2-8005162-33 


2'-5" 


T-T 


r-ii" 


l'-9" 


- 


2'-5" 


2'-l" 


l'-lO" 


l'-8" 


- 


2-8005162-43 


5'-5" 


4'-9" 


4'-3" 


3'-9" 


3'-5" 


5'-3" 


4'-8" 


4'-l" 


3'-9" 


3'-5" 


2-8005162-54 


7'-6" 


6'-9" 


6'-2" 


5'-7" 


5'-0" 


7'-5" 


6'-8" 


6'-0" 


5'-5" 


4'-ll" 


2-8005162-68 


9'-3" 


8'-5" 


7'-8" 


7'-l" 


6'-6" 


9'-l" 


8'-3" 


T-T 


7'-0" 


6'-5" 


2-8005162-97 


10'-9" 


10'-3" 


9'-ll" 


9'-7" 


9'-3" 


10'-7" 


lO'-l" 


9'-9" 


9'-5" 


9'-l" 


2-10005162-43 


4'-4" 


3'-9" 


3'-4" 


3'-0" 


2'-9" 


4'-3" 


3'-8" 


3'-3" 


2'- 11" 


2'-8" 


2-10005162-54 


8'-6" 


7-6" 


6'-8" 


6'-0" 


5'-5" 


8'-4" 


7'-4" 


6'-6" 


5'-10" 


5'-4" 


2-10005162-68 


10'-6" 


9'-7" 


8'-9" 


8'-0" 


7'-5" 


10'-4" 


9'-5" 


8'-7" 


7'-ll" 


7'-3" 


2-10005162-97 


12'-11" 


12'-4" 


1T-8" 


11'1" 


10'-6" 


12'-9" 


12'-2" 


ir-6" 


lO'-ll" 


10'-5" 


2-12005162-54 


7-1" 


6'-2" 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


4'-6" 


6 , -ll" 


6'-l" 


5'-5" 


4'-10" 


4'-5" 


2-12005162-68 


ir-7" 


10'-7" 


9'-8" 


8'-ll" 


8'-2" 


ll'-5" 


10'-5" 


9'-6" 


8'-9" 


8'-0" 


2-12005162-97 


14'-9" 


13'-9" 


13'-0" 


12'-4" 


ir-9" 


14'-7" 


13'-8" 


12'-10" 


12'-3" 


ll'-8" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



239 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(7) 

BOX-BEAM HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting One Floor, Roof and Ceiling (33 ksi steel)a, b 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(50 pst) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(70 pst) 


Building width c (feet) 


Building width c (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-3505162-33 






















2-3505162-43 






















2-3505162-54 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-3505162-68 


2/-8" 


2/-3" 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-3505162-97 


4/-0" 


3/-7" 


3/-3" 


21- 11" 


2/-7" 


3/-4" 


2/- 11" 


2/-6" 


2/-2" 


- 


2-5505162-33 






















2-5505162-43 


2/-0" 




















2-5505162-54 


3/-1" 


2/-6" 


















2-5505162-68 


4/-1" 


3/-6" 


2/- 11" 


2/-5" 




3/-1" 


2/-5" 








2-5505162-97 


5/- 10" 


5/-3" 


4/- 10" 


4/-5" 


4/-0" 


4/- 11" 


4/-5" 


3/- 11" 


3/-6" 


3/-2" 


2-8005162-33 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-8005162-43 


2/-6" 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-8005162-54 


4/-0" 


3/-3" 


2/-6" 






2/-8" 










2-8005162-68 


5/-5" 


4/-8" 


4/-0" 


3/-4" 


2/-8" 


4/-2" 


3/-4" 


2/-6" 






2-8005162-97 


7/-9" 


11 -V 


6/-6" 


5/- 11" 


5/-5" 


6/-7" 


5/-11" 


5/-4" 


4/- 10" 


4/-4" 


2-10005162-43 


2/- 10" 




















2-10005162-54 


4/-7" 


3/-8" 


2/-9" 


- 


- 


3/-0" 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-10005162-68 


6/-2" 


5/-4" 


4/-7" 


3/-10" 


3/-1" 


4/-9" 


3/-10" 


2/- 11" 


- 


- 


2-10005162-97 


9/-3" 


8/-5" 


7/-8" 


7/-1" 


6/-6" 


7/- 10" 


7/-1" 


6/-5" 


5/-9" 


5/-2" 


2-12005162-54 


5/-0" 


4/-0" 


3/-1" 






3/-4" 










2-12005162-68 


6/- 10" 


5/-11" 


5/-0" 


4/-3" 


3/-5" 


5/-3" 


4/-3" 


3/-2" 






2-12005162-97 


10/-5" 


9/-6" 


8/-8" 


8/-0" 


7/-4" 


8/-10" 


8/-0" 


7/-3" 


6/-6" 


5/- 10" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header 



240 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(8) 

BOX-BEAM HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting One Floor, Roof and Ceiling (50 ksi steel)a, b 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(50 pst) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(70 pst) 


Building width (feet) 


Building width (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-3505162-33 






















2-3505162-43 


2'-8" 




















2-3505162-54 


3'-5" 


3'-0" 


2'-7" 


2'-2" 


- 


2'-8" 


2'-2" 


- 


- 


- 


2-3505162-68 


4'-6" 


4'-l" 


3'-8" 


3'-3" 


2-11" 


y_ r 


3'-3" 


2'-10" 


2'-5" 


2'-l" 


2-3505162-97 


5'-l" 


4'-10" 


4'-8" 


4'-6" 


4'-5 M 


4'-10" 


4'-7 M 


4'-4 M 


4'-0 M 


3'-8 M 


2-5505162-33 


2'-4" 




















2-5505162-43 


3'-10" 


3'-4" 


2'-9" 


2'-3" 




2'-ll" 


2'-3" 








2-5505162-54 


5'-3" 


3'-8" 


4'-l" 


3'-8" 


3'-2" 


4'-3" 


3'-8 M 


3'-l" 


2'-7 M 


2'-0" 


2-5505162-68 


6'-5" 


5*-10" 


5'-3" 


4'-9" 


4'-4" 


5'-5" 


4'-9" 


4'-3" 


3'-9" 


3'-4" 


2-5505162-97 


7'-4" 


7-0" 


6'-9" 


6'-6" 


6'-4" 


6-11" 


6'-8 M 


6'-3" 


5'-10 M 


5'-5" 


2-8005162-33 


■ ■-11" 


l'-8" 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-8005162-43 


4'-2" 


3'-8" 


3'-4" 


2'-9" 


2'-2" 


3*-5 M 


2'-9 M 


- 


- 


- 


2-8005162-54 


6*-l" 


5'-5" 


4'-10" 


4*-3" 


3'-9 M 


4'-ll" 


4'-3 M 


3'-8 M 


3'-0 M 


2'-5 M 


2-8005162-68 


7'-8" 


6-11" 


6'-3" 


5'-9" 


5'-2 M 


6'-5" 


5'-9 M 


5'-l" 


4'-6 M 


4'-0 M 


2-8005162-97 


9-11" 


9'-6" 


9'-2" 


8'-10" 


8'-3 M 


9'-5 M 


8*-10 M 


8'-2 M 


7'-7" 


7'-0" 


2-10005162-43 


3'-4" 


2'-ll" 


2'-7" 


2'-5" 


2'-2 M 


2'-8" 


2'-5" 


2'-2" 






2-10005162-54 


6'-7" 


5'-10" 


5'-3" 


4'-9 M 


4 ,_ 3 „ 


5'-4 M 


4'-9 M 


4'-l" 


3'-5" 


2'-9" 


2-10005162-68 


8'-8" 


T-10" 


7'-2" 


6'-6 M 


5'-ll" 


7*-4 M 


6'-6 M 


5'-9" 


5'-l" 


4'-6 M 


2-10005162-97 


ir-7" 


lO'-ll" 


10'-3" 


9'-7" 


9'-0" 


10'-5" 


9'-7 M 


8'-10" 


8'-2 M 


7-8" 


2-12005162-54 


5'-6" 


4'-10" 


4'-4" 


3*-ll 2 


3'-7" 


4'-5 M 


3'-ll" 


3'-6 M 


y_ T 


2'-ll" 


2-12005162-68 


9'-7" 


8'-8" 


7-11" 


7-2" 


6'-6" 


8'-l" 


7-2" 


6 , -4" 


5'-8" 


5'-0" 


2-12005162-97 


12-11" 


12'-2" 


ir-6" 


10'-8" 


lO'-O" 


ir-8" 


10'-9" 


9-11" 


9'-2" 


8'-6" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



241 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(9) 

BOX-BEAM HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting Two Floors, Roof and Ceiling (33 ksi steel)a 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(20 pst) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(30 pst) 


Building width (feet) 


Building width (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-3505162-33 






















2-3505162-43 






















2-3505162-54 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-3505162-68 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-3505162-97 


3'-l" 


2'-8" 


2'-3" 


- 


- 


3'-l" 


T-T 


T-T 


- 


- 


2-5505162-33 






















2-5505162-43 






















2-5505162-54 






















2-5505162-68 


2'-9" 










2'-8" 










2-5505162-97 


4'-8" 


4*-l" 


y-T 


y-T 


2'-9" 


4'-7" 


4*-0" 


3'-6" 


3'-r 


2'-8" 


2-8005162-33 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-8005162-43 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-8005162-54 


2'-l" 




















2-8005162-68 


3'-8" 


2'-9" 








3'-7" 


2'-8" 








2-8005162-97 


6'-3" 


5'-6" 


4'-ll" 


4'-4" 


3'-9" 


6'-2" 


5'-5" 


4'-10" 


4'-3" 


3'-9" 


2-10005162-43 






















2-10005162-54 


2'-5" 


- 


- 


- 


- 


T-T 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-10005162-68 


4'-3" 


3'-2" 


2'-0" 


- 


- 


4'-2" 


3'-l" 


- 


- 


- 


2-10005162-97 


7'-5" 


6'-7" 


5'-10" 


5'-2" 


4'-7" 


7'-4" 


6'-6" 


5'-9" 


5'-l" 


4'-6" 


2-12005162-54 


2*-7" 










2'-6" 










2-12005162-68 


4'-8" 


3'-6" 


T-T 






4'-7" 


3'-5" 


2'-0" 






2-12005162-97 


8'-5" 


7'-5" 


6'-7" 


5'-10" 


5'-2" 


8'-3" 


7'-4" 


6'-6" 


5*-9" 


5'-l" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Second floor live load is 40 psf. 
Third floor live load is 30 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header 



242 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(10) 

BOX-BEAM HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting Two Floors, Roof and Ceiling (50 ksi steel)a, b 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(20 pst) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(30 pst) 


Building width c (feet) 


Building width (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-3505162-33 






















2-3505162-43 






















2-3505162-54 


2'-5" 


- 




- 


- 


2*-4" 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-3505162-68 


3'-6" 


3'-0" 


2'-6" 


2'-l" 


- 


3'-5" 


2'-ll" 


2'-6" 


2'-0" 


- 


2-3505162-97 


4'-9" 


4'-6" 


4'-l" 


3'-8" 


3'-4" 


4'-8" 


4'-5" 


4'-0" 


3'-8" 


3*-4" 


2-5505162-33 






















2-5505162-43 


2'-7" 










2'-6" 










2-5505162-54 


3-11" 


3'-3" 


2'-8" 


2'-0" 




3'-10" 


3'-3" 


2'-7" 






2-5505162-68 


5'-l" 


4'-5" 


3'-10" 


3'-3" 


2'-9" 


5'-0" 


4'-4" 


3'-9" 


3*-3" 


2'-9" 


2-5505162-97 


6'-10" 


6'-5" 


5'-10" 


5'-5" 


4'-ll" 


6*-9" 


6'-4" 


5'-10" 


5'-4" 


4'-ll" 


2-8005162-33 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-8005162-43 


3'-l" 


2'-3" 


- 


- 


- 


3'-0" 


2'-2" 


- 


- 


- 


2-8005162-54 


4'-7" 


3'-10" 


3'-l" 


2'-5" 




4*-6" 


3'-9" 


3'-0" 


2'-4" 




2-8005162-68 


6'-0" 


5'-3" 


4'-7" 


3'-ll" 


3'-4" 


6'-0" 


5'-2" 


4'-6" 


3'-ll" 


3'-3" 


2-8005162-97 


9'-2" 


8'-4" 


7'-8" 


7'-0" 


6'-6" 


9'-l" 


8'-3" 


7-7" 


7'-0" 


6'-5" 


2-10005162-43 


2'-6" 


2'-2" 








2'-6" 


2'-2" 








2-10005162-54 


5'-0" 


4'-4" 


3'-6" 


2'-9" 


- 


4'-ll" 


4'-3" 


3'-5" 


2'-7" 


- 


2-10005162-68 


6'-10" 


6'-0" 


5'-3" 


4'-6" 


3'-10" 


6'-9" 


5'-ll" 


5'-2" 


4'-5" 


3'-9" 


2-10005162-97 


lO'-O" 


9'-l" 


8'-3" 


7'-8" 


7'-0" 


9'-10" 


9'-0" 


8*-3" 


7'-7" 


7'-0" 


2-12005162-54 


4'-2" 


3'-7" 


3'-3" 


2'-ll" 




4'-l" 


3'-7" 


3'-2" 


2'-10" 




2-12005162-68 


7-7" 


6'-7" 


5'-9" 


5'-0" 


4'-2" 


7'-6" 


6'-6" 


5'-8" 


4'-10" 


4'-l" 


2-12005162-97 


ll'-2" 


lO'-l" 


9'-3" 


8'-6" 


7-10" 


ll'-O" 


lO'-O" 


9*-2" 


9'-2" 


7'-9" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Second floor live load is 40 psf. 
Third floor live load is 30 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



243 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(11) 

BOX-BEAM HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting Two Floors, Roof and Ceiling (33 ksi steel)a, b 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(50 pst) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(70 pst) 


Building width (feet) 


Building width (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-3505162-33 






















2-3505162-43 






















2-3505162-54 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-3505162-68 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-3505162-97 


2'-ll" 


2'-5" 


2'-0" 


- 


- 


2'-7" 


2'-2" 


- 


- 


- 


2-5505162-33 






















2-5505162-43 






















2-5505162-54 






















2-5505162-68 


2'-5" 




















2-5505162-97 


4'-4" 


3'-10" 


3'-4" 


2'-10" 


2'-5" 


4'-0" 


3'-6" 


3'-l" 


2'-7" 


2'-2" 


2-8005162-33 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-8005162-43 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-8005162-54 






















2-8005162-68 


3'-3" 


2'-3" 








2*-8" 










2-8005162-97 


5'-ll" 


5'-2" 


4'-6" 


4'-0" 


3'-5" 


5'-6" 


4'-10" 


4'-3" 


3'-8" 


3'-2" 


2-10005162-43 






















2-10005162-54 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-10005162-68 


3'-9" 


2'-7" 


- 


- 


- 


3'-l" 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-10005162-97 


7'-0" 


6'-2" 


5'-5" 


4'-9" 


4'-2" 


6'-6" 


5'-9" 


5'-l" 


4'-5" 


3'-10" 


2-12005162-54 






















2-12005162-68 


4'-2" 


2'-10" 








3'-5" 


2'-0" 








2-12005162-97 


T-IV 


7*-0" 


6'-2" 


5'-5" 


4'-8" 


7'-4" 


6'-6" 


5'-9" 


5'-0" 


4'-4" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Second floor live load is 40 psf. 
Third floor live load is 30 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header 



244 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(12) 

BOX-BEAM HEADER SPANSa,b,c 

Headers Supporting Two Floors, Roof and Ceiling (50 ksi steel)a,b 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(50 pst) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(70 pst) 


Building width (feet) 


Building width (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-3505162-33 






















2-3505162-43 






















2-3505162-54 


2'-2" 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-3505162-68 


3'-3" 


2'-9" 


2'-3" 


- 


- 


2'-ll" 


2'-5" 


- 


- 


- 


2-3505162-97 


4'-6" 


4'-3" 


3'-10" 


3'-6" 


3'-2" 


4'-3" 


4'-0" 


3'-7" 


3'-3" 


3'-0" 


2-5505162-33 






















2-5505162-43 


2'-3" 




















2-5505162-54 


y-T 


2-11" 


2'-3" 






3'-3" 


2'-7" 








2-5505162-68 


4'-9" 


2'-l" 


3'-6" 


3'-0" 


2'-5" 


4'-4" 


3'-9" 


3'-2" 


2'-8" 


2'-l" 


2-5505162-97 


6'-5" 


6*-l" 


5'-7" 


5'-l" 


4'-8" 


6'-3" 


5'-10" 


5'-4" 


4'-10" 


4'-5" 


2-8005162-33 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-8005162-43 


2'-8" 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2'-2" 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-8005162-54 


4'-3" 


3'-5" 


2'-8" 






3'-9" 


3'-0" 


2'-3" 






2-8005162-68 


5'-8" 


4'-ll" 


4'-2" 


y-T 


2-11" 


5'-3" 


4'-6" 


3'-10" 


3*-3" 


2'-7" 


2-8005162-97 


8'-9" 


8'-0" 


7-3" 


6'-8" 


6'-2" 


8'-4" 


T-T 


6-11" 


6'-4" 


5'-10" 


2-10005162-43 


2'-4" 


2'-0" 








2'-2" 










2-10005162-54 


4'_8" 


3-11" 


3'-l" 


2'-2" 


- 


4'-3" 


3'-5" 


2*-7" 


- 


- 


2-10005162-68 


6'-5" 


5*-7" 


4'-9" 


4'-l" 


3'-4" 


5-11" 


5'-l" 


4'-5" 


3'-8" 


2-11" 


2-10005162-97 


9'-6" 


8'-8" 


7-11" 


7'-3" 


6'-8" 


9'-0" 


8'-3" 


7'-6" 


6-11" 


6'-4" 


2-12005162-54 


3-11" 


3*-5" 


3*-0" 


2'-4" 




3'-7" 


3'-2" 


2'-10" 






2-12005162-68 


7_1» 


6'-2" 


5'-3" 


4'-6" 


3'-8" 


6'-6" 


5'-8" 


4'-10" 


4'-0" 


3'-3" 


2-12005162-97 


10'-8" 


9'-8" 


8'-10" 


8'-l" 


7'-5" 


lO'-l" 


9'-2" 


8'-5" 


7'-9" 


7*-l" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Second floor live load is 40 psf. 
Third floor live load is 30 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



245 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(13) 

BACK-TO-BACK HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting Roof and Ceiling Only (33 ksi steel)a,b 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(20 pst) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(30 pst) 


Building width (feet) 


Building width (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-3505162-33 


2'-ll" 


2'-4" 








2'-5" 










2-3505162-43 


4'-8" 


3'-10" 


3'-5" 


3'-l" 


2'-9" 


3'-ir 


3'-5" 


3'-0" 


2'-8" 


2'-4" 


2-3505162-54 


5'-3" 


4'-9" 


4'-4" 


4'-l" 


3'-8" 


4'-10" 


4'-4" 


4'-0" 


3'-8" 


3'-4" 


2-3505162-68 


6'-l" 


5'-7" 


5'-2" 


4'-10" 


4'-6" 


5'-8" 


5'-3" 


4'-10" 


4'-6" 


4'-2" 


2-3505162-97 


7'-3" 


6'-10" 


6'-5" 


6'-0" 


5'-8" 


6'-n M 


6'-5" 


6'-0" 


5'-8" 


5'-4" 


2-5505162-33 


4'-5" 


3'-9" 


3'-l" 


2'-6" 




3'-9" 


3'-2" 


2'-6" 






2-5505162-43 


6'-2" 


5'-7" 


5'-0" 


4'-7" 


4'-2" 


5'-7" 


5'-0" 


4'-6" 


4'-l" 


3'-8" 


2-5505162-54 


7'-5" 


6'-9" 


6'-3" 


5'-9" 


5'-4" 


6'-10" 


6'-3" 


5'-9" 


5'-4" 


4'-ll" 


2-5505162-68 


6'-7" 


7'-ll" 


7'-4" 


6'-10" 


6'-5" 


8'-0" 


7'-4" 


6'-10" 


6'-5" 


6'-0" 


2-5505162-97 


10'-5" 


9'-8" 


9'-0" 


8'-6" 


8'-0" 


9'-9" 


9'-0" 


8'-6" 


8'-0" 


T-T 


2-8005162-33 


4'-5" 


3'-ll" 


3'-5" 


3'-l" 


2'-4" 


3'-ll" 


3'-6" 


3'-0" 


2'-3" 


- 


2-8005162-43 


T-T 


6'-10" 


6'-2" 


5'-8" 


5'-2" 


6'-ll" 


6'-2" 


5'-7" 


5'-l" 


4'-7" 


2-8005162-54 


9'-3" 


8'-7" 


7'-ll" 


7'-4" 


6'-10" 


8'-8" 


7'-ll" 


7'-4" 


6'-9" 


6'-3" 


2-8005162-68 


10'-7" 


9'-10" 


9'-4" 


8'-10" 


8'-5" 


9'-ir 


9'-4" 


8'-10" 


8'-4" 


T-W 


2-8005162-97 


13'-9" 


12'-9" 


12'-0" 


H'-3" 


10'-8" 


12'-10" 


12'-0" 


ir-3" 


10'-7" 


lO'-O" 


2-10005162-43 


7'-10" 


6'-10" 


6'-l" 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


6'-ll" 


6'-l" 


5'-5" 


4'-ll" 


4'-6" 


2-10005162-54 


10'-5" 


9'-9" 


9'-0" 


8'-4" 


7'-9" 


9'-10" 


9'-0" 


8'-4" 


7'-9" 


7'-2" 


2-10005162-68 


12'-1" 


H'-3" 


10'-8" 


lO'-l" 


9'-7" 


ir-4" 


10'-8" 


lO'-l" 


9'-7" 


9'-l" 


2-10005162-97 


15'-3" 


14'-3" 


13'-5" 


12'-9" 


12'-2" 


14'-4" 


13'-5" 


12'-8" 


12'-1" 


H'-6" 


2-12005162-54 


ll'-6" 


10'-9" 


lO'-O" 


9'-0" 


8'-2" 


lO'-lO" 


lO'-O" 


9'-0" 


8'-l" 


7'-4" 


2-12005162-68 


13'-4" 


12'-6" 


ll'-9" 


1T-2" 


10'-8" 


12'-7" 


H'-IO" 


ir-2" 


10'-7" 


lO'-l" 


2-12005162-97 


16'-8" 


15'-7" 


14'-8" 


13'-11" 


13'-3" 


15'-8" 


14'-8" 


13'-11" 


13'-2" 


12'-7" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by header 



246 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(14) 

BACK-TO-BACK HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting Roof and Ceiling Only (50 ksi steel)a,b 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(20 pst) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(30 pst) 


Building width (feet) 


Building width (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-3505162-33 


4'-2" 


3'-8" 


3'-3" 


2'-10" 


2'-6" 


3'-8" 


3'-3" 


2'-10" 


2'-5" 


2'-l" 


2-3505162-43 


5'-5" 


5'-0" 


4'-6" 


4'-2" 


3'-10" 


5'-0" 


4'-7" 


4'-2" 


3'-10" 


3'-6" 


2-3505162-54 


6'-2" 


5'-10" 


5'-8" 


5'-4" 


5'-0" 


5'-ll" 


5'-8" 


5'-4" 


5'-0" 


4'-8" 


2-3505162-68 


6'-7" 


6'-3" 


6'-0" 


5'-10" 


5'-8" 


6'-4" 


6'-l" 


5'-10" 


5'-8" 


5'-6" 


2-3505162-97 


7'-3" 


6'-ll" 


6'-8" 


6'-5" 


6'-3" 


7'-0" 


6'-8" 


6'-5" 


6'-3" 


6'-0" 


2-5505162-33 


5'-10" 


5'-3" 


4'-8" 


4'-3" 


3'-9" 


5'-3" 


4'-9" 


4'-2" 


3'-9" 


3'-3" 


2-5505162-43 


7'-9" 


7'-2" 


6'-7" 


6'-l" 


5'-8" 


7'-3" 


6'-7" 


6'-l" 


5'-8" 


5'-3" 


2-5505162-54 


8'-9" 


8'-5" 


8'-l" 


7'-9" 


7'-5" 


8'-6" 


8'-l" 


7'-9" 


7'-5" 


6'-ll" 


2-5505162-68 


9'-5" 


9'-0" 


8'-8" 


8'-4" 


8'-l" 


9'-l" 


8'-8" 


8'-4" 


8'-l" 


7'-10" 


2-5505162-97 


10'-5" 


lO'-O" 


9'-7" 


9'-3" 


9'-0" 


lO'-O" 


9'-7" 


9'-3" 


8'-ll" 


8'-8" 


2-8005162-33 


4'-5" 


3'-ll" 


3'-5" 


3'-l" 


2'-10" 


3'-ll" 


3'-6" 


3'-l" 


2'-9" 


2'-6" 


2-8005162-43 


9'-l" 


8'-5" 


7'-8" 


6'-ll" 


6'-3" 


8'-6" 


7'-8" 


6'-10" 


6'-2" 


5'-8" 


2-8005162-54 


lO'-lO" 


10'-2" 


9'-7" 


9'-l" 


8'-8" 


10'-2" 


9'-7" 


9'-0" 


8'-7" 


8'-l" 


2-8005162-68 


12'-8" 


ir-10" 


ir-2" 


10'-7" 


lO'-l" 


ir-ii" 


ir-2" 


10'-7" 


lO'-O" 


9'-7" 


2-8005162-97 


14'-2" 


13'-6" 


13'-0" 


12'-7" 


12'-2" 


13'-8" 


13'-1" 


12'-7" 


12'-2" 


ir-9" 


2-10005162-43 


7'-10" 


6'-10" 


6'-l" 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


6'-ll" 


6'-r 


5'-5" 


4'-ll" 


4'-6" 


2-10005162-54 


12'-3" 


ll'-5" 


10'-9" 


10'-3" 


9'-9" 


ir-6" 


10'-9" 


10'-2" 


9'-8" 


8'-ll" 


2-10005162-68 


14'-5" 


13'-5" 


12'-8" 


12'-0" 


ir-6" 


13'-6" 


12'-8" 


12'-0" 


ir-5" 


lO'-ll" 


2-10005162-97 


17'-1" 


16'-4" 


15'-8" 


14'-11" 


14'-3" 


16'-5" 


15'-9" 


14'-10" 


14'-1" 


13'-6" 


2-12005162-54 


12'-11" 


ir-3" 


lO'-O" 


9'-0" 


8'-2" 


ir-5" 


lO'-O" 


9'-0" 


8'-l" 


7-4" 


2-12005162-68 


15'-11" 


14-10" 


14'-0" 


13'-4" 


12'-8" 


15'-0" 


14'-0" 


13'-3" 


12'-7" 


12'-0" 


2-12005162-97 


i9'-ir 


18'-7" 


17'-6" 


16'-8" 


15'-10" 


18'-9" 


17'-7" 


16'-7" 


15'-9" 


15'-0" 



For 51 : 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



247 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(15) 

BACK-TO-BACK HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting Roof and Ceiling Only (33 ksi steel)a, b 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(50 pst) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(70 pst) 


Building width (feet) 


Building width (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-3505162-33 






















2-3505162-43 


2'-6" 




















2-3505162-54 


3'-6" 


3'-l" 


2'-8" 


2'-4 M 


2'-0" 


2'-7 M 


2'-l" 


- 


- 


- 


2-3505162-68 


4'-4" 


3-11" 


y_ T 


3'-3" 


2-11" 


3'-5" 


3'-0" 


2'-8 M 


2'-4" 


2'-l M 


2-3505162-97 


5*-5" 


5'-0" 


4'-8" 


4'-6" 


4'_1» 


4'-6 M 


4 ,_ 2 » 


3'-10 M 


3*-6 M 


3'-3 M 


2-5505162-33 






















2-5505162-43 


3'-10" 


3'-3" 


2'-9" 


2'-2" 




2'-6" 










2-5505162-54 


5'-r 


4'-7" 


4'-l" 


3'-8" 


3'-4" 


3 , -ll" 


3'-5" 


2-11" 


2'-6" 


2'-0" 


2-5505162-68 


6'-2" 


5'-8" 


5'-2" 


4'-9" 


4'-5" 


5'-0" 


4'-6" 


4«_1» 


3'-9" 


3'-4" 


2-5505162-97 


7'-9" 


7'-2" 


6'-8" 


6'-3 M 


5-11" 


6'-6" 


6'-0" 


5'-7 M 


5'-2 M 


4'-10 M 


2-8005162-33 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-8005162-43 


4'-10" 


4'-l" 


3'-6" 


2-11" 


2'-3" 


3'-3" 


2'-5" 


- 


- 


- 


2-8005162-54 


6'-6" 


5*-10" 


5'-3 M 


4'-9 M 


4*-4 M 


5*-l M 


4'-6 M 


3'-ll" 


3'-4" 


2*-10 M 


2-8005162-68 


8'-l" 


7'-5" 


6'-10" 


6'-4" 


5'-ll" 


6'-8 M 


6'-l" 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


4'-7" 


2-8005162-97 


10'-3" 


9'-7" 


8 ? -ll" 


8'-5 M 


7-11" 


8'-8" 


8'-0" 


7'-6" 


7'-0 M 


6'-7" 


2-10005162-43 


4'-8" 


4'-l" 


3'-8 M 


3'-4 M 


2'-8 M 


3'-6 M 


2'-10 M 








2-10005162-54 


7'-5" 


6'-8" 


6'-l" 


5'-6" 


5'-0 M 


5*-10" 


5*-l M 


4'-6 M 


3-11" 


3'-4" 


2-10005162-68 


9'-4" 


8'-7" 


7-11" 


7'-4" 


6'-10" 


7'-8" 


7-0" 


6'-4" 


5*-10 M 


5'-4" 


2-10005162-97 


ll'-9" 


ir-o" 


10'-5" 


9-11" 


9'-5" 


10'-3" 


9'-7" 


8-11" 


8'-4 M 


7'-10" 


2-12005162-54 


7'_8" 


6'-9" 


6 , -l" 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


5*-10 M 


5'-l M 


4'-7" 


4'-l" 


3'-9" 


2-12005162-68 


10'-4" 


9'-6" 


8'-10" 


8'-2 M 


T-T 


8'-7" 


7'-9" 


7'-l" 


6'-6" 


6'-0" 


2-12005162-97 


12*-10" 


12-1" 


ll'-5" 


lO'-lO" 


10'-4 M 


ll'-2" 


10'-6 M 


9-11" 


9'-5" 


9'_0" 



For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header 



248 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(16) 

BACK-TO-BACK HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting Roof and Ceiling Only (50 ksi steel)a, b 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(50 pst) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(70 pst) 


Building width (feet) 


Building width c (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-3505162-33 


2'-3" 




















2-3505162-43 


3'-8" 


3'-3" 


2'-10" 


2'-6" 


2'-2" 


2'-8" 


2'-3" 








2-3505162-54 


4'-9" 


4'-4" 


4'-0" 


3'-8" 


3'-8" 


3'-10" 


3'-5" 


3'-l" 


2'-9" 


2'-5" 


2-3505162-68 


5'-7" 


5'-4" 


5'-2" 


4'-ll" 


4'-7" 


5'-l" 


4'-8" 


4'-3" 


3'-ll" 


3'-8" 


2-3505162-97 


6'-2" 


5'-ll" 


5'-8" 


5'-6" 


5'-4" 


5'-8" 


5'-5" 


5'-3" 


5'-0" 


4'-ll" 


2-5505162-33 


3'-6" 


2'-10" 


2'-3" 






2'-0" 










2-5505162-43 


5'-5" 


4'-10" 


4'-4" 


3'-ll" 


3'-6" 


4'-2" 


3'-8" 


3'-2" 


2'-8" 


2'-3" 


2-5505162-54 


7-2" 


6'-6" 


6'-0" 


5'-7" 


5'-2" 


5'-10" 


5'-3" 


4'-10" 


4'-5" 


4'-0" 


2-5505162-68 


8'-0" 


7'-8" 


7'-3" 


6'-ll" 


6'-6" 


7'-2" 


6'-7" 


6'-l" 


5'-8" 


5'-4" 


2-5505162-97 


8'-ll" 


8'-6" 


8'-2" 


7'-ll" 


7'-8" 


8'-l" 


7'-9" 


7'-6" 


7'-2" 


6'-ll" 


2-8005162-33 


2'-8" 


2'-4" 


2'-l" 


r-ii" 


- 


2'-0" 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-8005162-43 


5'-10" 


5'-2" 


4'-7" 


4'-2" 


3'-10" 


4'-5" 


3'-ll" 


3'-6" 


3'-2" 


2'-9" 


2-8005162-54 


8'-4" 


7-8" 


7-1" 


6'-7" 


6'-l" 


6'-10" 


6'-3" 


5'-8" 


5'-2" 


4'-9" 


2-8005162-68 


9'-9" 


9'-2" 


8'-8" 


8'-3" 


7'-10" 


8'-6" 


7'-ll" 


7'-4" 


6'-10" 


6'-5" 


2-8005162-97 


12'-1" 


ir-7" 


1T-2" 


10'-8" 


10'-2" 


ir-0" 


10'-4" 


9'-9" 


9'-3" 


8'-10" 


2-10005162-43 


4'-8" 


4'-l" 


2'-8" 


3'-4" 


3'-0" 


3'-6" 


lO'-l" 


2'-9" 


2'-6" 


2'-3" 


2-10005162-54 


9'-3" 


8'-2" 


7-3" 


6'-7" 


6'-0" 


7-0" 


6'-2" 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


4'-6" 


2-10005162-68 


11'-1" 


10'-5" 


9'-10" 


9'-4" 


8'-ll" 


9'-8" 


9'-l" 


8'-5" 


7'-10" 


7'-4" 


2-10005162-97 


13'-9" 


12'-11" 


12'-2" 


ll'-7" 


11-1" 


ir-ii" 


ll'-3" 


10'-7" 


lO'-l" 


9'-7" 


2-12005162-54 


7'-8" 


6'-9" 


6'-l" 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


5'-10" 


5'-l" 


4'-7" 


4'-l" 


3'-9" 


2-12005162-68 


12'-3" 


ll'-6" 


lO'-ll" 


10'-4" 


9 , -ll" 


10'-8" 


lO'-O" 


9'-2" 


8'-4" 


T-T 


2-12005162-97 


15'-4" 


14'-5" 


13'-7" 


12'-11" 


12'-4" 


13'-4" 


12'-6" 


ir-io" 


ll'-3" 


10'-9" 



For 51 : 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



249 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(17) 

BACK-TO-BACK HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting One Floor, Roof and Ceiling (33 ksi steel)a, b 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(20 pst) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(30 pst) 


Building width (feet) 


Building width (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-3505162-33 






















2-3505162-43 


2'-2" 










2'-l" 










2-3505162-54 


3'-3" 


2'-9" 


2'-5" 


2'-0" 


- 


3'-2" 


2'-9" 


2'-4" 


- 


- 


2-3505162-68 


4'-4" 


3'-8" 


3'-3" 


2 , -ll" 


2'-8" 


4'-0" 


3*-7" 


3'-2" 


2'-ll" 


T-T 


2-3505162-97 


5'-2" 


4'-9" 


4'-4" 


4'-l" 


3'-9" 


5'-l" 


4'-8" 


4*-4" 


4'-0" 


3'-9" 


2-5505162-33 






















2-5505162-43 


3'-6" 


2'-10" 


2'-3" 






3'-5" 


2'-9" 


2'-2" 






2-5505162-54 


4'-9" 


4'-2" 


3'-9" 


3'-3 M 


2'-10" 


4'-8" 


4*-l" 


3'-8" 


3*-2" 


2'-9" 


2-5505162-68 


5*-10" 


5'-3" 


4'-10" 


4'-5" 


4'-l" 


5'-9" 


5'-3" 


4'-9" 


4'-4" 


4'-0" 


2-5505162-97 


7'-4" 


6'-9" 


6'-4" 


5'-ll" 


5'-6" 


7'-3" 


6'-9" 


6'-3" 


5'-10" 


5*-5" 


2-8005162-33 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-8005162-43 


4'-4" 


3'-8" 


2'-ll" 


2'-3" 


- 


4'-3" 


3'-6" 


2*-10" 


2'-l" 


- 


2-8005162-54 


6'-l" 


5'-5" 


4'-10" 


4'-4" 


3*-10" 


6'-0" 


5'-4" 


4'-9" 


4'-3" 


3'-9" 


2-8005162-68 


7'-8" 


7-0" 


6'-5" 


5-11" 


5'-5" 


T-T 


6'-ll" 


6'-4" 


5'-10" 


5'-4" 


2-8005162-97 


9'-10" 


9'-l" 


8'-5" 


7'-ll" 


7'-5" 


9'-8" 


8-11" 


8'-4" 


7*-10" 


7'-4" 


2-10005162-43 


4'-4" 


3'-9" 


3'-4" 


2'-8" 




4'-3" 


3'-8" 


3'-3" 


2'-6" 




2-10005162-54 


6-11" 


6'-2" 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


4'-5" 


6'-10" 


6'-l" 


5*-5" 


4'-10" 


4*-4" 


2-10005162-68 


8*-10" 


8'-l" 


7'-5" 


6'-10" 


6'-4" 


8'-8" 


7*-ll" 


7'-3" 


6'-8" 


6'-2" 


2-10005162-97 


ll*-3" 


10'-7" 


9-11" 


9'-5" 


8'-10" 


ll'-2" 


10*-5" 


9'-10" 


9'-3" 


8'-9" 


2-12005162-54 


7-1" 


6'-2" 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


4'-6" 


6-11" 


6'-l" 


5*-5" 


4*-10" 


4'-5" 


2-12005162-68 


9'-10" 


9'-0" 


8'-3 M 


T-T 


7'-0" 


9'-8" 


8'-10" 


8'-lll 


7'-6" 


6'- 11" 


2-12005162-97 


12*-4" 


ir-7" 


10'-11 M 


10'-4" 


9'-10" 


12'-3" 


ll'-5" 


10'-9" 


10'-3" 


9'-9" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header 



250 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(18) 

BACK-TO-BACK HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting One Floor, Roof and Ceiling (50 ksi steel)a, b 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(20 pst) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(30 pst) 


Building width (feet) 


Building width (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-3505162-33 






















2-3505162-43 


3'-4" 


2'-ll" 


2'-6" 


2'-2" 




3'-3" 


2'-10" 


2'-5" 


2'-l" 




2-3505162-54 


4'-6" 


4'-l" 


3'-8" 


3'-4" 


3'-0" 


4'-5" 


4'-0" 


3'-7" 


3'-3" 


2'-ll" 


2-3505162-68 


5'-0" 


4'-9" 


4'-7" 


4'-5" 


4'-3" 


4'-ll" 


4'-8" 


4'-6" 


4'-4" 


4'-2" 


2-3505162-97 


5'-6" 


5'-3" 


5'-l" 


4'-ll" 


4'-9" 


5'-5" 


5'-2" 


5'-0" 


4'-10" 


4'-8" 


2-5505162-33 


3'-r 


2'-5" 








3'-0" 


2'-3" 








2-5505162-43 


5'-l" 


4'-6" 


4'-0" 


3'-6" 


3'-l" 


4'-ll" 


4'-5" 


3'-ll" 


3'-5" 


3'-0" 


2-5505162-54 


6'-8" 


6'-2" 


5'-7" 


5'-2" 


4'-9" 


6'-6" 


6'-0" 


5'-6" 


5'-l" 


4'-8" 


2-5505162-68 


T-T 


6'-10" 


6'-7" 


6'-4" 


6'-l" 


7'-0" 


6'-9" 


6'-6" 


6'-3" 


6'-0" 


2-5505162-97 


T-W 


T-T 


7'-3" 


7'-0" 


6'-10" 


7'-9" 


7'-5" 


7'-2" 


6'-ir 


6'-9" 


2-8005162-33 


2'-5" 


T-T 


l'-ll" 


- 


- 


2'-5" 


2'-l" 


l'-lO" 


- 


- 


2-8005162-43 


5'-5" 


4'-9" 


4'-3" 


3'-9" 


3'-5" 


5'-3" 


4'-8" 


4'-l" 


3'-9" 


3'-5" 


2-8005162-54 


7'-ll" 


7'-2" 


6'-7" 


6'-l" 


5'-7" 


7-9" 


7-1" 


6'-6" 


6'-0" 


5'-6" 


2-8005162-68 


9'-5" 


8'-9" 


8'-3" 


7'-9" 


7'-4" 


9'-3" 


8'-8" 


8'-2" 


7-8" 


7'-3" 


2-8005162-97 


10'-9" 


10'-3" 


9'-ll" 


9'-7" 


9'-3" 


10'-7" 


lO'-l" 


9'-9" 


9'-5" 


9'-l" 


2-10005162-43 


4'-4" 


3'-9" 


3'-4" 


3'-0" 


2'-9" 


4'-3" 


3'-8" 


3'-3" 


T-W 


2'-8" 


2-10005162-54 


8'-6" 


7'-5" 


6'-8" 


6'-0" 


5'-5" 


8'-4" 


7'-4" 


6'-6" 


5'-10" 


5'-4" 


2-10005162-68 


10'-8" 


lO'-O" 


9'-5" 


8'-ll" 


8'-4" 


10'-7" 


9'-10" 


9'-4" 


8'-9" 


8'-3" 


2-10005162-97 


12'-11" 


12'-4" 


ir-8" 


ll'-l" 


10'-6" 


12'-9" 


12'-2" 


ll'-6" 


lO'-ll" 


10'-5" 


2-12005162-54 


7'-l" 


6'-2" 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


4'-6" 


6'-H" 


6'-l" 


5'-5" 


4'-10" 


4'-5" 


2-12005162-68 


H'-9" 


ll'-O" 


10'-5" 


9'-10" 


9'-l" 


ll'-8" 


lO'-ll" 


10'-3" 


9'-9" 


8'-ll" 


2-12005162-97 


14'-9" 


13'-9" 


13'-0" 


12'-4" 


ir-9" 


14'-7" 


13'-8" 


12'-10" 


12'-3" 


ll'-8" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



251 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(19) 

BACK-TO-BACK HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting One Floor, Roof and Ceiling (33 ksi steel)a, b 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(50 pst) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(70 pst) 


Building width c (feet) 


Building width (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-3505162-33 






















2-3505162-43 






















2-3505162-54 


2'-4" 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-3505162-68 


3'-3" 


2'-10" 


2'-6" 


2'-2" 


- 


2'-7" 


2'-2" 


- 


- 


- 


2-3505162-97 


4'_ 4 » 


4'-0" 


3'-8" 


3'-4" 


3'-l" 


3'-9" 


3'-4" 


3'-l" 


2'-9 M 


2'-6" 


2-5505162-33 






















2-5505162-43 


2'-2" 




















2-5505162-54 


3'-8" 


3'-2" 


2'-8" 


2'-3" 




2'-10" 


2'-3 M 








2-5505162-68 


4'-9" 


4'-4" 


3'-ll" 


3'-6" 


3'-2" 


4'-0" 


3'-6" 


3'-l" 


2'-9" 


2'-4" 


2-5505162-97 


6'-3" 


5'-9" 


5'-4" 


5'-0" 


4'-8" 


5'-6" 


5'-0 M 


4'_7» 


4'-3 M 


3-11" 


2-8005162-33 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-8005162-43 


2'-ll" 


2'-0" 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-8005162-54 


4'-9" 


4'-2" 


y-T 


3'-l" 


2'-7" 


3'-9" 


3'-l M 


2'-5" 






2-8005162-68 


6'-4" 


5'-9" 


5'-3" 


4'-9" 


4'-4" 


5'-4" 


4'-9 M 


4 ,_ 3 „ 


3'-10 M 


3'-4" 


2-8005162-97 


8'-5" 


7'-9" 


7'-3" 


6'-9" 


6'-4" 


7'-4" 


6'-9" 


6'-3" 


5*-10" 


5'-5" 


2-10005162-43 


3'-4" 


2'-5" 


















2-10005162-54 


5'-6" 


4'-10" 


4'-2" 


3'-7" 


3'-0" 


4'-4" 


y_ T 


2-11" 


2'-2 M 


- 


2-10005162-68 


7'-4" 


6'-8" 


6'-l" 


5'-7" 


5'-l" 


6'-3" 


5'-7 M 


5'-0 M 


4'-5 M 


4'-0 M 


2-10005162-97 


9'-ll" 


8*-3" 


8'-7" 


8'-l" 


r-T 


8'-9" 


8'-l" 


7'-6" 


7'-0" 


6'-6 M 


2-12005162-54 


5'-6" 


4'-10" 


4'-4" 


3-11" 


3'-5" 


4'-5 M 


3-11" 


3'-3 M 


2'-6" 




2-12005162-68 


8*-2" 


7'-5" 


6'-9" 


6'-3" 


5'-8" 


6-11" 


6'-3" 


5'-7" 


5'-0" 


4'-6" 


2-12005162-97 


10'-10" 


10'-2" 


9'-8" 


9'-2" 


8'-7" 


9'-9" 


9'-2" 


8'-6" 


r-ii" 


7'-5" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header 



252 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(20) 

BACK-TO-BACK HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting One Floor, Roof and Ceiling (50 ksi steel)a, b 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(50 pst) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(70 pst) 


Building width (feet) 


Building width (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-3505162-33 






















2-3505162-43 


2'-6" 


2'-0" 


















2-3505162-54 


3'-8" 


3'-3" 


2'-ll" 


2'-7" 


2'-3" 


3'-0" 


2'-7" 


2'-2" 


- 


- 


2-3505162-68 


4'-7" 


4'-5" 


4'-l" 


3'-9" 


3'-6" 


4'-2" 


3'-9" 


3'-5" 


3'-l" 


2'-10" 


2-3505162-97 


5*-l" 


4'-10" 


4'-8" 


4'-6" 


4'-5" 


4'-10" 


4*-7" 


4*-5" 


4'-3" 


4'-l" 


2-5505162-33 






















2-5505162-43 


3-11" 


3'-5" 


2'- 11" 


2'-5" 




3'-0" 


2'-5" 








2-5505162-54 


5'-7" 


5'-0" 


4 ,_ 7 „ 


4*-2" 


3'-9" 


4'-8" 


4'-2" 


3'-8" 


3'-3" 


2-11" 


2-5505162-68 


6'-7" 


6'-4" 


5-11" 


5'-6" 


5'-l" 


6'-0" 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


4'-7" 


4'-3" 


2-5505162-97 


7'-4" 


7'-0" 


6'-9" 


6'-6" 


6'-4" 


6-11" 


6'-8" 


6'-5" 


6'-2" 


6'-0" 


2-8005162-33 


■ "-11" 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-8005162-43 


4'-2" 


3'-8" 


3*-4" 


3*-0" 


2'-6" 


3'-5" 


3'-0" 


2'-4" 


- 


- 


2-8005162-54 


6'-7" 


5-11" 


5*-5" 


4-11" 


4'-6" 


5'-6" 


4-11" 


4'-5" 


3-11" 


3'-6" 


2-8005162-68 


8'-3" 


7_8" 


7'-l" 


6'-8" 


6'-2" 


7'-3" 


6'-7" 


6'-l" 


5'-7" 


5'-2" 


2-8005162-97 


9-11" 


9'-6" 


9'-2" 


8'-10" 


8'-7" 


9'-5" 


9'-0" 


8'-7" 


8'-2" 


7'-9" 


2-10005162-43 


3'-4" 


2-11" 


2'-7" 


2'-5" 


2'-2" 


2'-8" 


2'-5" 


2'-2" 


■ •-11" 




2-10005162-54 


6'-7" 


5'-10" 


5'-3" 


4'-9" 


4*-4" 


5'-4" 


4'-9" 


4'-3" 


3*-10" 


3'-6" 


2-10005162-68 


9'-4" 


8'-9" 


8'-l" 


T-T 


7-1" 


8'-3" 


7*-7" 


6'- 11" 


6'-5" 


5-11" 


2-10005162-97 


11-7" 


10-11" 


10'-4" 


9'-10" 


9-5" 


10'-5" 


9'-10" 


9'-3" 


8'-10" 


8'-5" 


2-12005162-54 


5'-6" 


4*-10" 


4'-4" 


3-11" 


3'-7" 


4'-5" 


3-11" 


3'-6" 


3'-2" 


2'- 11" 


2-12005162-68 


10*-4" 


9-_8" 


8'-8" 


7-11" 


7'-2" 


8-11" 


7-11" 


7'-l" 


6'-5" 


5'-10" 


2-12005162-97 


12-11" 


12'-2" 


ir-6" 


ir-o" 


10'-6" 


ir-8" 


ir-o" 


10'-5" 


9'-10" 


9'-5" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



253 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(21) 

BACK-TO-BACK HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting Two Floors, Roof and Ceiling (33 ksi steel)a, b 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(20 pst) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(30 pst) 


Building width (feet) 


Building width (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-3505162-33 






















2-3505162-43 






















2-3505162-54 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-3505162-68 


2'-5" 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2'-4" 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-3505162-97 


3'-6" 


y-T 


2'-10" 


2'-6" 


2'-3" 


3'-6" 


3'-l" 


2'-9" 


2'-6" 


2'-3" 


2-5505162-33 






















2-5505162-43 






















2-5505162-54 


2'-6" 










2'-5" 










2-5505162-68 


3'-9" 


y-v 


2'-9" 


2'-4" 




3'-8" 


3'-2" 


2'-9" 


2'-4" 




2-5505162-97 


5*-3" 


4'-9" 


4'-4" 


3'-ll" 


3'-8" 


5*-2 M 


4'-8 M 


4 ,_ 3 „ 


3'-ll" 


y_ T 


2-8005162-33 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-8005162-43 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-8005162-54 


3'-5" 


2'-8" 








3'-4" 


2'-7 M 








2-8005162-68 


5'-l" 


4'-5" 


3-11" 


3*-4" 


2-11" 


5'-0 M 


4'-4" 


3*-10 M 


3'-4" 


2'-10 M 


2-8005162-97 


7'-0" 


6'-5" 


5'-ll" 


5*-5" 


5'-0 M 


7-_0" 


6'-4" 


5*-10 M 


5'-5 M 


5'-0 M 


2-10005162-43 






















2-10005162-54 


3-11" 


3'-l" 


2'-3" 


- 


- 


3*-10 M 


3'-0" 


2'-2 M 


- 


- 


2-10005162-68 


5'-10" 


5'-2" 


4'-6" 


4'-0" 


3'-5" 


5'-9" 


5'-l" 


4'-6" 


3 , -ll" 


3 , -4" 


2-10005162-97 


8'-5" 


7'-8" 


T-V 


6'-6" 


6'-l" 


8'-4" 


TT 


7'_0" 


6'-6" 


6'-0" 


2-12005162-54 


4'-2" 


3'-6" 


T-T 






4«_1» 


3'-5 M 


2'-6 M 






2-12005162-68 


6'-6" 


5'-9" 


5'-l" 


4'-6" 


3-11" 


6'-6" 


5'-8 M 


5'-0" 


4'-5 M 


3*-10 M 


2-12005162-97 


9'-5" 


8'-8" 


8'-0" 


7'-5" 


6'-ll" 


9'-5" 


8'-7" 


T-ll" 


7'-4 M 


6'-10" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Second floor live load is 40 psf. 
Third floor live load is 30 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header 



254 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(22) 

BACK-TO-BACK HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting Two Floors, Roof and Ceiling (50 ksi steel)a, b 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(20 pst) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(30 pst) 


Building width c (feet) 


Building width c (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-3505162-33 






















2-3505162-43 






















2-3505162-54 


2'-9" 


2'-3" 


- 


- 


- 


2'-8" 


2*-3 M 


- 


- 


- 


2-3505162-68 


3'-ll" 


3'-6" 


3'-2" 


2'-10" 


2'-6" 


3-11" 


3'-6" 


3'-l" 


2'-9 M 


2'-6" 


2-3505162-97 


4'-9" 


4'-6" 


4'-4" 


4'-l" 


3'-10" 


4'-8" 


4'-6 M 


4'-4" 


4'-l" 


3 ,_ 9 „ 


2-5505162-33 






















2-5505162-43 


2'-9" 


2'-0" 








2'-8 M 










2-5505162-54 


4'-5" 


3'-10" 


3'-4" 


2'- 11" 


2'-5" 


4'-4" 


3'-9 M 


3'-3" 


2'-10" 


2*-5 M 


2-5505162-68 


5'-8" 


5'-2" 


4'-8" 


4 ,_ 3 „ 


3'-ll" 


5'-8" 


5'-l M 


4'-8" 


4'-3 M 


3'-10 M 


2-5505162-97 


6'-10" 


6'-6" 


6'-3" 


6'-0" 


5'-7" 


6'-9" 


6'-5 M 


6'-3" 


5'-ll" 


5'-6" 


2-8005162-33 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-8005162-43 


3'-2" 


2'-7" 


- 


- 


- 


3'-l M 


2'-6 M 


- 


- 


- 


2-8005162-54 


5'-2" 


4'-7" 


4'-0" 


3'-6" 


3'-0" 


5'-2" 


4'-6" 


3-11" 


3'-5" 


2-11" 


2-8005162-68 


6-11" 


6'-3" 


5'-8" 


5'-2" 


4'-9" 


6*-10 M 


6'-2" 


5'-7" 


5'-2" 


4'-8" 


2-8005162-97 


9'-3" 


8'-8" 


8'-3" 


7'-9" 


7-4" 


9'-2 M 


8'-8" 


8'-2 M 


7'-9" 


7'-4" 


2-10005162-43 


2'-6" 


2'-2" 


2'-0" 






2'-6" 


2'-2 M 


■ ■-11" 






2-10005162-54 


5'-0" 


4'-4" 


3-11" 


3'-6" 


3'-2" 


4'-ll" 


4'-4" 


3 , -10" 


3'-6 M 


3'-2" 


2-10005162-68 


7-10" 


7-2" 


6'-6" 


5-11" 


5'-6" 


7'-9" 


7'-l" 


6'-5 M 


5'-ir 


5'-5 M 


2-10005162-97 


lO'-l" 


9'-5" 


8'-ll" 


8'-6" 


8'-0" 


10'-0 M 


9'-5 M 


8*-10 M 


8'-5 M 


7'-ll" 


2-12005162-54 






















2-12005162-68 


7'-4" 


6'-8" 


6'-l" 


5'-6" 


5'-l" 


7'-3" 


6'-7 M 


6'-0" 


5'-6 M 


5'-0" 


2-12005162-97 


9'-5" 


8'-8" 


8'-l" 


7-6" 


7'-l" 


9'-4" 


8'-8 M 


8'-0 M 


7'-6 M 


7'-0" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Second floor live load is 40 psf. 
Third floor live load is 30 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



255 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(23) 

BACK-TO-BACK HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting Two Floors, Roof and ceiling (50 ksi steel)a, b 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(50 pst) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(70 pst) 


Building width (feet) 


Building width (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-3505162-33 






















2-3505162-43 






















2-3505162-54 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-3505162-68 


2'-2" 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-3505162-97 


3'-3" 


3'-0" 


2'-8" 


2'-4" 


2'-l" 


3'-l" 


2'-9" 


2'-6" 


2'-2" 


- 


2-5505162-33 






















2-5505162-43 






















2-5505162-54 


2'-2" 




















2-5505162-68 


3'-6" 


3'-0" 


2'-6" 


2'-l" 




3'-2" 


2'-9" 


2'-3" 






2-5505162-97 


5'-0" 


4'-6" 


4'-l" 


3'-9" 


3'-5" 


4'-8" 


4'-3" 


3-11" 


3'-7" 


3'-3" 


2-8005162-33 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-8005162-43 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-8005162-54 


3'-0" 


2'-3" 








2'-7" 










2-8005162-68 


4'-9" 


4'-2" 


3'-7" 


3'-l" 


2*-7" 


4'-5" 


3'-10" 


3'-3" 


2'-9" 


2'-3" 


2-8005162-97 


6'-9" 


6'-l" 


5'-7" 


5'-2" 


4'-9" 


6'-4" 


5'-10" 


5'-4" 


4'-ll" 


4'-7" 


2-10005162-43 






















2-10005162-54 


3'-6" 


2'-8" 


- 


- 


- 


3'-l" 


2'-2" 


- 


- 


- 


2-10005162-68 


5'-6" 


4'-10" 


4'-2" 


3'-7" 


3'-l" 


5'-l" 


4'-6" 


3'-10" 


3'-4" 


2'-9" 


2-10005162-97 


8'-0" 


7-4" 


6'-9" 


6'-3" 


5'-9" 


7'-7" 


7'-0" 


6'-5" 


5'-ll" 


5'-6" 


2-12005162-54 


3'-ll" 


3'-0" 


2'-0" 






3'-5" 


2'-6" 








2-12005162-68 


6'-2" 


5'-5" 


4'-9" 


4*-l" 


3'-6" 


5'-9" 


5'-0" 


4'-4" 


3'-9" 


3'-2" 


2-12005162-97 


9-_l« 


8'-4" 


7'-8" 


T-V 


6'-7" 


8'-8" 


T-ll" 


7'-4" 


6'-9" 


6'-3" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Second floor live load is 40 psf. 
Third floor live load is 30 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header 



256 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(24) 

BACK-TO-BACK HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting Two Floors, Roof and Ceiling (50 ksi steel)a, b 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(50 pst) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(70 pst) 


Building width (feet) 


Building width (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-3505162-33 






















2-3505162-43 






















2-3505162-54 


2'-6" 


2'-l" 


- 


- 


- 


2'-3" 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-3505162-68 


3'-9" 


3'-4" 


2'-ll" 


2'-7" 


2'-4" 


3'-6" 


3'-l" 


2'-9" 


2'-5" 


2'-2" 


2-3505162-97 


4'-6" 


4'-4" 


4'-2" 


3-11" 


3'-8" 


4'-4" 


4'-2" 


4-_0" 


3'-9 M 


3'-6 M 


2-5505162-33 






















2-5505162-43 


2'-5" 




















2-5505162-54 


4'_1" 


y_ T 


3'-l" 


T _ T 


2'-2 M 


3*-10 M 


3 , -3" 


2'-10 M 


2'-4" 




2-5505162-68 


5'-5" 


4-11" 


4'-5" 


4'-0" 


3'-8 M 


5'-l" 


4'-7" 


4'-2" 


3'-10 M 


3'-5" 


2-5505162-97 


6'-5" 


6'-2" 


5'-ll" 


5'-9" 


5'-4" 


6'-3" 


6'-0 M 


5'-9 M 


5'-6" 


5'-2 M 


2-8005162-33 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-8005162-43 


2*-ir 


2'-2" 


- 


- 


- 


2'-6" 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2-8005162-54 


4'-ir 


4'-3" 


3'-8" 


3'-2" 


2'-8 M 


4'-6 M 


3'-ll" 


3'-5 M 


2-11" 


2*-4 M 


2-8005162-68 


6'-7" 


5-11" 


5'-4" 


4'-ll" 


4'-6 M 


6'-2" 


5*-7 M 


5'-l" 


4'-8 M 


4 ,_ 3 „ 


2-8005162-97 


8'-9" 


8'-5" 


7-11" 


7'-6 M 


7'-0" 


8'-5" 


8'-l" 


T9 » 


7 ,_ 3 „ 


6'-10 M 


2-10005162-43 


2'-4" 


2*-l" 








2'-2 M 


■ •-11" 








2-10005162-54 


4'-8" 


4'-l" 


3'-8" 


3'-3" 


3'-0" 


4*-4" 


3'-10" 


3'-5" 


3'-l M 


2'-9" 


2-10005162-68 


7'-6" 


6'-9" 


6'-2" 


5'-8 M 


5'-2 M 


T-V 


6'-5 M 


5*-10 M 


5'-4" 


4'-ll" 


2-10005162-97 


9'-9" 


9'-2" 


8'-7" 


8'-2" 


7'-8" 


9'-5 M 


8'-10" 


8'-5 M 


7-11" 


7'-5 M 


2-12005162-54 






















2-12005162-68 


7-0" 


6'-4" 


5'-9" 


5'-3" 


4'-9 M 


6'-7" 


6'-0" 


5'-5" 


5'-0" 


4'-6 M 


2-12005162-97 


9'-l" 


8'-4" 


7-9" 


7'-3 M 


6'-9" 


8'-8 M 


8'-0 M 


7'-6 M 


7'-0 M 


6'-7 M 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Second floor live load is 40 psf. 
Third floor live load is 30 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



257 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.7(1) 
TOTAL NUMBER OF JACK AND KING STUDS REQUIRED AT EACH END OF AN OPENING 



SIZE OF OPENING 
(feet-inches) 


24" O.C. STUD SPACING 


16" O.C. STUD SPACING 


No. ofjack studs 


No. of king studs 


No. ofjack studs 


No. of king studs 


Up to 3'-6" 


1 


1 


1 


1 


> 3'-6 M to 5'-0" 


1 


2 


1 


2 


> 5'-0"to 5'-6" 


1 


2 


2 


2 


> 5'-6 M to 8'-0 M 


1 


2 


2 


2 


> 8'-0 M to 10'-6 M 


2 


2 


2 


3 


> 10'-6" to 12'-0" 


2 


2 


3 


3 


> 12'-0 M to 13'-0 M 


2 


3 


3 


3 


> 13'-0"to 14'-0" 


2 


3 


3 


4 


> 14'-0 M to 16'-0 M 


2 


3 


3 


4 


> 16'-0 M to 18'-0 M 


3 


3 


4 


4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



TABLE R603.7(2) 
HEADER TO KING STUD CONNECTION REQUIREMENTSa,b,c,d 



HEADER SPAN 

(feet) 


BASIC WIND SPEED (mph), EXPOSURE 


85 B or Seismic Design 
Categories A, B, C, Do, 0j and 2 


85 Cor less than 110 B 


Less than HOC 


<4' 


4-No. 8 screws 


4-No. 8 screws 


6-No. 8 screws 


> 4' to 8' 


4-No. 8 screws 


4-No. 8 screws 


8-No. 8 screws 


> 8' to 12' 


4-No. 8 screws 


6-No. 8 screws 


10-No. 8 screws 


> 12'to 16' 


4-No. 8 screws 


8-No. 8 screws 


12-No. 8 screws 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound = 4.448 N. 

a. All screw sizes shown are minimum. 

b. For headers located on the first floor of a two-story building or the first or second floor of a three-story building, the total number of screws is permitted to be 
reduced by 2 screws, but the total number of screws shall be no less than 4. 

c. For roof slopes of 6:12 or greater, the required number of screws may be reduced by half, but the total number of screws shall be no less than four. 

d. Screws can be replaced by an uplift connector which has a capacity of the number of screws multiplied by 164 pounds (e.g., 12-No. 8 screws can be replaced by an 
uplift connector whose capacity exceeds 12 x 164 pounds = 1,968 pounds) . 



258 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.8 

HEAD AND SILL TRACK SPAN 

F, = 33 ksi 



BASIC WIND SPEED 
(mph) 


ALLOWABLE HEAD AND SILL TRACK SPANa,b,c 
(ft-in.) 


EXPOSURE 


TRACK DESIGNATION 


B 


c 


350T1 25-33 


350T1 25-43 


350T1 25-54 


550T1 25-33 


550T1 25-43 


550T1 25-54 


85 




5'-0" 


5'-7" 


6'-2" 


5'-10" 


6'-8" 


7'-0" 


90 




4'-10" 


5'-5" 


6'-0" 


5'-8" 


6'-3" 


6'-10" 


100 


85 


4'-6" 


5'-l" 


5'-8" 


5'-4" 


5'-ll" 


6'-5" 


110 


90 


4'-2" 


4'-9" 


5'-4" 


5'-l" 


5'-7" 


6'-l" 


120 


100 


3'-ll" 


4'-6" 


5'-0" 


4'-10" 


5'-4" 


5'-10" 


130 


110 


3'-8" 


4'-2" 


4'-9" 


4'-l" 


5'-l" 


5'-7" 


140 


120 


y-r 


4'-l" 


4'-7" 


3'-6" 


4*-ll" 


5'-5" 


150 


130 


3'-5" 


3'-10" 


4'-4" 


2'-ll" 


4'-7" 


5'-2" 




140 


3'-l" 


3'-6" 


4'-l" 


2'-3" 


4'-0" 


4'-10" 


- 


150 


2'-9" 


3'-4" 


3'-10" 


2'-0" 


3'-7" 


4'-7" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 

a. Deflection limit: L/240. 

b. Head and sill track spans are based on components and cladding wind speeds and 48 inch tributary span. 

c. For openings less than 4 feet in height that have both a head track and sill track, the above spans are permitted to be multiplied by 1.75. For openings less than or 
equal to 6 feet in height that have both a head track and a sill track, the above spans are permitted to be multiplied by a factor of 1.5. 




STRUCTURAL SHEATHING 

PANEL 

FIELD FASTENER 

EDGE FASTENER 



FIGURE R603.9 
STRUCTURAL SHEATHING FASTENING PATTERN 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



259 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



DOUBLE STUDS BACK TO BACK WITH 
OUTSIDE STUD CAPPED WITH TRACK 



NO. 8 SHEATHING ATTACHMENT 
SCREWS AS REQUIRED BY 
SECTION R603.9.3 

NO. 8 SCREWS ATTACHING 
TRACK TO STUD AT 8 IN. 
O.C. EACH FLANGE 



PLYWOOD, OSB OR GWB 

SHEATHING PER SHEARWALL 
REQUIREMENTS 



OUTSIDE FACE^> 




DOUBLE ROW OF NO. 8 SCREWS 
AT 12 IN. O.C. 

HOLDOWN AS REQUIRED BY 
SECTION R603.9.4 



INSIDE FACE 
WALLBOARD BACKING STUDS 



<l INSIDE FACE 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R603.9.2 
CORNER STUD HOLD DOWN DETAIL 



TABLE R603.9.2(1) 

MINIMUM PERCENTAGE OF FULL HEIGHT 

STRUCTURAL SHEATHING ON EXTERIOR WALLSa,b 



WALL SUPPORTING 


ROOF SLOPE 


BASIC WIND SPEED AND EXPOSURE 

(mph) 


85 
B 


90 
B 


100 
B 


< 110 
B 


100C 


< 110C 


85 C 


90C 


Roof and ceiling only 
(One story or top floor of 
two or three story building) 


3:12 


8 


9 


9 


12 


16 


20 


6:12 


12 


13 


15 


20 


26 


35 


9:12 


21 


23 


25 


30 


50 


58 


12:12 


30 


33 


35 


40 


66 


75 


One story, roof and ceiling 
(First floor of a two-story 
building or second floor of a 
three story building) 


3:12 


24 


27 


30 


35 


50 


66 


6:12 


25 


28 


30 


40 


58 


74 


9:12 


35 


38 


40 


55 


74 


91 


12:12 


40 


45 


50 


65 


100 


115 


Two story, roof and ceiling 
(First floor of a three story 
building) 


3:12 


40 


45 


51 


58 


84 


112 


6:12 


38 


43 


45 


60 


90 


113 


9:12 


49 


53 


55 


80 


98 


124 


12:12 


50 


57 


65 


90 


134 


155 



For SI: 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 

a. Linear interpolation is permitted. 

b. For hip-roofed homes the minimum percentage of full height sheathing, based upon wind, is permitted to be multiplied by a factor of 0.95 for roof slopes not 
exceeding 7:12 and a factor of 0.9 for roof slopes greater than 7:12. 



260 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.9.2(2) 
FULL HEIGHT SHEATHING LENGTH ADJUSTMENT FACTORS 



PLAN ASPECT RATIO 


LENGTH ADJUSTMENT FACTORS 


Short wall 


Long wall 


1:1 


1.0 


1.0 


1.5:1 


1.5 


0.67 


2:1 


2.0 


0.50 


3:1 


3.0 


0.33 


4:1 


4.0 


0.25 



SECTION R604 
WOOD STRUCTURAL PANELS 

R604.1 Identification and grade. Wood structural panels 
shall conform to DOC PS 1 or DOC PS 2 or, when manufac- 
tured in Canada, CSA 0437 or CSA 0325. All panels shall be 
identified by a grade mark or certificate of inspection issued by 
an app roved agency. 

R604.2 Allowable spans. The maximum allowable spans for 
wood structural panel wall sheathing shall not exceed the val- 
ues set forth in Table R602.3(3) . 

R604.3 Installation. Wood structural panel wall sheathing 
shall be attached to framing in accordance with Table 
R602.3(l). Wood structural panels marked Exposure 1 or Exte- 
rior are considered water-repellent sheathing under the code. 



SECTION R605 
PARTICLEBOARD 

R605.1 Identification and grade. Particleboard shall conform 
to ANSI A208.1 and shall be so identified by a grade mark or 
certificate of inspection issued by an approved agency. 
Particleboard shall comply with the grades specified in Table 
R602.3(4). 



SECTION R606 
GENERAL MASONRY CONSTRUCTION 

R606.1 General. Masonry construction shall be designed and 
constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section or 
in accordance with the provisions of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 
402. 

R606.1.1 Professional registration not required. When 
the empirical design provisions of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 
402 Chapter 5 or the provisions of this section are used to 
design masonry, project drawings, typical details and speci- 
fications are not required to bear the seal of the architect or 
engineer responsible for design, unless otherwise required 
by the state law of the jurisdiction having authority. 

R606.2 Thickness of masonry. The nominal thickness of 
masonry walls shall conform to the requirements of Sections 
R606.2.1 through R606.2.4. 



R606.2.1 Minimum thickness. The minimum thickness of 
masonry bearing walls more than one story high shall be 8 
inches (203 mm). Solid masonry walls of one-story dwell- 
ings and garages shall not be less than 6 inches (152 mm) in 
thickness when not greater than 9 feet (2743 mm) in height, 
provided that when gable construction is used, an additional 
6 feet (1829 mm) is permitted to the peak of the gable. 
Masonry walls shall be laterally supported in either the hori- 
zontal or vertical direction at intervals as required by Sec- 
tion R606 .9. 

R606.2.2 Rubble stone masonry wall. The minimum 
thickness of rough, random or coursed rubble stone 
masonry walls shall be 16 inches (406 mm). 

R606.2.3 Change in thickness. Where walls of masonry of 
hollow units or masonry-bonded hollow walls are decreased 
in thickness, a course of solidmasonry shall be constructed 
between the wall below and the thinner wall above, or spe- 
cial units or construction shall be used to transmit the loads 
from face shells or wythes above to those below. 

R606.2.4 Parapet walls. Unreinforced solidmasonrypam- 
pet walls shall not be less than 8 inches (203 mm) thick and 
their height shall not exceed four times their thickness. 
Unreinforced hollow unit masonry parapet walls shall be 
not less than 8 inches (203 mm) thick, and their height shall 
not exceed three times their thickness. Masonry parapet 
walls in areas subj ect to wind loads of 30 pounds per square 
foot (1 .44 kPa) located in Seismic Design Category Do, D 1 
or D 2 , or on townhouses in Seismic Design Category C shall 
be reinforced in accordance with Section R606.12. 

R606.3 Corbeled masonry. Corbeled masonry shall be in 
accordance with Sections R606.3.1 through R606.3.3. 

R606.3.1 Units. Solidmasonry units or masonry units filled 
with mortar or grout shall be used for corbeling. 

R606.3.2 Corbel projection. The maximum projection of 
one unit shall not exceed one-half the height of the unit or 
one-third the thickness at right angles to the wall. The maxi- 
mum corbeled projection beyond the face of the wall shall 
not exceed: 

1. One-half of the wall thickness for multiwythe walls 
bonded by mortar or grout and wall ties or masonry 
headers, or 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



261 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



2. One-half the wythe thickness for single wythe walls, 
masonry-bonded hollow walls, multiwythe walls 
with open collar joints and veneer walls. 

R606.3.3 Corbeled masonry supporting floor or 
roof- framing members. When corbeled masonry is used to 
support floor or roof-framing members, the top course of 
the corbel shall be a header course or the top course bedjoint 
shall have ties to the vertical wall. 

R606.4 Support conditions. Bearing and support conditions 
shall be in accordance with Sections R606.4.1 and R606.4.2. 

R606.4.1 Bearing on support. Each masonry wythe shall 
be supported by at least two-thirds of the wythe thickness. 

R606.4.2 Support at foundation. Cavity wall or masonry 
veneer construction may be supported on an 8- inch (203 
mm) foundation wall, provided the 8- inch (203 mm) wall is 
corbeled to the width of the wall system above with masonry 
constructed of solid masonry units or masonry units filled 
with mortar or grout. The total horizontal projection of the 
corbel shall not exceed 2 inches (51 mm) with individual 
corbels projecting not more than one-third the thickness of 
the unit or one-half the height of the unit. The hollow space 
behind the corbeled masonry shall be filled with mortar or 
grout. 

R606.5 Allowable stresses. Allowable compressive stresses in 
masonry shall not exceed the values prescribed in Table 
R606. 5. In determining the stresses in masonry, the effects of 
all loads and conditions of loading and the influence of all 
forces affecting the design and strength of the several parts 
shall be taken into account. 

R606.5.1 Combined units. In walls or other structural 
members composed of different kinds or grades of units, 
materials or mortars, the maximum stress shall not exceed 
the allowable stress for the weakest of the combination of 
units, materials and mortars of which the member is com- 
posed. The net thickness of any facing unit that is used to 
resist stress shall not be less than 1.5 inches (38 mm). 

R606.6 Piers. The unsupported height of masonry piers shall 
not exceed ten times their least dimension. When structural 
clay tile or hollow concrete masonry units are used for isolated 
piers to support beams and girders, the cellular spaces shall be 
filled solidly with concrete or Type M or S mortar, except that 
unfilled hollow piers may be used if their unsupported height is 
not more than four times their least dimension. Where hollow 
masonry units are solidly filled with concrete or Type M, S or N 
mortar, the allowable compressive stress shall be permitted to 
be increased as provided in Table R606.5. 

R606.6.1 Pier cap. Hollow piers shall be capped with 4 
inches (102 mm) of solidmasonry or concrete or shall have 
cavities of the top course filled with concrete or grout or 
other approved methods. 

R606.7 Chases. Chases and recesses in masonry walls shall 
not be deeper than one-third the wall thickness, and the maxi- 
mum length of a horizontal chase or horizontal projection shall 
not exceed 4 feet (1219 mm), and shall have at least 8 inches 
(203 mm) of masonry in back of the chases and recesses and 
between adjacent chases or recesses and thejambs of openings. 
Chases and recesses in masonry walls shall be designed and 



constructed so as not to reduce the required strength or required 
fire resistance of the wall and in no case shall a chase or recess 
be permitted within the required area of a pier. Masonry 
directly above chases or recesses wider than 12 inches (305 
mm) shall be supported on noncombustible lintels. 



TABLE R606.5 

ALLOWABLE COMPRESSIVE STRESSES FOR 

EMPIRICAL DESIGN OF MASONRY 



CONSTRUCTION; COMPRESSIVE 
STRENGTH OF UNIT, GROSS AREA 


ALLOWABLE COMPRESSIVE 

STRESSESaGROSS 
CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA b 


Type M or S 
mortar 


Type N 
mortar 


Solid masonry of brick and other 
solid units of clay or shale; 
sand-lime or concrete brick: 

8,000+ psi 

4,500 psi 

2,500 psi 

1,500 psi 


350 
225 
160 
115 


300 
200 
140 
100 


Grouted masonry, of clay or shale; 
sand-lime or concrete: 

4,500+ psi 

2,500 psi 

1,500 psi 


225 
160 
115 


200 
140 
100 


Solid masonry of solid concrete 
masonry units: 

3,000+ psi 

2,000 psi 

1,200 psi 


225 
160 
115 


200 
140 
100 


Masonry of hollow load-bearing 
units: 

2,000+ psi 

1,500 psi 

1,000 psi 

700 psi 


140 
115 

75 
60 


120 
100 
70 

55 


Hollow walls (cavity or masonry 
bonded d ) solid units : 

2,500+ psi 

1,500 psi 

Hollow units 


160 
115 

75 


140 
100 
70 


Stone ashlar masonry: 
Granite 

Limestone or marble 
Sandstone or cast stone 


720 
450 
360 


640 
400 
320 


Rubble stone masonry: 
Coarse, rough or random 


120 


100 



For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Linear interpolation shall be used for determining allowable stresses for 
masonry units having compressive strengths that are intermediate between 
those given in the table. 

b. Gross cross-sectional area shall be calculated on the actual rather than nomi- 
nal dimensions. 

c. See Section R608. 

d. Where floor and roof loads are carried upon one wythe, the gross cross-sec- 
tional area is that of the wythe under load; if both wythes are loaded, the 
gross cross-sectional area is that of the wall minus the area of the cavity 
between the WYthes. Walls bonded with metal ties shall be considered as 
cavity walls unless the collar joints are filled with mortar or grout. 



262 



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R606.8 Stack bond. In unreinforced masonry where masonry 
units are laid in stack bond, longitudinal reinforcement consist- 
ing of not less than two continuous wires each with a minimum 
aggregate cross-sectional area of 0.017 square inch (11 mm 2 ) 
shall be provided in horizontal bed joints spaced not more than 
16 inches (406 mm) on center vertically. 

R606.9 Lateral support. Masonry walls shall be laterally sup- 
ported in either the horizontal or the vertical direction. The 
maximum spacing between lateral supports shall not exceed 
the distances in Table R606.9. Lateral support shall be pro- 
vided by cross walls, pilasters, buttresses or structural frame 
members when the limiting distance is taken horizontally, or by 
floors or roofs when the limiting distance is taken vertically. 

TABLE R606.9 
SPACING OF LATERAL SUPPORT FOR MASONRY WALLS 



CONSTRUCTION 


MAXIMUM WALL LENGTH TO THICKNESS 
OR WALL HEIGHT TO THICKNESSa,b 


Bearing walls: 

Solid or solid grouted 
All other 


20 
18 


Nonbearing walls: 
Exterior 
Interior 


18 
36 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Except for cavity walls and cantilevered walls, the thickness of a wall shall 
be its nominal thickness measured perpendicular to the face of the wall. For 
cavity walls, the thickness shall be determined as the sum of the nominal 
thicknesses of the individual wythes. For cantilever walls, except for para- 
pets, the ratio of height to nominal thickness shall not exceed 6 for solid 
masonry, or 4 for hollow masonry. For parapets, see Section R606.2.4. 

b. An additional unsupported height of 6 feet is permitted for gable end walls . 

R606.9.1 Horizontal lateral support. Lateral support in 
the horizontal direction provided by intersecting masonry 
walls shall be provided by one of the methods in Section 
R606.9.1.1 or Section R606 .9.1 .2. 

R606.9.1.1 Bonding pattern. Fifty percent of the units 
at the intersection shall be laid in an overlapping 
masonry bonding pattern, with alternate units having a 
bearing of not less than 3 inches (76 mm) on the unit 
below. 

R606.9.1.2 Metal reinforcement. Interior nonload- 
bearing walls shall be anchored at their intersections, at 
vertical intervals of not more than 16 inches (406 mm) 
with joint reinforcement of at least 9 gage [0.148 in. 
(4mm)], or i/ 4 inch (6 mm) galvanized mesh hardware 
cloth. Intersecting masonry walls, other than interior 
nonloadbearing walls, shall be anchored at vertical intervals 
of not more than 8 inches (203 mm) with joint reinforce- 
ment of at least 9 gage and shall extend at least 30 inches 
(762 mm) in each direction at the intersection. Other metal 
ties, joint reinforcement or anchors, if used, shall be spaced 
to provide equivalent area of anchorage to that required by 
this section. 

R606.9.2 Vertical lateral support. Vertical lateral support 
of masonry walls in Seismic DeSign Category A, B or C 



shall be provided in accordance with one of the methods in 
Section R606.9.2.1 or Section R606.9.2.2. 

R606.9.2.1 Roof structures. Masonry walls shall be 
anchored to roof structures with metal strap anchors 
spaced in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions, ll 2 -inch (13 mm) bolts spaced not more than 6 feet 
(1829 mm) on center, or other approved anchors. 
Anchors shall be embedded at least 16 inches (406 mm) 
into the masonry, or be hooked or welded to bond beam 
reinforcement placed not less than 6 inches (152 mm) 
from the top of the wall. 

R606.9.2.2 Floor diaphragms. Masonry walls shall be 
anchored to floor diaphragm framing by metal strap 
anchors spaced in accordance with the manufacturer's 
instructions, 1/z-inch-diameter (13 mm) bolts spaced at 
intervals not to exceed 6 feet (1829 mm) and installed as 
shown in Figure R606. 1 1 (1), or by other approvedmethods. 

R606.10 Lintels. Masonry over openings shall be supported 
by steel lintels, reinforced concrete or masonry lintels or 
masonry arches, designed to support load imposed. 

R606.1 1 Anchorage. Masonry walls shall be anchored to floor 
and roof systems in accordance with the details shown in Fig- 
ure R606.ll (1), R606.ll (2) or R606.ll (3). Footings may be 
considered as points of lateral support. 

R606.12 Seismic requirements. The seismic requirements of 
this section shall apply to the design of masonry and the con- 
struction of masonry building elements located in Seismic 
DeSign Category Do, T) x or D z . Townhouses in Seismic DeSign 
Category C shall comply with the requirements of Section 
R606.12.2. These requirements shall not apply to glass unit 
masonry conforming to Section R61 or masonry veneer con- 
forming to Section R703.7. 

R606.12.1 General. Masonry structures and masonry ele- 
ments shall comply with the requirements of Sections 
R606.12.2 through R606.12.4 based on the seismic design 
category established in Table R301.2(l). Masonry struc- 
tures and masonry elements shall comply with the require- 
ments of Section R606.12 and Figures R606.ll (1), 
R606.ll (2) and R606.ll (3) or shall be designed in accor- 
dance with ACI 5301 ASCE 5/TMS 402 . 

R606.12.1.1 Floor and roof diaphragm construction. 
Floor and roof diaphragms shall be constructed of wood 
structural panels attached to wood framing in accordance 
with Table R602.3(l) or to cold-formed steel floor fram- 
ing in accordance with Table R505.3.1 (2) or to 
cold-formed steel roof framing in accordance with Table 
R804.3. Additionally, sheathing panel edges perpendic- 
ular to framing members shall be backed by blocking, 
and sheathing shall be connected to the blocking with 
fasteners at the edge spacing. For Seismic Design Cate- 
gories C, Do, D 1 and D z , where the width-to-thickness 
dimension of the diaphragm exceeds 2-to-l, edge spac- 
ing of fasteners shall be 4 inches (102 mm) on center. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



263 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



SHEATHING NAILED IN 
ACCORDANCE WITH 
TABLE R602.3(1 



RAFTER 




BLOCKING 



2 IN. NOMINAL 
PLATE 



l/ 2 IN. BOLT AT 8 FT. O.C. 
EMBEDDED 4 IN. MIN. 




L 



SHEATHING NAILED IN 
ACCORDANCE WITH 
TABLE R602.3(1) 



3-1 6d 



S 112 IN. BOLT AT 8 FT. O.C. 
EMBEDDED 4 IN. MIN. 



BOLT EMBEDDED 
41N. 




SEE TABLE FOR BOLT 
SIZE AND SPACING 



APPROVED METAL CONNECTOR 
3 IN, NOMINAL LEDGER 



JOIST SPAN 



10 FT. 



10-15 FT 



15-20 FT 



LEDGER BOLT 
SIZE AND SPACING 



BOLT SIZE AND SPACING 



ROOF 



1/2 AT 2 FT 6 IN. 
7/s AT 3 FT 61 N. 



1/2 AT 1 FT 9 IN. 
7/ s AT2 FT 61N. 



1/2 AT 1 FT 31 N. 
7/8 AT 2 FT IN. 



FLOOR 



l/ 2 AT 2 FT IN. 
7/ s AT 2 FT 9 IN. 



l/ 2 AT 1 FT 4 IN. 
i/o AT 2 FT IN. 



l/ 2 AT 1 FT IN. 
7/ 8 AT 1 FT 6 IN. 



JOISTS 

PERPENDICULAR 
TO WALL 



SEE TABLE 
ABOVE FOR BOLT 
AND SIZE 
SPACING 




SHEATHING NAILED IN 
ACCORDANCE WITH 
TABLE R602.3(1) 



3-1 6d PER JOIST SPACING 
3 IN. NOMINAL LEDGER 
'EMBEDDED 4 IN. MIN. 



^U 



^e 



3-1 6d PER JOIST. 
SPACING 



3 IN. NOMINAL 
END JOIST 



l/ 2 IN. BOLT AT 8 FT O.C 
EMBEDDED AT 4 IN. MIN. 




JOISTS 
PARALLEL TO 
WALL 



NOTE: Where bolts are located in hollow masonry, the cells in the courses receiving the bolt shall be grouted solid. 
For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0.479kPa. 

FIGURE R606.11 (1) 

ANCHORAGE REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY WALLS LOCATED IN SEISMIC 

DESIGN CATEGORY A, B OR C AND WHERE WIND LOADS ARE LESS THAN 30 PSF 



264 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



ROOF CONNECTORS AT v 

46 IN. MAX. O.C. 



RCtfF 



<4ftAft5AHUUNt> 
OPENINGS 



DETAIL B 



04 &**£ WTlTHtM 4 IN. OF ENDS 

F WAU S AND AT CORN ER5 




W flAR5(MIM.lftT 
DIAPHRAGMS 
CQNT THRU C.J 



AH BARS (M IN.) 
WITHIN S IN. OF 
AJXCJ.S 



DONTttaLJtllNt 
(C.J.) 



*4nARSAT1[JFTnC 



2* IN, OR 

40 dh 



M BARS AT 10 FT OC. OR Wt.T 

JOINT REINFORCED AT 16 IN- O.C 



MINIMUM REINFORCEMENT FOR MASONRY WALLS 



2 IN. PLATE tt\TH 1 Jy|N. SOLTS 
NOT MORE THAU4TT O.C 
EMBEDDED 4 MM MM. 



\-^ 




flONQ BEAM STEEL 
TWO % IN. BARS 



HOTEL STEEL - 

SEE SECTION HB08.1 Q 



REINFORCE ME NT- 
SEE SEC riONS 
ttBOB. 12.2. 1.3 unci 
RftDfi. 12 2.2.3 

NOT HEADER > 
COURSE 



.DOWEL 




'3 tt« a IN- * U.W, CLIP 
AMGLE4FTQ.O 
ONE Vi IN. BOLT 



ANCHOR BOLTS 



TWO A* LATERAL TIES WITH IN 
TOP 5 UN. CF COLLMN THAT 
ENCLOSE ANCHOR BOc7$ AND 
VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT 



VERTICAL COLUMN 
REINFORCEMENT 



KfciNF OSCEMENT SHALL 
HAVE MTN. Uj IN. 
CLEARANCE - 




SIN MAX 



CTOLJWN ^lEb- 



METAL TIES— ■ 

SEE SECTION R^OBf. 2 f 




HEADER COURSES 
NOT PERMITTED 



MW.Sk IN DFSOUT 




WHERE INTERIOR 
STUO PARTITION 
MEETS WALL BOLT 
ENDSTuQWITir/alN 
*BOLTS3FTO-C 




LAP 40 DIA. 



SECTION 1 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

FIGURE R606.11(2) 
REQUIREMENTS FOR REINFORCED GROUTED MASONRY CONSTRUCTION IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY C 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



265 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



ROOF CONNECTORS 
AT 48 IN. MAX. O.C. 



#4 BARS AROUND 
OPENINGS 



#4 BARS WITHIN 8 IN. OF 
ENDS OF WALLS AND AT 
CORNERS 



•t-Vt 



ROOF 




#4 BARS AT 48 IN. O.C 



#4 BARS (MIN.) AT 
DIAPHRAGMS 
CONT. THRU C.J. 



#4 BARS (MIN.) 
WITHIN 8 IN. OF 
ALLC.J.'S 

CONTROL JOINT 
(C.J.) 



#4 BARS AT 48 IN.D.C. 



MINIMUM REINFORCEMENT FOR MASONRYWALLS 



3 IN, x 3V 4 IN, CLIP ANGLE 4 FT. O.C, 
ONE i/ 2 d)IN. BOLT 



6 IN. 



CM 







1 






\$W7, ; 



// 

//I 
/ 



6 IN. 

r 



BOND BEAM TWO i/ 2 <J) IN. 

BARS STEEL 



l/ 2 IN. BOLTS NOT MORE 
THAN 4 FT. O.C, IN CELLS 
WITH VERTICAL ROD 
WHERE POSSIBLE 
EMBEDDED 4 IN. MIN. 



ANCHOR BOLTS 



TWO #4 LATERAL TIES WITHIN 
TOP 5 IN. OF COLUMN WHICH 
ENCLOSE ANCHOR BOLTS 
AND VERTICAL 
REINFORCEMENT 



VERTICAL COLUMN 
REINFORCEMENT 



TIE COURSE 



REINFORCEMENTS- 
'/I /SEE SECTIONS R606.1 1 .2.1 .3, 
X R606, 1 1 .3,2 AND R606.1 1 .4 



DOWEL 2 FT. 6 IN. 
LONG 



1 1 

SECTION C 



LINTEL BAR OR 
BARS-8EE 

SECTION R606.9 




]S IN. MAX. 



#3 COLUMN 
TIESAT8IN. 
MAX. 



a 



— r 

18 IN. MIN 



i M 



3/ 8 IN. (|) DOWEL 



3/ 8 IN ,0 ROD 



6 IN. MIN, 

V//\\\1o° ° N 



AW///WV 



6 IN. 

r 






////WW/// 



■14 IN. 



\^777T^W777 



141 N. 



..//// 
\\\ x 




\\V 



DETAIL "A" 



FOUNDATION 



INSPECTION OPENING 
NOT REQUIRED IF 
INSPECTEDATTHE 
COURSE 



FOUNDATION FOR 
WOOD FLOOR 



FOUNDATION FOR 
CONCRETE FLOOR 



NOTE: A full bedjoint must be provided. All cells containing vertical bars are to be filled to the top of wall and provide inspection opening as shown on detail "A." 

Horizontal bars are to be laid as shown on detail "B." Lintel bars are to be laid as shown on Section C. 
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

FIGURE R606.11 (3) 
REQUIREMENTS FOR REINFORCED MASONRY CONSTRUCTION IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY Do, 01, OR 02 



266 



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WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R606.12.2 Seismic Design Category C. Townhouses 
located in Seismic Design Category C shall comply with the 
requirements of this section. 

R606. 12.2.1 Minimum length of wall without open- 
ings. Table R606. 12.2.1 shall be used to determine the 
minimum required solid wall length without openings at 
each masonry exterior wall. The provided percentage of 
solid wall length shall include only those wall segments 
that are 3 feet (914 mm) or longer. The maximum clear 
distance between wall segments included in determining 
the solid wall length shall not exceed 18 feet (5486 mm). 
Shear wall segments required to meet the minimum wall 
length shall be in accordance with Section R606. 12.2.2.3. 

R606. 12.2.2 Design of elements not part of the lateral 
force- resisting system. 

R606. 12.2.2.1 Load-bearing frames or columns. 
Elements not part of the lateral-force-resisting system 
shall be analyzed to determine their effect on the 
response of the system. The frames or columns shall 
be adequate for vertical load carrying capacity and 
induced moment caused by the design story drift. 

R606. 12.2.2.2 Masonry partition walls. Masonry 
partition walls, masonry screen walls and other 
masonry elements that are not designed to resist verti- 
calor lateral loads, other than those induced by their 
own weight, shall be isolated from the structure so 
that vertical and lateral forces are not imparted to 
these elements. Isolation joints and connectors 
between these elements and the structure shall be 
designed to accommodate the design story drift. 

R606. 12.2.2.3 Reinforcement requirements for 
masonry elements. Masonry elements listed in Sec- 
tion R606. 12.2.2.2 shall be reinforced in either the 
horizontal or vertical direction as shown in Figure 
R606.ll (2) and in accordance with the following: 

1. Horizontal reinforcement. Horizontal joint 
reinforcement shall consist of at least two lon- 
gitudinal WI.7 wires spaced not more than 16 
inches (406 mm) for walls greater than 4 inches 
(102 mm) in width and at least one longitudinal 
W1.7 wire spaced not more than 16 inches (406 
mm) for walls not exceeding 4 inches (102 mm) 



in width; or at least one No. 4 bar spaced not 
more than 48 inches (1219 mm). Where two 
longitudinal wires of joint reinforcement are 
used, the space between these wires shall be the 
widest that the mortar joint will accommodate. 
Horizontal reinforcement shall be provided 
within 16 inches (406 mm) of the top and bot- 
tom of these masonry elements. 

2. Vertical reinforcement. Vertical reinforcement 
shall consist of at least one No. 4 bar spaced not 
more than 48 inches (1219 mm). Vertical rein- 
forcement shall be located within 16 inches 
(406 mm) of the ends of masonry walls. 

R606. 12.2.3 Design of elements part of the lat- 
eral-force-resisting system. 

R606. 12.2.3.1 Connections to masonry shear 
walls. Connectors shall be provided to transfer forces 
between masonry walls and horizontal elements in 
accordance with the requirements of Section 2.1.8 of 
ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402. Connectors shall be 
designed to transfer horizontal design forces acting 
either perpendicular or parallel to the wall, but not less 
than 200 pounds per linear foot (2919 N/m) of wall. 
The maximum spacing between connectors shall be 4 
feet (1219 mm) . Such anchorage mechanisms shall 
not induce tension stresses perpendicular to grain in 
ledgers or nailers. 

R606. 12.2.3.2 Connections to masonry columns. 
Connectors shall be provided to transfer forces 
between masonry columns and horizontal elements in 
accordance with the requirements of Section 2.1.8 of 
ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402. Where anchor bolts are 
used to connect horizontal elements to the tops of col- 
umns, the bolts shall be placed within lateral ties. Lat- 
eral ties shall enclose both the vertical bars in the 
column and the anchor bolts. There shall be a mini- 
mum of two No. 4 lateral ties provided in the top 5 
inches (127 mm) of the column. 

R606. 12.2.3.3 Minimum reinforcement require- 
ments for masonry shear walls. Vertical reinforce- 
ment of at least one No. 4 bar shall be provided at 
corners, within 16 inches (406 mm) of each side of 



TABLE R606.12.2.1 
MINIMUM SOLID WALL LENGTH ALONG EXTERIOR WALL LINES 



SESIMIC DESIGN CATEGORY 


MINIMUM SOLID WALL LENGTH (percent)a 


One Story or 
Top Story of Two Story 


Wall Supporting Light-framed 
Second Story and Roof 


Wall Supporting Masonry Second 
Story and Roof 


Townhouses in C 


20 


25 


35 


Do or Di 


25 


NP 


NP 


D 2 


30 


NP 


NP 



NP = Not permitted, except with design in accordance with the International BUilding Code. 

a. For all walls, the minimum required length of solid walls shall be based on the table percent multiplied by the dimension, parallel to the wall direction under consid- 
eration, of a rectangle inscribing the overall building plan. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



267 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



openings, within 8 inches (203 mm) of each side of 
movement joints, within 8 inches (203 mm) of the 
ends of walls, and at a maximum spacing of 10 feet 
(3048 mm). 

Horizontal joint reinforcement shall consist of at 
least two wires of WI .7 spaced not more than 16 
inches (406 mm); or bond beam reinforcement of at 
least one No . 4 bar spaced not more than 10 feet (3048 
mm) shall be provided. Horizontal reinforcement 
shall also be provided at the bottom and top of wall 
openings and shall extend not less than 24 inches (610 
mm) nor less than 40 bar diameters past the opening; 
continuously at structurally connected roof and floor 
levels; and within 16 inches (406 mm) of the top of 
walls. 

R606.12.3 Seismic Design Category Do or D r Structures 
in Seismic Design Category Do or Di shall comply with the 
requirements of Seismic Design Category C and the addi- 
tional requirements of this section. 

R606. 12.3.1 Design requirements. Masonry elements 
other than those covered by Section R606. 12.2.2.2 shall 
be designed in accordance with the requirements of 
Chapter 1 and Sections 2.1 and 2.3 of ACI 530/ASCE 
5/TMS 402 and shall meet the minimum reinforcement 
requirements contained in Sections R606.12.3.2 and 
R606.12.3.2.1. 

Exception: Masonry walls limited to one story in 
height and 9 feet (2743 mm) between lateral supports 
need not be designed provided they comply with the 
minimum reinforcement requirements of Sections 
R606.12.3.2 and R606.12.3.2.1. 

R606. 12.3.2 Minimum reinforcement requirements for 
masonry walls. Masonry walls other than those covered by 
Section R606. 12.2.2.3 shall be reinforced in both the verti- 
cal and horizontal direction. The sum of the cross-sectional 
area of horizontal and vertical reinforcement shall be at 
least 0.002 times the gross cross- sectional area of the wall, 
and the minimum cross-sectional area in each direction 
shall be not less than 0.0007 times the gross cross-sectional 
area of the wall. Reinforcement shall be uniformly distrib- 
uted. Table R606.12.3.2 shows the minimum reinforcing 



bar sizes required for varying thicknesses of masonry walls. 
The maximum spacing of reinforcement shall be 48 inches 
(1219 mm) provided that the walls are solid grouted and 
constructed of hollow open-end units, hollow units laid 
with full headjoints or two wythes of solid units. The maxi- 
mum spacing of reinforcement shall be 24 inches (610 mm) 
for all other masonry. 

R606. 12.3.2.1 Shear wall reinforcement require- 
ments. The maximum spacing of vertical and hori- 
zontal reinforcement shall be the smaller of one-third 
the length of the shear wall, one-third the height of the 
shear wall, or 48 inches (1219 mm). The minimum 
cross-sectional area of vertical reinforcement shall be 
one- third of the required shear reinforcement. Shear 
reinforcement shall be anchored around vertical rein- 
forcing bars with a standard hook. 

R606. 12.3.3 Minimum reinforcement for masonry 
columns. Lateral ties in masonry columns shall be 
spaced not more than 8 inches (203 mm) on center and 
shall be at least 3/ 8 inch (9.5 mm) diameter. Lateral ties 
shall be embedded in grout. 

R606. 12.3.4 Material restrictions. Type N mortar or 
masonry cement shall not be used as part of the 
lateral-force-resisting system. 

R606. 12.3.5 Lateral tie anchorage. Standard hooks for 
lateral tie anchorage shall be either a 135-degree (2.4 rad) 
standard hook or a 180-degree (3.2 rad) standard hook. 

R606.12.4 Seismic Design Category D 2 - All structures in 
Seismic DeSign Category D z shall comply with the require- 
ments of Seismic DeSign Category D 2 and to the additional 
requirements of this section. 

R606. 12.4.1 Design of elements not part of the lat- 
eral- foree-re si sting system. Stack bond masonry that is 
not part of the lateral-force-resisting system shall have a 
horizontal cross-sectional area of reinforcement of at least 
0.0015 times the gross cross-sectional area of masonry. 
Table R606. 12.4.1 shows minimum reinforcing bar sizes 
for masonry walls. The maximum spacing of horizontal 
reinforcement shall be 24 inches (610 mm). These ele- 
ments shall be solidly grouted and shall be constructed of 
hollow open-end units or two wythes of solid units. 



TABLE R606. 12.3.2 
MINIMUM DISTRIBUTED WALL REINFORCEMENT FOR BUILDING ASSIGNED TO SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY Do or D, 







MINIMUM REINFORCEMENT AS 






MINIMUM SUM OF THE VERTICAL 


DISTRIBUTED IN BOTH 






AND HORIZONTAL 


HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL 


MINIMUM BAR SIZE FOR 


NOMINAL WALL THICKNESS 


REINFORCEMENT AREAS a 


DIRECTIONS 13 


REINFORCEMENT SPACED AT 48 


(inches) 


(square inches per foot) 


(square inches per foot) 


INCHES 


6 


0.135 


0.047 


#4 


8 


0.183 


0.064 


#5 


10 


0.231 


0.081 


#6 


12 


0.279 


0.098 


#6 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square inch per foot = 2064 mrrfVm. 

a. Based on the minimum reinforcing ratio of 0.002 times the gross cross-sectional area of the wall. 

b. Based on the minimum reinforcing ratio each direction of 0.0007 times the gross cross-sectional area of the wall. 



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TABLE R606.12.4.1 

MINIMUM REINFORCING FOR STACKED BONDED 

MASONRY WALLS IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY D 2 



NOMINAL WALL THICKNESS 

(inches) 


MINIMUM BAR SIZE 
SPACED AT 24 INCHES 


6 

8 
10 
12 


#4 
#5 
#5 
#6 



For SI: 1 inch =25.4 mm. 

R606. 12.4.2 Design of elements part of the lat- 
eral- foree-re si sting system. Stack bond masonry that is 
part of the lateral-force-resisting system shall have a hori- 
zontal cross-sectional area of reinforcement of at least 
0.0025 times the gross cross-sectional area of masonry. 
Table R606.12.4.2 shows minimum reinforcing bar sizes 
for masonry walls. The maximum spacing of horizontal 
reinforcement shall be 16 inches (406 mm). These ele- 
ments shall be solidly grouted and shall be constructed of 
hollow open-end units or two wythes of solid units. 



TABLE R606. 12.4.2 

MINIMUM REINFORCING FOR STACKED BONDED MASONRY 

WALLS IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY D ? 



NOMINAL WALL THICKNESS 

(inches) 


MINIMUM BAR SIZE 
SPACED AT 16 INCHES 


6 
8 
10 
12 


#4 
#5 
#5 
#6 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

R606.13 Protection for reinforcement. Bars shall be com- 
pletely embedded in mortar or grout. Joint reinforcement 
embedded in horizontal mortar joints shall not have less than 
s/8-inch (15 .9 mm) mortar coverage from the exposed face . All 
other reinforcement shall have a minimum coverage of one bar 
diameter over all bars, but not less than 3/ 4 inch (19 mm), except 
where exposed to weather or soil, in which case the minimum 
coverage shall be 2 inches (51 mm). 

R606.14 Beam supports. Beams, girders or other concen- 
trated loads supported by a wall or column shall have a bearing 
of at least 3 inches (76 mm) in length measured parallel to the 
beam upon solid masonry not less than 4 inches (102 mm) in 
thickness, or upon a metal bearing plate of adequate design and 
dimensions to distribute the load safely, or upon a continuous 
reinforced masonry member projecting not less than 4 inches 
(102 mm) from the face of the wall. 

R606.14.1 Joist bearing. Joists shall have a bearing of not 
less than V/ 2 inches (38 mm), except as provided in Section 
R606.14, and shall be supported in accordance with Figure 
R606.ll (1). 

R606.15 Metal accessories. Joint reinforcement, anchors, ties 
and wire fabric shall conform to the following: ASTM A 82 for 
wire anchors and ties; ASTM A 36 for plate, headed and 
bent-bar anchors; ASTM A 510 for corrugated sheet metal 
anchors and ties; ASTM A 951 forjoint reinforcement; ASTM 



B 227 for copper-clad steel wire ties; or ASTM A 167 for stain- 
less steel hardware. 

R606.15.1 Corrosion protection. Minimum corrosion 
protection of joint reinforcement, anchor ties and wire fab- 
ric for use in masonry wall construction shall conform to 
Table R606.15.1. 

TABLE R606.15.1 
MINIMUM CORROSION PROTECTION 



MASONRY METAL ACCESSORY 


STANDARD 


] oint reinforcement, interior walls 


ASTM A 641, Class 1 


Wire ties or anchors in exterior walls 
completely embedded in mortar or 
grout 


ASTM A 641, Class 3 


Wire ties or anchors in exterior walls 
not completely embedded in mortar 
or grout 


ASTM A 153, Class B-2 


] oint reinforcement in exterior walls 
or interior walls exposed to moist 
environment 


ASTM A 153, Class B-2 


Sheet metal ties or anchors exposed 
to weather 


ASTM A 153, Class B-2 


Sheet metal ties or anchors 
completely embedded in mortar or 
grout 


ASTM A 653, Coating 
Designation G60 


Stainless steel hardware for any 
exposure 


ASTM A 167, Type 304 



SECTION R607 
UNIT MASONRY 

R607.1 Mortar. Mortar for use in masonry construction shall 
comply with ASTM C 270. The type of mortar shall be in 
accordance with Sections R607.1.1, R607.1.2 and R607.1.3 
and shall meet the proportion specifications of Table R607.1 or 
the property specifications of ASTM C 270. 

R607.1.1 Foundation walls. Masonry foundation walls 
constructed as set forth in Tables R404.1.1 (1) through 
R404.1.1 (4) and mortar shall be Type M or S. 

R607.1.2 Masonry in Seismic Design Categories A, B 
and C. Mortar for masonry serving as the lat- 
eral-force-resisting system in Seismic Design Categories A, 
Band C shall be Type M, S or N mortar. 

R607. 1.3 Masonry in Seismic Design Categories Do, T> x and 
D 2 - Mortar for masonry serving as the lateral- force- resisting 
system in Seismic Design Categories Do, D { and D 2 shall be 
Type M or S portland cement-lime or mortar cement mortar. 

R607.2 Placing mortar and masonry units. 

R607.2.1 Bed and headjoints. Unless otherwise required 
or indicated on the project drawings, head and bed joints 
shall be j/ s inch (10 mm) thick, except that the thickness of 
the bedj oint of the starting course placed over foundations 
shall not be less than i/ 4 inch (7 mm) and not more than 3/ 4 
inch (19 mm). 



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TABLE R607.1 














MORTAR PROPORTIONS a ,b 






PROPORTIONS BY VOLUME (cementitious materials) 


MORTAR 


TYPE 


Portland cement or 
blended cement 


Mortar cement 


Masonry cement 


Hydrated lime c or 
lime putty 


Aggregate ratio (measured in 
damp, loose conditions) 


M 


S 


N 


M 


S 


N 




M 


1 














l U 




Cement-lime 


S 

N 



1 
1 
1 














over i/ 4 to i/ 2 
over i/ 2 to lV 4 
over l 1 / 4 to 2h 2 






M 


1 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 






M 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 






Mortar cement 


S 
S 

N 



ll 2 


- 


1 


1 

1 
1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Not less than 2V 4 and not 
more than 3 times the sum 

of separate volumes of 
lime, if used, and cement 




M 


1 












1 






M 










1 










Masonry 


S 


ll 2 












1 






cement 


S 

N 



- 








- 


1 


1 
1 







For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.0283 m 3 , 1 pound = 0.454 kg. 

a. For the purpose of these specifications, the weight of 1 cubic foot of the respective materials shall be considered to be as follows: 

Portland Cement 94 pounds Masonry Cement Weight printed on bag 

Mortar Cement Weight printed on bag Hydrated Lime 40 pounds 

Lime Putty (QUicklime) 80 pounds Sand, damp and loose 80 pounds of dry sand 

b. Two air-entraining materials shall not be combined in mortar. 



R607.2.1.1 Mortar joint thickness tolerance. Mortar 
joint thickness for load-bearing masonry shall be within 
the following tolerances from the specified dimensions: 

1. Bedjoint: + lis inch (3 mm). 

2. Headjoint: - i/^inch (7 mm), + 3/ 5 inch (10 mm) . 

3. Collarjoints: -7/ 4 inch (7 mm), + 3/ s inch (10 mm). 

R607.2.2 Masonry unit placement. The mortar shall be 
sufficiently plastic and units shall be placed with sufficient 
pressure to extrude mortar from thejoint and produce a tight 
joint. Deep furrowing of bed joints that produces voids shall 
not be permitted. Any units disturbed to the extent that ini- 
tial bond is broken after initial placement shall be removed 
and relaid in fresh mortar. Surfaces to be in contact with 
mortar shall be clean and free of deleterious materials. 

R607.2.2.1 Solid masonry. Solid masonry units shall be 
laid with full head and bed joints and all interior vertical 
joints that are designed to receive mortar shall be filled. 

R607.2.2.2 Hollow masonry. For hollow masonry units, 
head and bedjoints shall be filled solidly with mortar for 
a distance in from the face of the unit not less than the 
thickness of the face shell. 

R607.3 Installation of wall ties. The installation of wall ties 
shall be as follows: 

1. The ends of wall ties shall be embedded in mortarjoints. 
Wall tie ends shall engage outer face shells of hollow 
units by at least i/ 2 inch (13 mm). Wire wall ties shall be 
embedded at least V/ 2 inches (38 mm) into the mortar 
bed of solidmasonryunits or solid grouted hollow units. 



2. Wall ties shall not be bent after being embedded in grout 
or mortar. 



SECTION R608 
MULTIPLE WYTHE MASONRY 

R608.1 General. The facing and backing of multiple wythe 
masonry walls shall be bonded in accordance with Section 
R608.1.1, R608.1.2 or R608.1.3. In cavity walls, neither the 
facing nor the backing shall be less than 3 inches (76 mm) nom- 
inal in thickness and the cavity shall not be more than 4 inches 
(102 mm) nominal in width. The backing shall be at least as 
thick as the facing. 

Exception: Cavities shall be permitted to exceed the 4-inch 
(102 mm) nominal dimension provided tie size and tie spac- 
ing have been established by calculation. 

R608.1.1 Bonding with masonry headers. Bonding with 
solid or hollow masonry headers shall comply with Sections 
R608. 1.1.1 and R608. 1.1.2. 

R608. 1.1.1 Solid units. Where the facing and backing 
(adjacent wythes) of solid masonry construction are 
bonded by means of masonry headers, no less than 4 per- 
cent of the wall surface of each face shall be composed of 
headers extending not less than 3 inches (76 mm) into the 
backing. The distance between adjacent full-length 
headers shall not exceed 24 inches (610 mm) either verti- 
cally or horizontally. In walls in which a single header 
does not extend through the wall, headers from the oppo- 
site sides shall overlap at least 3 inches (76 mm) , or head- 
ers from opposite sides shall be covered with another 



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header course overlapping the header below at least 3 
inches (76 mm). 

R608. 1.1.2 Hollow units. Where two or more hollow 
units are used to make up the thickness of a wall, the 
stretcher courses shall be bonded at vertical intervals not 
exceeding 34 inches (864 mm) by lapping at least 3 
inches (76 mm) over the unit below, or by lapping at ver- 
tical intervals not exceeding 17 inches (432 mm) with 
units that are at least 50 percent thicker than the units 
below. 

R608.1.2 Bonding with wall ties or joint reinforcement. 
Bonding with wall ties or joint reinforcement shall comply 
with Sections R608. 1.2.1 through R608. 1.2.3. 

R608. 1.2.1 Bonding with wall ties. Bonding with wall 
ties, except as required by Section R61 0, where the facing 
and backing (adjacent wythes) of masonry walls are 
bonded with 3/ 16 -inch-diameter (5 mm) wall ties embed- 
ded in the horizontal mortar joints, there shall be at least 
one metal tie for each 4.5 square feet (0.418 m 2 ) of wall 
area. Ties in alternate courses shall be staggered. The 
maximum vertical distance between ties shall not exceed 
24 inches (610 mm), and the maximum horizontal dis- 
tance shall not exceed 36 inches (914 mm). Rods or ties 
bent to rectangular shape shall be used with hollow 
masonry units laid with the cells vertical. In other walls, 
the ends of ties shall be bent to 90-degree (0.79 rad) angles 
to provide hooks no less than 2 inches (51 mm) long. 
Additional bonding ties shall be provided at all openings, 
spaced not more than 3 feet (914 mm) apart around the 
perimeter and within 12 inches (305 mm) of the opening. 

R608. 1.2.2 Bonding with adjustable wall ties. Where 
the facing and backing (adjacent wythes) of masonry are 
bonded with adjustable wall ties, there shall be at least 
one tie for each 2.67 square feet (0.248 m 2 ) of wall area. 
Neither the vertical nor the horizontal spacing of the 
adjustable wall ties shall exceed 24 inches (610 mm). 
The maximum vertical offset of bed joints from one 
wythe to the other shall be 1.25 inches (32 mm). The 
maximum clearance between connecting parts of the ties 
shall be i/i6inch (2 mm). When pintle legs are used, ties 
shall have at least two 3/ 16 -inch-diameter (5 mm) legs. 

R608.1.2.3 Bonding with prefabricated joint rein- 
forcement. Where the facing and backing (adjacent 
wythes) of masonry are bonded with prefabricated joint 
reinforcement, there shall be at least one cross wire serv- 
ing as a tie for each 2.67 square feet (0.248 m 2 ) of wall 
area. The vertical spacing ofthejoint reinforcement shall 
not exceed 16 inches (406 mm). Cross wires on prefabri- 
catedjoint reinforcement shall not be smaller than No. 9 
gage. The longitudinal wires shall be embedded in the 
mortar. 

R608.1.3 Bonding with natural or cast stone. Bonding 
with natural and cast stone shall conform to Sections 
R608. 1.3.1 and R608. 1.3.2. 

R608. 1.3.1 Ashlar masonry. In ashlar masonry, bonder 
units, uniformly distributed, shall be provided to the 
extent of not less than 10 percent of the wall area. Such 



bonder units shall extend not less than 4 inches (102 mm) 
into the backing wall. 

R608.1.3.2 Rubble stone masonry. Rubble stone 
masonry 24 inches (610 mm) or less in thickness shall 
have bonder units with a maximum spacing of 3 feet (914 
mm) vertically and 3 feet (914 mm) horizontally, and if 
the masonry is of greater thickness than 24 inches (610 
mm), shall have one bonder unit for each 6 square feet 
(0.557 m 2 ) of wall surface on both sides. 

R608.2 Masonry bonding pattern. Masonry laid in running 
and stack bond shall conform to Sections R608.2.1 and 
R608.2.2. 

R608.2.1 Masonry laid in running bond. In each wythe of 
masonry laid in running bond, head joints in successive 
courses shall be offset by not less than one-fourth the unit 
length, or the masonry walls shall be reinforced longitudi- 
nally as required in Section R608.2.2. 

R608.2.2 Masonry laid in stack bond. Where unit 
masonry is laid with less head joint offset than in Section 
R607.2.1, the minimum area of horizontal reinforcement 
placed in mortar bed joints or in bond beams spaced not 
more than 48 inches (1219 mm) apart, shall be 0.0007 times 
the vertical cross-sectional area of the wall. 



SECTION R609 
GROUTED MASONRY 

R609.1 General. Grouted multiple- wythe masonry is a form 
of construction in which the space between the wythes is sol- 
idly filled with grout. It is not necessary for the cores of 
masonry units to be filled with grout. Grouted hollow unit 
masonry is a form of construction in which certain cells of hol- 
low units are continuously filled with grout. 

R609.1.1 Grout. Grout shall consist of cementitious mate- 
rial and aggregate in accordance with ASTM C 476 and the 
proportion specifications of Table R609.1.1. Type M or 
Type S mortar to which sufficient water has been added to 
produce pouring consistency can be used as grout. 

R609.1.2 Grouting requirements. Maximum pour heights 
and the minimum dimensions of spaces provided for grout 
placement shall conform to Table R609.1.2. If the work is 
stopped for one hour or longer, the horizontal construction 
joints shall be formed by stopping all tiers at the same eleva- 
tion and with the grout 1 inch (25 mm) below the top. 

R609.1.3 Grout space (cleaning). Provision shall be made 
for cleaning grout space. Mortar projections that project 
more than 0.5 inch (13 mm) into grout space and any other 
foreign matter shall be removed from grout space prior to 
inspection and grouting. 

R609.1.4 Grout placement. Grout shall be a plastic mix 
suitable for pumping without segregation of the constituents 
and shall be mixed thoroughly. Grout shall be placed by 
pumping or by an approved alternate method and shall be 
placed before any initial set occurs and in no case more than 
1V 2 hours after water has been added. Grouting shall be 
done in a continuous pour, in lifts not exceeding 5 feet (1524 
mm). It shall be consolidated by puddling or mechanical 



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271 



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vibrating during placing and reconsolidated after excess 
moisture has been absorbed but before plasticity is lost. 

R609. 1.4.1 Grout pumped through aluminum pipes. 
Grout shall not be pumped through aluminum pipes. 

R609.1.5 Cleanouts. Where required by the building offi- 
cial, cleanouts shall be provided as specified in this section. 
The cleanouts shall be sealed before grouting and after 
inspection. 

R609. 1.5.1 Grouted multiple-wythe masonry. 
Cleanouts shall be provided at the bottom course of the 
exterior wythe at each pour of grout where such pour 
exceeds 5 feet (1524 mm) in height. 

R609. 1.5.2 Grouted hollow unit masonry. Cleanouts 
shall be provided at the bottom course of each cell to be 
grouted at each pour of grout, where such pour exceeds 4 
feet (1219 mm) in height. 

R609.2 Grouted multiple-wythe masonry. Grouted multi- 
ple-wythe masonry shall conform to all the requirements speci- 
fied in Section R609.1 and the requirements of this section. 

R609.2.1 Bonding of backup wythe. Where all interior 
vertical spaces are filled with grout in multiple-wythe con- 
struction, masonry headers shall not be permitted. Metal 
wall ties shall be used in accordance with Section R608 . 1.2 
to prevent spreading of the wythes and to maintain the verti- 
cal alignment of the wall. Wall ties shall be installed in 



accordance with Section R608.1.2 when the backup wythe 
in multiple-wythe construction is fully grouted. 

R609.2.2 Grout spaces. Fine grout shall be used when inte- 
rior vertical space to receive grout does not exceed 2 inches 
(51 mm) in thickness. Interior vertical spaces exceeding 2 
inches (51 mm) in thickness shall use coarse or fine grout. 

R609.2.3 Grout barriers. Vertical grout barriers or dams 
shall be built of solid masonry across the grout space the 
entire height of the wall to control the flow of the grout hori- 
zontally. Grout barriers shall not be more than 25 feet (7620 
mm) apart. The grouting of any section of a wall between 
control barriers shall be completed in one day with no inter- 
ruptions greater than one hour. 

R609.3 Reinforced grouted multiple-wythe masonry. Rein- 
forced grouted multiple-wythe masonry shall conform to all 
the requirements specified in Sections R609 . 1 and R609 .2 and 
the requirements of this section. 

R609.3.1 Construction. The thickness of grout or mortar 
between masonry units and reinforcement shall not be less 
than i/ 4 inch (7 mm) , except that i/ 4 -inch (7 mm) bars may be 
laid in horizontal mortar joints at least 11 2 inch (13 mm) 
thick, and steel wire reinforcement may be laid in horizontal 
mortar joints at least twice the thickness of the wire diame- 
ter. 



TABLE R609.1.1 
GROUT PROPORTIONS BY VOLUME FOR MASONRY CONSTRUCTION 



TYPE 


PORTLAND CEMENT 

OR BLENDED CEMENT 

SLAG CEMENT 


HYDRATED LIME 
OR LIME PUTTY 


AGGREGATE MEASURED IN A DAMP, LOOSE CONDITION 


Fine 


Coarse 


Fine 


1 


ato i/io 


2V 4 to 3 times the sum of the volume 
of the cementitious materials 




Coarse 


1 


ato i/io 


2V4 to 3 times the sum of the volume 
of the cementitious materials 


1 to 2 times the sum of the volumes 
of the cementitious materials 



TABLE R609.1.2 
GROUT SPACE DIMENSIONS AND POUR HEIGHTS 



GROUT TYPE 


GROUT POUR MAXIMUM HEIGHT 
(feet) 


MINIMUM WIDTH OF 
GROUT SPACESa,b 

(inches) 


MINIMUM GROUTb,c SPACE DIMENSIONS FOR 

GROUTING CELLS OF HOLLOW UNITS 

(inches x inches) 


Fine 


1 


0.75 


1.5 x2 


5 


2 


2x3 


12 


2.5 


2.5x3 


24 


3 


3x3 


Coarse 


1 


1.5 


1.5 x3 


5 


2 


2.5 x3 


12 


2.5 


3x3 


24 


3 


3x4 



For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. For grouting between masonry wythes. 

b. Grout space dimension is the clear dimension between any masonry protrusion and shall be increased by the horizontal proj ection of the diameters of the horizontal 
bars within the cross section of the grout space. 

c. Area of vertical reinforcement shall not exceed 6 percent of the area of the grout space. 



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R609.4 Reinforced hollow unit masonry. Reinforced hollow 
unit masonry shall conform to all the requirements of Section 
R609.1 and the requirements of this section. 



R609.4.1 Construction. 

shall be as follows: 



Requirements for construction 



1. Reinforced hollow-unit masonry shall be built to pre- 
serve the unobstructed vertical continuity of the cells 
to be filled. Walls and cross webs forming cells to be 
filled shall be full-bedded in mortar to prevent leak- 
age of grout. Head and end joints shall be solidly 
filled with mortar for a distance in from the face of the 
wall or unit not less than the thickness of the longitu- 
dinal face shells. Bond shall be provided by lapping 
units in successive vertical courses. 

2. Cells to be filled shall have vertical alignment suffi- 
cient to maintain a clear, unobstructed continuous 
vertical cell of dimensions prescribed in Table 
R609.1.2. 

3 . Vertical reinforcement shall be held in position at top 
and bottom and at intervals not exceeding 200 diame- 
ters of the reinforcement. 

4. Cells containing reinforcement shall be filled solidly 
with grout. Grout shall be poured in lifts of 8- foot 
(2438 mm) maximum height. When a total grout pour 
exceeds 8 feet (2438 mm) in height, the grout shall be 
placed in lifts not exceeding 5 feet (1524 mm) and 
special inspection during grouting shall be required. 

5. Horizontal steel shall be fully embedded by grout in 
an uninterrupted pour. 



SECTION R610 
GLASS UNIT MASONRY 

R610.1 General. Panels of glass unit masonry located in 
load-bearing and nonload-bearing exterior and interior walls 
shall be constructed in accordance with this section. 

R610.2 Materials. Hollow glass units shall be partially evacu- 
ated and have a minimum average glass face thickness of 3/ 16 
inch (5 mm). The surface of units in contact with mortar shall 
be treated with a polyvinyl butyral coating or latex -based paint. 
The use of reclaimed units is prohibited. 

R610.3 Units. Hollow or solid glass block units shall be stan- 
dard or thin units. 

R610.3.1 Standard units. The specified thickness of stan- 
dard units shall be at least 3 7 / 8 inches (98 mm). 

R610.3.2 Thin units. The specified thickness of thin units 
shall be at least 3V 8 inches (79 mm) for hollow units and at 
least 3 inches (76 mm) for solid units. 

R610.4 Isolated panels. Isolated panels of glass unit masonry 
shall conform to the requirements of this section. 

R610.4.1 Exterior standard-unit panels. The maximum 
area of each individual standard-unit panel shall be 144 
square feet (13.4 m 2 ) when the design wind pressure is 20 
psf (958 Pa). The maximum area of such panels subjected to 
design wind pressures other than 20 psf (958 Pa) shall be in 
accordance with Figure R6 10.4.1. The maximum panel 
dimension between structural supports shall be 25 feet 
(7620 mm) in width or 20 feet (6096 mm) in height. 




1C0 ISO M 

MAXIMUM AREA OF R&NEJL I BOLJARE FEETi 



W, 



For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m 2 , 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 



FIGURE R610.4.1 
GLASS UNIT MASONRY DESIGN WIND LOAD RESISTANCE 



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R610.4.2 Exterior thin-unit panels. The maximum area of 
each individual thin-unit panel shall be 85 square feet (7.9 
m 2 ) . The maximum dimension between structural supports 
shall be 15 feet (4572 mm) in width or 10 feet (3048 mm) in 
height. Thin units shall not be used in applications where the 
design wind pressure as stated in Table R301.2(l) exceeds 
20 psf (958 Pa). 

R610.4.3 Interior panels. The maximum area of each indi- 
vidual standard-unit panel shall be 250 square feet (23.2 
m 2 ). The maximum area of each thin-unit panel shall be 150 
square feet (13.9 m 2 ). The maximum dimension between 
structural supports shall be 25 feet (7620 mm) in width or 20 
feet (6096 mm) in height. 

R610.4.4 Curved panels. The width of curved panels shall 
conform to the requirements of Sections R610.4.1, R610.4.2 
and R6 10.4.3, except additional structural supports shall be 
provided at locations where a curved section joins a straight 
section, and at inflection points in multicurved walls. 

R610.5 Panel support. Glass unit masonry panels shall con- 
form to the support requirements of this section. 

R610.5.1 Deflection. The maximum total deflection of 
structural members that support glass unit masonry shall not 
exceed i/ 600 , 

R610.5.2 Lateral support. Glass unit masonry panels shall be 
laterally supported along the top and sides of the panel. Lateral 
supports for glass unit masonry panels shall be designed to 
resist a minimum of 200 pounds per lineal feet (2918 N/m) of 
panel, or the actual applied loads, whichever is greater. Except 
for single unit panels, lateral support shall be provided by panel 
anchors along the top and sides spaced a maximum of 16 
inches (406 mm) on center or by channel-type restraints. Sin- 
gle unit panels shall be supported by channel-type restraints. 

Exceptions: 

1. Lateral support is not required at the top of panels 
that are one unit wide. 

2. Lateral support is not required at the sides of pan- 
els that are one unit high. 

R610.5.2.1 Panel anchor restraints. Panel anchors 
shall be spaced a maximum of 16 inches (406 mm) on 
center in both jambs and across the head. Panel anchors 
shall be embedded a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) 
and shall be provided with two fasteners so as to resist the 
loads specified in Section R610.5.2. 

R610.5.2.2 Channel-type restraints. Glass unit 
masonry panels shall be recessed at least 1 inch (25 mm) 
within channels and chases. Channel-type restraints 
shall be oversized to accommodate expansion material in 
the opening, packing and sealant between the framing 
restraints, and the glass unit masonry perimeter units. 

R610.6 Sills. Before bedding of glass units, the sill area shall 
be covered with a water base asphaltic emulsion coating. The 
coating shall be a minimum of i/ 8 inch (3 mm) thick. 

R610.7 Expansionjoints. Glass unit masonry panels shall be 
provided with expansionjoints along the top and sides at all 
structural supports. Expansionjoints shall be a minimum of 3/ 8 



inch (10 mm) in thickness and shall have sufficient thickness to 
accommodate displacements of the supporting structure. 
Expansionjoints shall be entirely free of mortar and other 
debris and shall be filled with resilient material. 

R610.8 Mortar. Glass unit masonry shall be laid with Type S or 
N mortar. Mortar shall not be retempered after initial set. Mortar 
unused within 1V 2 hours after initial mixing shall be discarded. 

R610.9 Reinforcement. Glass unit masonry panels shall have 
horizontaljoint reinforcement spaced a maximum of 16 inches 
(406 mm) on center located in the mortar bedj oint. Horizontal 
joint reinforcement shall extend the entire length of the panel 
but shall not extend across expansion joints. Longitudinal 
wires shall be lapped a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) at 
splices. Joint reinforcement shall be placed in the bed joint 
immediately below and above openings in the panel. The rein- 
forcement shall have not less than two parallel longitudinal 
wires of size WI.7 or greater, and have welded cross wires of 
size WI. 7 or greater. 

R610.10 Placement. Glass units shall be placed so head and 
bedjoints are filled solidly. Mortar shall not be furrowed. Head 
and bedjoints of glass unit masonry shall be i/ 4 inch (6.4 mm) 
thick, except that verticaljoint thickness of radial panels shall 
not be less than i/ 8 inch (3 mm) or greater than 5/ 8 inch (16 mm). 
The bedj oint thickness tolerance shall be minus i/i6 inch (1.6 
mm) and plus i/ 8 inch (3 mm). The head joint thickness toler- 
ance shall be plus or minus i/ 8 inch (3 mm). 



SECTION R611 
EXTERIOR CONCRETE 
WALL CONSTRUCTION 

R61 1 . 1 General. Exterior concrete walls shall be designed and 
constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section or 
in accordance with the provisions of PCA 100 or ACI 318. 
When PCA 100, ACI 318 or the provisions of this section are 
used to design concrete walls, project drawings, typical details 
and specifications are not required to bear the seal of the archi- 
tect or engineer responsible for design, unless otherwise 
required by the state law of the jurisdiction having authority. 

R61 1.1.1 Interior construction. These provisions are 
based on the assumption that interior walls and partitions, 
both load-bearing and nonload-bearing, floors and 
roof/ceiling assemblies are constructed of light -framed con- 
struction complying with the limitations of this code and the 
additional limitations of Section R611.2. Design and con- 
struction of light- framed assemblies shall be in accordance 
with the applicable provisions of this code. Where sec- 
ond-story exterior walls are of light- framed construction, 
they shall be designed and constructed as required by this 
code. 

Aspects of concrete construction not specifically 
addressed by this code, including interior concrete walls, 
shall comply with ACI 318. 

R61 1.1.2 Other concrete walls. Exterior concrete walls 
constructed in accordance with this code shall comply with 
the shapes and minimum concrete cross-sectional dimen- 
sions of Table R611.3. Other types of forming systems 



274 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



resulting in concrete walls not in compliance with this sec- 
tion shall be designed in accordance with ACI 318. 

R611.2 Applicability limits. The provisions of this section 
shall apply to the construction of exterior concrete walls for 
buildings not greater than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in plan dimen- 
sions, floors with clear spans not greater than 32 feet (9754 
mm) and roofs with clear spans not greater than 40 feet (12 192 
mm) . Buildings shall not exceed 35 feet (10 668 mm) in mean 
roof height or two stories in height above-grade. Floor/ceiling 
dead loads shall not exceed 10 pounds per square foot (479 Pa), 
roof/ceiling dead loads shall not exceed 15 pounds per square 
foot (718 Pa) and atticlive loads shall not exceed 20 pounds per 
square foot (958 Pa). Roof overhangs shall not exceed 2 feet 
(610 mm) of horizontal proj ection beyond the exterior wall and 
the dead load of the overhangs shall not exceed 8 pounds per 
square foot (383 Pa). 

Walls constructed in accordance with the provisions of this 
section shall be limited to buildings subjected to a maximum 
design wind speed of 130 miles per hour (58 m/s) Exposure B, 
110 miles per hour (49 m/s) Exposure C and 100 miles per hour 
(45 m/s) Exposure D. Walls constructed in accordance with the 
provisions of this section shall be limited to detached one- and 
two-family dwellings and townhouses assigned to Seismic 
Design Category A or B, and detached one- and two-family 
dwellings assigned to Seismic Design Category C. 

Buildings that are not within the scope of this section shall be 
designed in accordance with PC A 100 or ACI 318. 



R611.3 Concrete wall systems. Concrete walls constructed in 
accordance with these provisions shall comply with the shapes 
and minimum concrete cross-sectional dimensions of Table 
R611.3. 

R61 1.3.1 Flat wall systems. Flat concrete wall systems 
shall comply with Table R611.3 and Figure R61 1.3(1) and 
have a minimum nominal thickness of 4 inches (102 mm) . 

R61 1.3.2 Waffle-grid wall systems. Waffle-grid wall sys- 
tems shall comply with Table R61 1 .3 and Figure R61 1 .3(2) . 
and shall have a minimum nominal thickness of 6 inches 
(152 mm) for the horizontal and vertical concrete members 
(cores). The core and web dimensions shall comply with 
Table R611. 3. The maximum weight of waffle-grid walls 
shall comply with Table R611 .3. 

R61 1.3.3 Screen-grid wall systems. Screen-grid wall sys- 
tems shall comply with Table R611.3 and Figure R6 11.3(3) 
and shall have a minimum nominal thickness of 6 inches 
(152 mm) for the horizontal and vertical concrete members 
(cores). The core dimensions shall comply with Table 
R611.3. The maximum weight of screen-grid walls shall 
comply with Table R611.3. 

R611.4 Stay-in-place forms. Stay-in-place concrete forms 
shall comply with this section. 

R61 1.4.1 Surface burning characteristics. The flame 
spread index and smoke-developed index of forming mate- 
rial, other than foam plastic, left exposed on the interior 
shall comply with Section R302.9. The surface burning 







TABLE R611.3 
DIMENSIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR WALLSa,b 






WALL TYPE 

AND NOMINAL 

THICKNESS 


MAXIMUM 
WALL WEIGHT 

(pst) 


MINIMUM 

WIDTH, W,OF 

VERTICAL CORES 

(inches) 


MINIMUM 
THICKNESS, T, OF 
VERTICAL CORES 

(inches) 


MAXIMUM 

SPACING OF 

VERTICAL CORES 

(inches) 


MAXIMUM 

SPACING OF 

HORIZONTAL CORES 

(inches) 


MINIMUM WEB 

THICKNESS 

(inches) 


4" Flat d 


50 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


6" Flat d 


75 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


g" Flat d 


100 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


10" Flat d 


125 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


6" Waffle-grid 


56 


ge 


5.5 e 


12 


16 


2 


g" Waffle-grid 


76 


gf 


gf 


12 


16 


2 


6" Screen-grid 


53 


6.25§ 


6.25s 


12 


12 


N/A 



For 51 : 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 1 pound per cubic foot = 2402.77 kg/m 3 , 1 square inch = 645.16 mm z . 

a. Width "W," thickness "T," spacing and web thickness, refer to Figures R61 1.3(2) and R611.3(3). 

b. A//A indicates not applicable. 

c. Wall weight is based on a unit weight of concrete of 150 pcf. For flat walls the weight is based on the nominal thickness. The tabulated values do not include any 
allowance for interior and exterior finishes . 

d. Nominal wall thickness . The actual as-built thickness of a flat wall shall not be more than liz-inch less or more than 1/4-inch more than the nominal dimension indi- 
cated. 

e. Vertical core is assumed to be elliptical-shaped. Another shape core is permitted provided the minimum thickness is 5 inches, the moment of inertia, 1, about the 
centerline of the wall (ignoring the web) is not less than 65 in , and the area, A, is not less than 31.25 in z . The width used to calculate A and /shall not exceed 8 
inches. 

f. Vertical core is assumed to be circular. Another shape core is permitted provided the minimum thickness is 7 inches, the moment of inertia, 1, about the centerline of 
the wall (ignoring the web) is not less than 200 in , and the area, A, is not less than 49 in z . The width used to calculate A and /shall not exceed 8 inches. 

g. Vertical core is assumed to be circular. Another shape core is permitted provided the minimum thickness is 5.5 inches, the moment of inertia, 1, about the centerline 
of the wall is not less than 76 in , and the area, A, is not less than 30.25 in z . The width used to calculate A and /shall not exceed 6.25 inches. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



275 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 




CONCRETE WALL 
THICKNESS 



FORM 

STAY-IN-PLACE 
OR REMOVABLE 



FORM- 
STAY-IN-PLACE 
OR REMOVABLE 






VERTICAL WALL 
REINFORCEMENT 
AS REQUIRED 



PLAN VIEW 
SEE TABLE R611 .3 FOR MINIMUM DIMENSIONS 

FIGURE R61 1.3(1) 
FLAT WALL SYSTEM 



2 iNL {51 mm) MINIMUM CONCRETE WEB THICKNESS 




VERTICAL WALL 
— - REINFORCEMENT 
AS REQUIRED 



HORIZONTAL CONCRETE 
- CORE (HIDDEN) AT 
MAXIMUM, 12 IN. 
ON CENTER 

VERTICAL 
CONCRETE CORE 




FORM- 
STAY-IN-PLACE 
OR REMOVABLE 



HORIZONTAL CONCRETE CORE 
(HIDDEN) AT MAXIMUM, 
16 IN. ON CENTER 



VERTICAL CONCRETE CORE 



VERTICAL WALL 
REINFORCEMENT 
AS REQUIRED 



THICKNESS 
MINIMUM 



PLAN VIEW 



SEE TABLE R611.3 FOR MINIMUM DIMENSIONS 
For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

FIGURE R61 1.3(2) 
WAFFLE-GRID WALL SYSTEM 

characteristics of foam plastic used in insulating concrete 
forms shall comply with Section R316.3. 

R6 11.4.2 Interior covering. Stay-in-place forms con- 
structed of rigid foam plastic shall be protected on the inte- 
rior of the building as required by Sections R316.4 and 
R702.3.4. Where gypsum board is used to protect the foam 
plastic, it shall be installed with a mechanical fastening sys- 
tem. Use of adhesives is permitted in addition to mechanical 
fasteners . 

R61 1.4.3 Exterior wall covering. Stay-in-place forms con- 
structed of rigid foam plastics shall be protected from sun- 
light and physical damage by the application of an approved 
exterior wall covering complying with this code. Exterior 



THICKNESS 
MINIMUM 
PLAN VIEW 
SEE TABLE R611 .3 FOR MINIMUM DIMENSIONS. 

For 51 : 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

FIGURE R61 1.3(3) 
SCREEN-GRID WALL SYSTEM 

surfaces of other stay-in-place forming systems shall be 
protected in accordance with this code. 

Requirements for installation of masonry veneer, stucco 
and other finishes on the exterior of concrete walls and other 
construction details not covered in this section shall comply 
with the requirements of this code. 

R611.5 Materials. Materials used in the construction of con- 
crete walls shall comply with this section. 

R6 11.5.1 Concrete and materials for concrete. Materials 
used in concrete, and the concrete itself, shall conform to 
requirements of this section, or ACI 318. 

R61 1.5.1.1 Concrete mixing and delivery. Mixing and 
delivery of concrete shall comply with ASTM C 94 or 
ASTM C 685. 

R611.5.1.2 Maximum aggregate size. The nominal 
maximum size of coarse aggregate shall not exceed 
one-fifth the narrowest distance between sides of forms, 
or three-fourths the clear spacing between reinforcing 
bars or between a bar and the side of the form. 

Exception: When approved, these limitations shall 
not apply where removable forms are used and 
workability and methods of consolidation permit con- 
crete to be placed without honeycombs or voids. 

R611.5.1.3 Proportioning and slump of concrete. Pro- 
portions of materials for concrete shall be established to 
provide workability and consistency to permit concrete 
to be worked readily into forms and around reinforce- 
ment under conditions of placement to be employed, 
without segregation or excessive bleeding. Slump of 
concrete placed in removable forms shall not exceed 6 
inches (152 mm). 

Exception: When approved, the slump is permitted to 
exceed 6 inches (152 mm) for concrete mixtures that 



276 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



are resistant to segregation, and are in accordance 
with the form manufacturer's recommendations. 

Slump of concrete placed in stay-in-place forms shall 
exceed 6 inches (152 mm). Slump of concrete shall be 
determined in accordance with ASTM C 143. 

R611.5.1.4 Compressive strength. The minimum spec- 
ified compressive strength of concrete, /c shall comply 
with Section R402.2 and shall be not less than 2,500 
pounds per square inch (17.2 MPa) at 28 days. 

R611.5.1.5 Consolidation of concrete. Concrete shall 
be consolidated by suitable means during placement and 
shall be worked around embedded items and reinforce- 
ment and into corners of forms. Where stay-in-place 
forms are used, concrete shall be consolidated by inter- 
nal vibration. 

Exception: When approved, self-consolidating con- 
crete mixtures with slumps equal to or greater than 8 
inches (203 mm) that are specifically designed for 
placement without internal vibration need not be 
internally vibrated. 

R61 1.5.2 Steel reinforcement and anchor bolts. 

R61 1.5.2.1 Steel reinforcement. Steel reinforcement 
shall comply with ASTM A 615, A 706, or A 996 . ASTM 
A 996 bars produced from rail steel shall be Type R. 

R61 1.5.2.2 Anchor bolts. Anchor bolts for use with 
connection details in accordance with Figures R61 1.9(1) 
through R61 1.9(12) shall be bolts with heads complying 
with ASTM A 307 or ASTM F 1554. ASTM A 307 bolts 
shall be Grade A (Le., with heads). ASTM F 1554 bolts 
shall be Grade 36 minimum. Instead of bolts with heads, 
it is permissible to use rods with threads on both ends 
fabricated from steel complying with ASTM A 36. The 
threaded end of the rod to be embedded in the concrete 
shall be provided with a hex or square nut. 

R61 1.5.2.3 Sheet steel angles and tension tie straps. 
Angles and tension tie straps for use with connection 
details in accordance with Figures R6 11.9(1) through 
R61 1.9(12) shall be fabricated from sheet steel comply- 
ing with ASTM A 653 SS, ASTM A 792 SS, or ASTM A 
875 SS. The steel shall be minimum Grade 33 unless a 
higher grade is required by the applicable figure. 

R61 1.5.3 Form materials and form ties. Forms shall be 
made of wood, steel, aluminum, plastic, a composite of 
cement and foam insulation, a composite of cement and 
wood chips, or other approvedmaterml suitable for support- 
ing and containing concrete. Forms shall provide sufficient 
strength to contain concrete during the concrete placement 
operation. 

Form ties shall be steel, solid plastic, foam plastic, a com- 
posite of cement and wood chips, a composite of cement and 
foam plastic, or other suitable material capable of resisting 
the forces created by fluid pressure of fresh concrete. 

R61 1.5.4 Reinforcement installation details. 

R61 1.5.4.1 Support and cover. Reinforcement shall be 
secured in the proper location in the forms with tie wire 



or other bar support system such that displacement will 
not occur during the concrete placement operation. Steel 
reinforcement in concrete cast against the earth shall 
have a minimum cover of 3 inches (76 mm). Minimum 
cover for reinforcement in concrete cast in removable 
forms that will be exposed to the earth or weather shall be 
\ l i 2 inches (38 mm) for No. 5 bars and smaller, and 2 
inches (50 mm) for No . 6 bars and larger. For concrete 
cast in removable forms that will not be exposed to the 
earth or weather, and for concrete cast in stay-in-place 
forms, minimum cover shall be 3/ 4 inch (19 mm). The 
minus tolerance for cover shall not exceed the smaller of 
one- third the required cover and 3/ 8 inch (10 mm). See 
Section R61 1.5.4.4 for cover requirements for hooks of 
bars developed in tension. 

R61 1.5.4.2 Location of reinforcement in walls. For 
location of reinforcement in foundation walls and 
above-grade walls, see Sections R404. 1.2.3.7.2 and 
R6 11.6.5, respectively. 

R61 1.5.4.3 Lap splices. Vertical and horizontal wall 
reinforcement required by Sections R611.6 and R611.7 
shall be the longest lengths practical. Where splices are 
necessary in reinforcement, the length of lap splices shall 
be in accordance with Table R611.5.4(l) and Figure 
R6 11.5.4 (1). The maximum gap between noncontact 
parallel bars at a lap splice shall not exceed the smaller of 
one- fifth the required lap length and 6 inches (152 mm) . 
See Figure R61 1.5.4(1). 

R611.5.4.4 Development of bars in tension. Where 
bars are required to be developed in tension by other pro- 
visions of this code, development lengths and cover for 
hooks and bar extensions shall comply with Table 
R61 1.5.4(1) and Figure R61 1.5.4 (2). The development 
lengths shown in Table R61 1.5.4(1) also apply to bun- 
dled bars in lintels installed in accordance with Section 
R61 1.8.2.2. 

R61 1.5.4.5 Standard hooks. Where reinforcement is 
required by this code to terminate with a standard hook, 
the hook shall comply with Figure R61 1.5.4(3). 

R61 1.5.4.6 Webs ofwaffie-grid walls. Reinforcement, 
including stirrups, shall not be placed in webs of waf- 
fle-grid walls, including lintels. Webs are permitted to 
have form ties . 

R61 1.5.4.7 Alternate grade of reinforcement and 
spacing. Where tables in Sections R404.1.2 and R611.6 
specify vertical wall reinforcement based on minimum 
bar size and maximum spacing, which are based on 
Grade 60 (420 MPa) steel reinforcement, different size 
bars and/or bars made from a different grade of steel are 
permitted provided an equivalent area of steel per linear 
foot of wall is provided. Use of Table R61 1.5 .4(2) is per- 
mitted to determine the maximum bar spacing for differ- 
ent bar sizes than specified in the tables and/or bars made 
from a different grade of steel. Bars shall not be spaced 
less than one-half the wall thickness, or more than 48 
inches (1219 mm) on center. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



277 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R61 1.5.5 Constructionjoints in walls. Constructionjoints 
shall be made and located to not impair the strength of the 
wall. Constructionjoints in plain concrete walls, including 
walls required to have not less than No. 4 bars at 48 inches 
(1219 mm) on center by Section R611.6, shall be located at 
points of lateral support, and a minimum of one No. 4 bar 
shall extend across the constructionj oint at a spacing not to 
exceed 24 inches (610 mm) on center. Construction joint 
reinforcement shall have a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) 
embedment on both sides of the joint. Constructionjoints in 
reinforced concrete walls shall be located in the middle third 
of the span between lateral supports, or located and con- 
structed as required for joints in plain concrete walls. 



Exception: Vertical wall reinforcement required by this 
code is permitted to be used in lieu of constructionj oint 
reinforcement, provided the spacing does not exceed 24 
inches (610 mm), or the combination of wall reinforce- 
ment and No. 4 bars described above does not exceed 24 
inches (610 mm) . 

R611.6 Above-grade wall requirements. 

R6 11.6.1 General. The minimum thickness of load-bear- 
ing and nonload-bearing above-grade walls and reinforce- 
ment shall be as set forth in the appropriate table in this 
section based on the type of wall form to be used. Where the 
wall or building is not within the limitations of Section 



TABLE R61 1.5.4(1) 
LAP SPLICE AND TENSION DEVELOPMENT LENGTHS 





BAR SIZE 
NO. 


YIELD STRENGTH OF STEEL, ^ - psi (MPa) 


40,000 (280) 


60,000 (420) 


Splice length ortension development length 
(inches) 


Lap splice length-tension 


4 


20 


30 


5 


25 


38 


6 


30 


45 


Tension development length for straight bar 


4 


15 


23 


5 


19 


28 


6 


23 


34 


Tension development length for: 

a. 90-degree and 180-degree standard hooks with not less than 2 l / 2 inches of side 
cover perpendicular to plane of hook, and 

b. 90-degree standard hooks with not less than 2 inches of cover on the bar exten- 
sion beyond the hook. 


4 


6 


9 


5 


7 


11 


6 


8 


13 


Tension development length for bar with 90-degree or 180-degree standard hook 
having less cover than required above. 


4 


8 


12 


5 


10 


15 


6 


12 


18 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 degree = 0.0175 rad. 







CONCRETE 



REINFORCEMENT 
AS REQUIRED 



GAP SHALL NOT EXCEED 
THE SMALLER OF 75 
LAP LENGTH AND 6 IN. 



REINFORCEMENT 
AS REQUIRED 



LAP SPLICE LENGTH - 
SEE TABLE R611 .5.4(1) 

NOTE: BARS ARE PERMITTED 
TO BE IN CONTACT WITH 
EACH OTHER 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R611.5.4(1) 
LAP SPLICES 



278 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R61 1.2, design is required by the tables in this section, or the 
wall is not within the scope of the tables in this section, the 
wall shall be designed in accordance with ACI 318. 

Above-grade concrete walls shall be constructed in 
accordance with this section and Figure R61 1.6(1), 
R61 1.6(2), R611.6(3), or R61 1.6(4). Above-grade concrete 
walls that are continuous with stem walls and not laterally 
supported by the slab-on-ground shall be designed and con- 
structed in accordance with this section. Concrete walls 



shall be supported on continuous foundation walls or 
slabs-on-ground that are monolithic with the footing in 
accordance with Section R403. The minimum length of 
solid wall without openings shall be in accordance with Sec- 
tion R611.7. Reinforcement around openings, including 
lintels, shall be in accordance with Section R611.8. Lateral 
support for above-grade walls in the out-of-plane direction 
shall be provided by connections to the floor framing sys- 
tem, if applicable, and to ceiling and roof framing systems 




M p -a p -.. I 

I — :--- - - . . T — -T "9- i 



COVER ON BAR 
EXTENSION FOR 90° HOOK 



^ J J>* ^* 



SIDE COVER 
FOR 90° 
AND 180° 
HOOK 



SECTION A-A 



For SI: 1 degree =0.0175 rad. 



FIGURE R61 1.5.4(2) 
DEVELOPMENT LENGTH AND COVER FOR HOOKS AND BAR EXTENSION 



90° HOOK 



&T^ 




180° HOOK^^j 



272 IN., BUT NOT 
LESS THAN 4 db EXTENSION 

HOOKS FOR REINFORCEMENT IN 
WALLS AND FOUNDATIONS 



90° HOOK % 



J 



4d b BEND _, 
DIAMETER 



•A 



\ 



, 



12 db 
EXTENSION 



135° HOOK fe 




«&*» 



HOOKS FOR STIRRUPS IN LINTELS 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 degree = 0.0175 rad. 



FIGURE R61 1.5.4(3) 
STANDARD HOOKS 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



279 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 





TABLE R61 1.5.4(2) 
MAXIMUM SPACING FOR ALTERNATE BAR SIZE AND/OR ALTERNATE GRADE OF STEELa,b,c 






BAR SPACING FROM 
APPLICABLE TABLE 
IN SECTION R611.6 

(inches) 


BAR SIZE FROM APPLICABLE TABLE IN SECTION R611.6 






#4 




#5 


#6 






Alternate bar size and/or alternate qrade of steel desired 


Grade 60 


Grade 40 


Grade 60 


Grade 40 


Grade 60 


Grade 40 


#5 


#6 


#4 


#5 


#6 


#4 #6 


#4 #5 #6 


#4 #5 


#4 


#5 


#6 


Maximum spacinq for alternate bar size and/or alternate qrade of steel (inches 




8 


12 


18 


5 


8 


12 


5 


11 


3 


5 


8 


4 


6 


2 


4 


5 


9 


14 


20 


6 


9 


13 


6 


13 


4 


6 


9 


4 


6 


3 


4 


6 


10 


16 


22 


7 


10 


15 


6 


14 


4 


7 


9 


5 


7 


3 


5 


7 


11 


17 


24 


7 


11 


16 


7 


16 


5 


7 


10 


5 


8 


3 


5 


7 


12 


19 


26 


8 


12 


18 


8 


17 


5 


8 


11 


5 


8 


4 


6 


8 


13 


20 


29 


9 


13 


19 


8 


18 


6 


9 


12 


6 


9 


4 


6 


9 


14 


22 


31 


9 


14 


21 


9 


20 


6 


9 


13 


6 


10 


4 


7 


9 


15 


23 


33 


10 


16 


22 


10 


21 


6 


10 


14 


7 


11 


5 


7 


10 


16 


25 


35 


11 


17 


23 


10 


23 


7 


11 


15 


7 


11 


5 


8 


11 


17 


26 


37 


11 


18 


25 


11 


24 


7 


11 


16 


8 


12 


5 


8 


11 


18 


28 


40 


12 


19 


26 


12 


26 


8 


12 


17 


8 


13 


5 


8 


12 


19 


29 


42 


13 


20 


28 


12 


27 


8 


13 


18 


9 


13 


6 


9 


13 


20 


31 


44 


13 


21 


29 


13 


28 


9 


13 


19 


9 


14 


6 


9 


13 


21 


33 


46 


14 


22 


31 


14 


30 


9 


14 


20 


10 


15 


6 


10 


14 


22 


34 


48 


15 


23 


32 


14 


31 


9 


15 


21 


10 


16 


7 


10 


15 


23 


36 


48 


15 


24 


34 


15 


33 


10 


15 


22 


10 


16 


7 


11 


15 


24 


37 


48 


16 


25 


35 


15 


34 


10 


16 


23 


11 


17 


7 


11 


16 


25 


39 


48 


17 


26 


37 


16 


35 


11 


17 


24 


11 


18 


8 


12 


17 


26 


40 


48 


17 


27 


38 


17 


37 


11 


17 


25 


12 


18 


8 


12 


17 


27 


42 


48 


18 


28 


40 


17 


38 


12 


18 


26 


12 


19 


8 


13 


18 


28 


43 


48 


19 


29 


41 


18 


40 


12 


19 


26 


13 


20 


8 


13 


19 


29 


45 


48 


19 


30 


43 


19 


41 


12 


19 


27 


13 


20 


9 


14 


19 


30 


47 


48 


20 


31 


44 


19 


43 


13 


20 


28 


14 


21 


9 


14 


20 


31 


48 


48 


21 


32 


45 


20 


44 


13 


21 


29 


14 


22 


9 


15 


21 


32 


48 


48 


21 


33 


47 


21 


45 


14 


21 


30 


15 


23 


10 


15 


21 


33 


48 


48 


22 


34 


48 


21 


47 


14 


22 


31 


15 


23 


10 


16 


22 


34 


48 


48 


23 


35 


48 


22 


48 


15 


23 


32 


15 


24 


10 


16 


23 


35 


48 


48 


23 


36 


48 


23 


48 


15 


23 


33 


16 


25 


11 


16 


23 


36 


48 


48 


24 


37 


48 


23 


48 


15 


24 


34 


16 


25 


11 


17 


24 


37 


48 


48 


25 


38 


48 


24 


48 


16 


25 


35 


17 


26 


11 


17 


25 


38 


48 


48 


25 


39 


48 


25 


48 


16 


25 


36 


17 


27 


12 


18 


25 


39 


48 


48 


26 


40 


48 


25 


48 


17 


26 


37 


18 


27 


12 


18 


26 


40 


48 


48 


27 


41 


48 


26 


48 


17 


27 


38 


18 


28 


12 


19 


27 


41 


48 


48 


27 


42 


48 


26 


48 


18 


27 


39 


19 


29 


12 


19 


27 


42 


48 


48 


28 


43 


48 


27 


48 


18 


28 


40 


19 


30 


13 


20 


28 


43 


48 


48 


29 


44 


48 


28 


48 


18 


29 


41 


20 


30 


13 


20 


29 


44 


48 


48 


29 


45 


48 


28 


48 


19 


29 


42 


20 


31 


13 


21 


29 


45 


48 


48 


30 


47 


48 


29 


48 


19 


30 


43 


20 


32 


14 


21 


30 


46 


48 


48 


31 


48 


48 


30 


48 


20 


31 


44 


21 


32 


14 


22 


31 


47 


48 


48 


31 


48 


48 


30 


48 


20 


31 


44 


21 


33 


14 


22 


31 


48 


48 


48 


32 


48 


48 


31 


48 


21 


32 


45 


22 


34 


15 


23 


32 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. This table is for use with tables in Section R61 1 .6 that specify the minimum bar size and maximum spacing of vertical wall reinforcement for foundation walls and 
above-grade walls. Reinforcement specified in tables in Section R611.6 is based on Grade 60 (420 MPa) steel reinforcement. 

b. Bar spacing shall not exceed 48 inches on center and shall not be less than one-half the nominal wall thickness. 

c. For Grade 50 (350 MPa) steel bars (ASTM A 996, Type R), use spacing for Grade 40 (280 MPa) bars or interpolate between Grade 40 (280 MPa) and Grade 60 (420 
MPa) . 



280 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



in accordance with Section R61 1 . 9. The wall thickness shall 
be equal to or greater than the thickness of the wall in the 
s Wry above. 

R61 1.6.2 Wall reinforcement for wind. Vertical wall rein- 
forcement for resistance to out-of-plane wind forces shall 
be determined from Table R61 1.6(1), R61 1.6(2), R61 1.6(3) 
or R61 1.6(4). Also, see Sections R61 1.7.2.2.2 and 
R61 1.7.2.2.3. There shall be a vertical bar at all corners of 
exterior walls. Unless more horizontal reinforcement is 
required by Section R61 1.7.2.2.1, the minimum horizontal 
reinforcement shall be four No. 4 bars [Grade 40 (280 
MPa)] placed as follows: top bar within 12 inches (305 mm) 
of the top of the wall, bottom bar within 12 inches (305 mm) 
of the finish floor, and one bar each at approximately 
one-third and two-thirds of the wall height. 

R6 11.6.3 Continuity of wall reinforcement between sto- 
ries. Vertical reinforcement required by this section shall be 
continuous between elements providing lateral support for 
the wall. Reinforcement in the wall of the storyabove shall be 
continuous with the reinforcement in the wall of the story 
below, or the foundation wall, if applicable. Lap splices, 
where required, shall comply with Section R61 1.5.4.3 and 
Figure R61 1.5.4(1). Where the above-grade wall is sup- 
ported by a monolithic slab-on-ground and footing, dowel 
bars with a size and spacing to match the vertical above-grade 



SEE SECTION 
R611 .9.3 



WALL-STAY-IN-PLACE 
OR REMOVABLE FORM 



HORIZONTAL WALL 
REINFORCEMENT 
AS REQUIRED 



SEE SECTION R611. 9.2 



VERTICAL WALL 
REINFORCEMENT 
AS REQUIRED 




LIGHT-FRAMED ROOF 



LIGHT-FRAMED FLOOR 
(OR CONCRETE 
SLAB-ON-GROUND) 



FIRST-STORY 
UNSUPPORTED 
WALL HEIGHT 
10 FT MAXIMUM 



BASEMENT, CRAWLSPACE 
OR STEM WALL. fOR SLAB-ON- 
GROUND FOOTING, SEE FIGURE R611.6(4) 



concrete wall reinforcement shall be embedded in the mono- 
lithic slab-on-ground and footing the distance required to 
develop the dowel bar in tension in accordance with Section 
R61 1.5.4.4 and Figure R61 1.5.4(2) and lap-spliced with the 
above-grade wall reinforcement in accordance with Section 
R61 1.5.4.3 and Figure R61 1.5.4(1). 

Exception: Where reinforcement in the wall above can- 
not be made continuous with the reinforcement in the 
wall below, the bottom of the reinforcement in the wall 
above shall be terminated in accordance with one of the 
following: 

1. Extend below the top of the floor the distance 
required to develop the bar in tension in accordance 
with Section R61 1.5.4.4 and Figure R61 1.5.4(2). 

2. Lap-spliced in accordance with Section R6 11.5.4.3 
and Figure R6 11.5.4(1) with a dowel bar that 
extends into the wall below the distance required to 
develop the bar in tension in accordance with Sec- 
tion R61 1.5.4.4 and Figure R61 1.5.4(2). 



LIGHT-FRAMED ROOF 



LIGHT-FRAMED WALL 
SYSTEM 



SEE SECTION R61 1.9.2 



WALL— STAY-IN-PLACE 
OR REMOVABLE FORM 



SEE SECTION R61 1.9.2 



VERTICAL WALL 
REINFORCEMENT 
AS REQUIRED 




LIGHT-FRAMED FLOOR 



FIRST-STORY 
UNSUPPORTED 
WALL HEIGHT 
1 OFT MAXIMUM 



BASEMENT, CRAWLSPACE, 
OR STEM WALL. FOR SLAB-ON- 
GROUND FOOTING, SEE R61 1.6(4) 



SECTION CUT THROUGH FLAT WALL OR VERTICAL 
CORE OF AWAFFLE-OR SCREEN-GRID WALL 



SECTION CUT THROUGH FLAT WALL OR VERTICAL 
CORE OF AWAFFLE-OR SCREEN-GRID WALL 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

FIGURE R611.6(1) 
ABOVE-GRADE CONCRETE WALL CONSTRUCTION ONE 



FIGURE R61 1.6(2) 

ABOVE-GRADE CONCRETE WALL CONSTRUCTION 

CONCRETE FIRST-STORY AND 

LIGHT-FRAMED SECOND-STORY 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



281 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



Where a constructionjointin the wall is located below the 
level of the floor and less than the distance required to 
develop the bar in tension, the distance required to develop 
the bar in tension shall be measured from the top of the con- 
crete below the joint. See Section R61 1.5.5. 

R6 11.6.4 Termination of reinforcement. Where indicated 
in items 1 through 3 below, vertical wall reinforcement in 
the top-most story with concrete walls shall be terminated 
with a gO-degree (1.57 rad) standard hook complying with 
Section R61 1.5.4.5 and Figure R61 1.5.4(3). 

1. Vertical bars adjacent to door and window openings 
required by Section R6 11.8.1.2. 

2. Vertical bars at the ends of required solid wall seg- 
ments. See Section R61 1.7 .2.2.2. 

3 . Vertical bars (other than end bars - see item 2) used as 
shear reinforcement in required solid wall segments 
where the reduction factor for design strength, R 3 , 
used is based on the wall having horizontal and verti- 
cal shear reinforcement. See Section R611. 7.2.2.3. 



LIGHT-FRAMED ROOF 




LIGHT-FRAMED FLOOR 



WALL— STAY-IN-PLACE 
OR REMOVABLE FORM 



FIRST-STORY 
UNSUPPORTED 
WALL HEIGHT 
10 FT MAXIMUM 



SEE SECTION R611. 9.2 



VERTICAL WALL 
REINFORCEMENT 
AS REQUIRED 



BASEMENT, CRAWLSPACE, 
OR STEM WALL. fOR SLAB-ON- 
GROUND FOOTING SEE 
FIGURE R611 .6(4) 



The bar extension of the hook shall be oriented parallel to 
the horizontal wall reinforcement and be within 4 inches 
(102 mm) of the top of the wall. 

Horizontal reinforcement shall be continuous around the 
building corners by bending one of the bars and lap-splicing 
it with the bar in the other wall in accordance with Section 
R61 1.5.4.3 and Figure R61 1.5 .4(1). 

Exception: In lieu of bending horizontal reinforcement 
at corners, separate bent reinforcing bars shall be permit- 
ted provided that the bent bar is lap- spliced with the hori- 
zontal reinforcement in both walls in accordance with 
Section R611.5.4.3 and Figure R611.5.4(l). 

In required solid wall segments where the reduction fac- 
tor for design strength, R 3 , is based on the wall having hori- 
zontal and vertical shear reinforcement in accordance with 
Section R611 .7.2.2.1, horizontal wall reinforcement shall 
be terminated with a standard hook complying with Section 
R6 11.5.4.5 and Figure R61 1.5.4 (3) or in a lap-splice, except 
at corners where the reinforcement shall be continuous as 
required above. 

R61 1.6.5 Location of reinforcement in wall. Except for 
vertical reinforcement at the ends of required solid wall seg- 
ments, which shall be located as required by Section 
R61 1.7 .2.2.2, the location of the vertical reinforcement 
shall not vary from the center of the wall by more than the 
greater of 10 percent of the wall thickness and 3/ s -inch (10 
mm) . Horizontal and vertical reinforcement shall be located 
to provide not less than the minimum cover required by Sec- 
tion R611.5.4.1. 



WALL— STAY-IN-PLACE 
OR REMOVABLE FORM 



HORIZONTAL WALL 
REINFORCEMENT 
AS REQUIRED 



VERTICAL WALL 
REINFORCEMENT 
AS REQUIRED 




SEE SECTION R611 .6.3 



INSULATION AS REQUIRED 



MONOLITHIC CONCRETE 
- SLAB-ON-GROUND 
AND FOOTING 



SECTION CUT THROUGH FLAT WALL OR VERTICAL 
CORE OF A WAFFLE- OR SCREEN-GRID WALL 

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

FIGURE R61 1.6(3) 

ABOVE-GRADE CONCRETE WALL CONSTRUCTION 

TWO-STORY 



SEE CUT THROUGH FLAT WALL OR VERTICAL 
CORE OF A WAFFLE- OR SCREEN-GRID WALL 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

FIGURE R61 1.6(4) 

ABOVE-GRADE CONCRETE WALL SUPPORTED ON 

MONOLITHIC SLAB-ON GROUND FOOTING 



282 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 







TABLE R611.6(1) 
MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT FOR FLAT ABOVE-GRADE WALLSa,b,c 


,d,e 






MAXIMUM WIND SPEED 
(mph) 


MAXIMUM 
UNSUPPORTED WALL 
HEIGHT PER STORY 

(feet) 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT-BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches)f, 9 


Nominal wall thickness (inches) 


Ex 


oosure Cateaorv 


4 


6 


8 


10 


B 


C 


D 


Topi 


Side 1 


Topi 


Side 1 


Topi 


Side' 


Topi 


Side' 


85 






8 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


9 


4@48 


4@43 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


10 


4@47 


4@36 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


90 


- 


- 


8 


4@48 


4@47 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


9 


4@48 


4@39 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


10 


4@42 


4@34 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


100 


85 




8 


4@48 


4@40 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


9 


4@42 


4@34 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


10 


4@34 


4@34 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


110 


90 


85 


8 


4@44 


4@34 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


9 


4@34 


4@34 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


10 


4@34 


4@31 


4@48 


4@37 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


120 


100 


90 


8 


4@36 


4@34 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


9 


4@34 


4@32 


4@48 


4@38 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


10 


4@30 


4@27 


4@48 


5@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


130 


110 


100 


8 


4@34 


4@34 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


9 


4@32 


4@28 


4@48 


4@33 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


10 


4@26 


4@23 


4@48 


5@43 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 


4@48 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound per square inch = 1.895kPa. 

a. Table is based on ASCE 7 components and cladding wind pressures for an enclosed building using a mean roof height of 35 ft , interior wall area 4, an effective wind 
area of 10 ft2, and topographic factor, K zt < and importance factor, 1, equal to 1.0. 

b. Table is based on concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi. 

c. See Section R6 11.6.5 for location of reinforcement in wall. 

d. Deflection criterion is L/240, where Lis the unsupported height of the wall in inches. 

e. Interpolation is not permitted. 

f . Where No . 4 reinforcing bars at a spacing of 48 inches are specified in the table, use of bars with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi or 60,000 psi is permitted. 

g. Other than for No. 4 bars spaced at 48 inches on center, table values are based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi. Vertical reinforce- 
ment with a yield strength of less than 60,000 psi and/or bars of a different size than specified in the table are permitted in accordance with Section R61 1 .5.4.7 and 
Table R61 1.5.4(2). 

h. See Table R611.3 for tolerances on nominal thicknesses. 

i. Top means gravity load from roof and/or floor construction bears on top of wall. Side means gravity load from floor construction is transferred to wall from a wood 
ledger or cold-formed steel track bolted to side of wall. Where floor framing members span parallel to the wall, use of the top bearing condition is permitted. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



283 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R61 1.6(2) 
MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT FOR WAFFLE-GRID ABOVE-GRADE WALLSa,b,c,d,e 



MAXIMUM WIND SPEED 


MAXIMUM 

UNSUPPORTED WALL 

HEIGHT PER STORY 

(feet) 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT-BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches)f, 9 


(mph) 


Nominal wall thickness (inches) 


Ex 


Dosure Cateaorv 


6 


8 


B 


C 


D 


Topi 


Side 1 


Topi 


Side' 


8S 






8 


4@48 


4@36, S@48 


4@48 


4@48 


9 


4@48 


4@30, S@47 


4@48 


4@4S 


10 


4@48 


4@26, S@40 


4@48 


4@39 


90 


- 


- 


8 


4@48 


4@33, S@48 


4@48 


4@48 


9 


4@48 


4@28, S@43 


4@48 


4(5)42 


10 


4@31, S@48 


4@24, S@37 


4@48 


4@36 


100 


8S 




8 


4@48 


4@28, S@44 


4@48 


4@43 


9 


4@31, S@48 


4@24, S@37 


4@48 


4@36 


10 


4@2S, S@39 


4@24, S@37 


4@48 


4@31, S@48 


110 


90 


8S 


8 


4@33, S@48 


4@2S, S@38 


4@48 


4@38 


9 


4@26, S@40 


4@24, S@37 


4@48 


4@31, S@48 


10 


4@24, S@37 


4@23, S@3S 


4@48 


4@27, S@41 


120 


100 


90 


8 


4@27, S@42 


4@24, S@37 


4@48 


4@33, S@48 


9 


4@24, S@37 


4@23, S@36 


4@48 


4@27, S@43 


10 


4@23, S@3S 


4@19, S@30 


4@48 


4@23, S@36 


130 


110 


100 


8 


4@24, S@37 


4@24, S@37 


4@48 


4@29, S@4S 


9 


4@24, S@37 


4@20, S@32 


4@48 


4@24, S@37 


10 


4@19, S@30 


4@17, S@26 


4@23, S@36 


4@20, S@31 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm;l foot = 304.8 mm; 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895kPa. 

a. Table is based on ASCE 7 components and cladding wind pressures for an enclosed building using a mean roof height of 35 ft (10 668 mm) , interior wall area 4, an 
effective wind area of 10 ft 2 (0.9 m 2 ), and topographic factor, K 7t and importance factor, 1, equal to 1.0. 

b. Table is based on concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi (17.2 MPa). 

c. See Section R61 1.6.5 for location of reinforcement in wall. 

d. Deflection criterion is L/240, where Lis the unsupported height of the wall in inches. 

e. Interpolation is not permitted. 

f . Where No . 4 reinforcing bars at a spacing of 48 inches are specified in the table, use of bars with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi or 60,000 psi is permitted. 

g. Other than for No. 4 bars spaced at 48 inches on center, table values are based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 60, 000 psi. Maximum spacings 
shown are the values calculated for the specified bar size. Where the bar used is Grade 60 (420 MPa) and the size specified in the table, the actual spacing in the wall 
shall not exceed a whole-number multiple of 12 inches (i.e., 12, 24, 36 and 48) that is less than or equal to the tabulated spacing. Vertical reinforcement with a yield 
strength of less than 60 ,000 psi and/or bars of a different size than specified in the table are permitted in accordance with Section R61 1. 5.4.7 and Table R61 1. 5.4 (2). 

h. See Table R611.3 for minimum core dimensions and maximum spacing of horizontal and wtical cores. 

i. Top means gravity load from roof and/or floor construction bears on top of wall. Side means gravity load from floor construction is transferred to wall from a wood led- 
ger or cold-formed steel track bolted to side of wall. Where floor framing members span parallel to the wall, the top bearing condition is permitted to be used. 



284 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R61 1.6(3) 
MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT FOR 6-INCH SCREEN-GRID ABOVE-GRADE WALLSa,b,c,d,e 



MAXIMUM WIND SPEED 


MAXIMUM 
UNSUPPORTED WALL 
HEIGHT PER STORY 

(feet) 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT-BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches)f, 9 


(mph) 


Nominal wall thickness (inches) 


Ex 


oosure Cateaorv 


6 


B 


C 


D 


Topi 


Side 1 


8S 






8 


4@48 


4@34, S@48 


9 


4@48 


4@29, S@4S 


10 


4@48 


4@2S, S@39 


90 


- 


- 


8 


4@48 


4@31, S@48 


9 


4@48 


4@27, S@41 


10 


4@30, S@47 


4@23, S@3S 


100 


8S 




8 


4@48 


4@27, S@42 


9 


4@30, S@47 


4@23, S@3S 


10 


4@24, S@38 


4@22, S@34 


110 


90 


8S 


8 


4@48 


4@24, S@37 


9 


4@2S, S@38 


4@22, S@34 


10 


4@22, S@34 


4@22, S@34 


120 


100 


90 


8 


4@26, S@41 


4@22, S@34 


9 


4@22, S@34 


4@22, S@34 


10 


4@22, 6@34 


4@19, S@26 


130 


110 


100 


8 


4@22, S@3S 


4@22, S@34 


9 


4@22, S@34 


4@20, S@30 


10 


4@19, S@29 


4@16,S@2S 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 mph = 0.447 mis, pound per square inch = 6.895kPa. 

a. Table is based on ASCE 7 components and cladding wind pressures for an enclosed building using a mean roof height of 35 ft , interior wall area 4, an effective wind 
area of 10 ft2, and topographic factor, K zt < and importance factor, 1, equal to 1.0. 

b. Table is based on concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi. 

c. See Section R6 11.6.5 for location of reinforcement in wall. 

d. Deflection criterion is L/240, where Lis the unsupported height of the wall in inches. 

e. Interpolation is not permitted. 

f . Where No . 4 reinforcing bars at a spacing of 48 inches are specified in the table, use of bars with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi or 60,000 psi is permitted. 

g. Other than for No. 4 bars spaced at 48 inches on center, table values are based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi (420 MPa). Maxi- 
mum spacings shown are the values calculated for the specified bar size. Where the bar used is Grade 60 and the size specified in the table, the actual spacing in the 
wall shall not exceed a whole-number multiple of 12 inches (Le., 12,24,36 and 48) that is less than or equal to the tabulated spacing. Vertical reinforcement with a 
yield strength of less than 60,000 psi and/or bars of a different size than specified in the table are permitted in accordance with Section R61 1.5.4.7 and Table 
R61 1.5.4(2). 

h. See Table R611.3 for minimum core dimensions and maximum spacing of horizontal and \ertical cores. 

i. Top means gravity load from roof and/or floor construction bears on top of wall. Side means gravity load from floor construction is transferred to wall from a wood 
ledger or cold-formed steel track bolted to side of wall. Where floor framing members span parallel to the wall, use of the top bearing condition is permitted. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



285 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R61 1.6(4) 

MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT FOR FLAT, WAFFLE- AND SCREEN-GRID ABOVE-GRADE WALLS 

DESIGNED CONTINUOUS WITH FOUNDATION STEM WALLSa,b,c,d,e,k,1 



MAXIMUM WIND 
SPEED 


HEIGHT OF 

STEM WALL h ,i 

(feet) 


MAXIMUM 

DESIGN LATERAL 

SOIL LOAD 

(psf/tt) 


MAXIMUM 
UNSUPPORTED 
HEIGHT OF ABOVE- 
GRADE WALL 

(feet) 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT-BAR SIZE AND SPACING 
(inches)f, 9 


(mph) 


Wall type and nominal thickness* (inches) 


Exposure Category 


Flat 


Waffle 


Screen 


B 


c 


D 


4 


6 


8 


10 


6 


8 


6 


8S 






3 


30 


8 


4@33 


4(5)39 


4@48 


4@48 


4(5)24 


4(5)28 


4@22 


10 


4@26 


S@48 


4@41 


4(5)48 


4@19 


4@22 


4(5)18 


60 


10 


4@21 


S@40 


S@48 


4@44 


4@16 


4@19 


4@IS 


6 


30 


10 


DR 


S(5)22 


6(5)3S 


6(5)43 


DR 


4(5)11 


DR 


60 


10 


DR 


DR 


6@26 


6@28 


DR 


DR 


DR 


90 


- 


- 


3 


30 


8 


4(5)30 


4(5)36 


4(5)48 


4(5)48 


4(5)22 


4(5)26 


4(5)21 


10 


4@24 


S@44 


4@38 


4(5)48 


4(5)17 


4(5)21 


4(5)17 


60 


10 


4@20 


S@37 


4(5)48 


4(5)41 


4@IS 


4@18 


4@14 


6 


30 


10 


DR 


S021 


6(5)3S 


6(5)41 


DR 


4(5)10 


DR 


60 


10 


DR 


DR 


6@26 


6@28 


DR 


DR 


DR 


100 


8S 


- 


3 


30 


8 


4@26 


S@48 


4@42 


4@48 


4(5)19 


4(5)23 


4@18 


10 


4@20 


S@37 


4@33 


4(5)41 


4@IS 


4@18 


4@14 


6 


60 


10 


4@17 


S@34 


S@44 


4@36 


4@13 


4@17 


4@12 


30 


10 


DR 


S@20 


6@3S 


6@38 


DR 


4(5)9 


DR 


60 


10 


DR 


DR 


6@24 


6@28 


DR 


DR 


DR 


110 


90 


8S 


3 


30 


8 


4(5)22 


S(5)42 


4(5)37 


4(5)46 


4(5)16 


4(5)20 


4(5)16 


10 


4(5)17 


S@34 


S@44 


4@3S 


4@12 


4@17 


4(5)12 


60 


10 


4@IS 


S@34 


S@39 


S@48 


4(5)11 


4@17 


4(5)11 


6 


30 


10 


DR 


S(5)18 


6(5)3S 


6(5)3S 


DR 


4(5)9 


DR 


60 


10 


DR 


DR 


6@23 


6@28 


DR 


DR 


DR 


120 


100 


90 


3 


30 


8 


4(5)19 


S(5)37 


S(5)48 


4(5)40 


4(5)14 


4(5)17 


4(5)14 


10 


4@14 


S@34 


S@38 


S@48 


4(5)11 


4(5)17 


4(5)10 


60 


10 


4(5)13 


S@33 


6@48 


S@43 


4@10 


4@16 


4@9 


6 


30 


10 


DR 


S(5)16 


6(5)33 


6(5)32 


DR 


4(5)8 


DR 


60 


10 


DR 


DR 


6@22 


6@28 


DR 


DR 


DR 


130 


110 


100 


3 


30 


8 


4(5)17 


S@34 


S@44 


4@36 


4(5)12 


4@17 


4@10 


10 


DR 


S@32 


6@47 


S@42 


4@9 


4@IS 


DR 


60 


10 


DR 


S@29 


6(5)43 


S@39 


DR 


4@14 


DR 


6 


30 


10 


DR 


S(5)IS 


6(5)30 


6(5)29 


DR 


4(5)7 


DR 


60 


10 


DR 


DR 


6@21 


6@27 


DR 


DR 


DR 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis; 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.1571kPalm. 

a. Table is based on ASCE 7 components and cladding wind pressures for an enclosed building using a mean roofheightof35 ft (10668 mm), interior wall area 4, an 
effective wind area of 10 ft 2 , and topographic factor, K zt and importance factor, 1, equal to 1.0. 

b. Table is based on concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi. 

c. See Section R61 1.6.5 for location of reinforcement in wall. 

d. Deflection cr